Lead

  • CONSTRUCTION SAFETY ORDERS,
    1532.1
  • GENERAL INDUSTRY SAFETY ORDERS,
    Sections 5155 and 5198
Status
Public hearing: Apr. 20, 2023
45-day comment period: Mar. 3, 2023 - Apr. 20, 2023
15-day Notice comment period: Jul. 7, 2023 - Jul. 24, 2023
2nd 15-day Notice comment period: Oct. 6, 2023 - Oct. 25, 2023
Filed with Secretary of State:
Effective date:

Rulemaking Documents

  1. BCI (Battery Council International). Oral Testimony of BCI Representative Ismael Pedroza before Cal/OSHA. 2015.
  2. BCI. BCI Statement on the Economic Feasibility of the Proposed PEL in Areas Designated for SECALs. 2015. (Note: confidential business information has been redacted)
  3. BEAR (Berkeley Economic Advising and Research, LLC). Standardized Regulatory Impact Assessment: Revisions to Occupational Lead Standards. 2019; revised 2020. https://dof.ca.gov/wp-content/uploads/Forecasting/Economics/Documents/SRIA_DIR_Lead_Safety_Standards_Revised200830.pdf
  4. Cal/OSHA. Explanatory note: Explanation of Differences in Estimates Prepared by OLPPP and Estimates Used in the SRIA and STD 399 for Lead-Exposed Employees, Establishments and Small Businesses. 2021.
  5. Caltrans (California Department of Transportation). Email to Susan Eckhardt, Cal/OSHA. 2016.
  6. CDC (US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System. Lead, Elevated Blood Levels 2016 Case Definition. 2016. https://ndc.services.cdc.gov/case-definitions/lead-elevated-blood-levels-2016/
  7. CDPH (California Department of Public Health). Letter to Steve Smith, Cal/OSHA. 2010.
  8. CDPH. Letter to Juliann J. Sum, Cal/OSHA. 2013.
  9. CDPH-OLPPP (Occupational Lead Poisoning Prevention Program). Spreadsheet provided to Cal/OSHA: Estimates of Lead-Exposed Workers and Establishments by Industry (Revised: 3/13/2018).
  10. CDPH-OLPPP. Spreadsheet provided to Cal/OSHA: Estimates of Lead-Exposed Workers and Establishments by Sector (Revised: 3/22/2018).
  11. CDPH-OLPPP. Written communication to Cal/OSHA: Estimating the Number of Lead-Exposed Workers and Affected Employers in CA. 2017.
  12. Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists. Public Health Reporting and National Notification for Elevated Blood Lead Levels. 2015. https://cdn.ymaws.com/www.cste.org/resource/resmgr/2015PS/2015PSFinal/15-EH-01.pdf
  13. EDD (California Employment Development Department) LMI (Labor Market Information), Table 2A, Third Quarter, 2018. https://www.labormarketinfo.edd.ca.gov/LMID/Size_of_Business_Data_for_CA.html
  14. EDD LMI, Table 2B, Third Quarter, 2018. https://www.labormarketinfo.edd.ca.gov/LMID/Size_of_Business_Data_for_CA.html
  15. EPA (US Environmental Protection Agency). Integrated Science Assessments for Lead. 2013. https://cfpub.epa.gov/ncea/isa/recordisplay.cfm?deid=255721
  16. Kosnett, M.J., et al. Recommendations for Medical Management of Adult Lead Exposure. Environmental Health Perspectives. 2007 Mar;115(3):463-71. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1849937/
  17. NIOSH (US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health). Adult Blood Lead Epidemiology & Surveillance (ABLES). 2018. https://web.archive.org/web/20180625183327/https://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/ables/ReferenceBloodLevelsforAdults.html
  18. NTP (US National Toxicology Program). NTP Monograph on Health Effects of Low-Level Lead. 2012. http://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/ntp/ohat/lead/final/monographhealtheffectslowlevellead_newissn_508.pdf
  19. ODPHP (US Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion). OSH-7 Reduce the Proportion of Persons who have Elevated Blood Lead Concentrations from Work Exposures. 2022.
  20. OEHHA (California Environmental Protection Agency - Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment). Estimating Workplace Air and Worker Blood Lead Concentration using an Updated Physiologically-based Pharmacokinetic (PBPK) Model. 2013. https://oehha.ca.gov/media/downloads/air/document/finalpboctober2013errata.pdf
  21. PASMA (Public Agency Safety Management Association). Letter to Steve Smith, Cal/OSHA. 2016.
  22. SSPC (The Society for Protective Coatings). Email to Susan Eckhardt, Cal/OSHA. 2016.
  23. Vork, Kathleen L., Carlisle, James C. Evaluation and updates to the Leggett model for pharmacokinetic modeling of exposure to lead in the workplace – Part I adjustments to the adult systemic model. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, 2020;17(6):283-300.
  24. February 23, 2011, January 17, 2012, June 12, 2014, April 21, 2015, May 28, 2015 and November 10, 2015, Cal/OSHA Advisory Committee minutes http://www.dir.ca.gov/dosh/DoshReg/5198Meetings.htm and attendance sheets.
  25. American Textile Mfrs. Inst., Inc. v. Donovan, 452 U.S. 490 (1981) https://supreme.justia.com/cases/federal/us/452/490/
  1. Vork, Kathleen L., Brown, Joseph P., Carlisle, James C. Evaluation and updates to the Leggett model for pharmacokinetic modeling of exposure to lead in the workplace – Part II adjustments to the adult exposure model, confirmation of Leggett+, and modeling of workplace exposure. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, 2023; 20(2): 55-83. https://doi.org/10.1080/15459624.2022.2150767
  1. ACOG (The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists). Lead Screening During Pregnancy and Lactation. August 2012 (reaffirmed 2023). https://www.acog.org/clinical/clinical-guidance/committee-opinion/articles/2012/08/lead-screening-during-pregnancy-and-lactation#:~:text=Adverse%20Health%20Effects%20of%20Prenatal%20Exposure,-Lead%20readily%20crosses&text=Elevated%20lead%20levels%20in%20.
  2. ATSDR (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry). Toxicological Profile for Lead. August 2020. https://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp13.pdf
  3. Goldman, R. H., and Weissmann, L. (2019). A Diagnosis to Chew On. The New England Journal of Medicine. August 1, 2019. 381(5), 466–473. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMcps1900774
  4. Kumar, S. Occupational and Environmental Exposure to Lead and Reproductive Health Impairment: An Overview. Indian Journal of Occupational & Environmental Medicine. September-December 2018. 22(3):128-137. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6309352/#:~:text=Lead%20exposure%20also%20affects%20female,its%20outcome%2C%20and%20so%20on.
  5. Lanphear, B., et al. Low-level lead exposure and mortality in US adults: a population-based cohort study. The Lancet Public Health. March 12, 2018. 3: e177–84 https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lanpub/article/PIIS2468-2667(18)30025-2/fulltext
  6. Lin, S., Hwang, S. A., Marshall, E. G., and Marion, D. Does Paternal Occupational Lead Exposure Increase the Risks of Low Birth Weight or Prematurity? American Journal of Epidemiology, July 15, 1998; 148(2), 173–181. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9676699/
  7. Menke, A., et al. Blood Lead Below 0.48 μmol/L (10 μg/dL) and Mortality Among US Adults. Circulation, September 18, 2006; 114(13):1388-1394. https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.106.628321
  8. Navas-Acien, A., et al. Lead Exposure and Cardiovascular Disease--A Systematic Review. Environmental Health Perspective. March 2007; 115(3):472-482. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1849948/
  9. Schober, S. E., et al. Blood Lead Levels and Death from All Causes, Cardiovascular Disease, and Cancer: Results from the NHANES III Mortality Study. Environmental Health Perspectives. October 1, 2006. 114(10), 1538–1541. https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.9123
  10. Seppäläinen, A. M., et al. Early Neurotoxic Effects of Occupational Lead Exposure: A Prospective Study. Neurotoxicology. Summer 1983. 4(2), 181–192. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/6685259/
  11. Vigeh, M., Smith, D.R., Hsu, P.C. How does lead induce male infertility? Iranian Journal of Reproductive Medicine. Winter 2011; 9(1):1-8. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4212138/
  12. California Association of Realtors. 2024 California Economic & Housing Market Forecast. Accessed on September 26, 2023. https://content.car.org/Public%20Products/Housing%20Market%20Forecast/Housing%20Market%20Forecast.pdf
  13. DIR (California Department of Industrial Relations). Consumer Price Index Calculator. Accessed on September 26, 2023. https://www.dir.ca.gov/oprl/CPI/CPICalculator/CpiCalculator.aspx
  14. DOF (California Department of Finance). May 2023 Revision Forecast. California Economic Forecast – Annual & Quarterly. Accessed on September 26, 2023. https://dof.ca.gov/forecasting/economics/economic-forecasts-u-s-and-california/
  15. European Chemicals Agency. Committee for Risk Assessment (RAC) Opinion on scientific evaluation of occupational exposure limits for Lead and its compounds. June 11, 2020. https://echa.europa.eu/documents/10162/ed7a37e4-1641-b147-aaac-fce4c3014037
  16. Hodgkins, D. G., et al. A longitudinal study of the relation of lead in blood to lead in air concentrations among battery workers. British Journal of Industrial Medicine. April 1992. 49:241-248. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1012105/
  17. Kromhout, H. et al. A Comprehensive Evaluation of Within- And Between-Worker Components Of Occupational Exposure to Chemical Agents. Annals of Occupational Hygiene. February 23, 1993. Vol. 37, No. 3, pp 253-270. https://quant667-spph.sites.olt.ubc.ca/files/2017/03/Kromhout1993.pdf
  18. Leidel, N. A., Busch, K. A., and Crouse, W. E. Exposure Measurement Action Level and Occupational Environmental Variability. NIOSH (US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) Technical Information. December 1975. https://stacks.cdc.gov/view/cdc/11153
  19. OEHHA (California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment). The Leggett Pharmacokinetic Model Code, Air Files, Parts A and B. August 25, 2015. https://oehha.ca.gov/air/document-background/leggett-pharmacokinetic-model-code
  20. Petito Boyce, C., Sax, S. N., and Cohen, J. M. Particle size distributions of lead measured in battery manufacturing and secondary smelter facilities and implications in setting workplace lead exposure limits. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene. August 14, 2017. 14:8, 594-608. https://doi.org/10.1080/15459624.2017.1309046

* Please contact OSHSB@dir.ca.gov to request a copy of the Advisory Committee handwritten attendance sheets.

Contact the OSHSB Public Records Officer to request any Documents Relied Upon.

October 2023