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Release Number: 2022-66
Date: August 16, 2022

Wildfire Smoke Alert: Cal/OSHA Reminds Employers to Protect Workers from Unhealthy Air

Redding - Cal/OSHA is reminding employers to follow California’s Protection from Wildfire Smoke standard, which requires them to take steps to protect their workers from unhealthy air due to wildfire smoke. Harmful air quality from wildfire smoke is currently impacting Northern California and can occur anywhere in the state on short notice.

The Protection from Wildfire Smoke standard applies to most worksites where the air cannot be filtered and the Air Quality Index for PM2.5 is 151 or more due to wildfire smoke. To help employers prepare and assist their workers, Cal/OSHA has created an informational webpage with all of the requirements and free materials hosted on www.WildfireSmokeCalifornia.org and www.HumodeIncendios.org.

When wildfire smoke might affect a worksite, employers must monitor the Air Quality Index (AQI) for PM2.5 before and throughout the work shift. It is easy to track the AQI using websites like the U.S. EPA’s AirNow or local air quality management district websites. Employers can also use their own instruments to measure PM2.5 at a worksite under Cal/OSHA’s requirements.

If the air is unhealthy due to wildfire smoke, employers must provide proper respiratory protection like N95 respirators for voluntary use if work cannot be moved to a location where the air is not harmful. If employers cannot move operations to areas where air is adequately filtered and they do not have access to respiratory protection, they may need to halt operations until the outdoor air quality improves. This includes outdoor worksites and indoor locations where the air is not filtered or doors are kept open such as warehouses, packing, manufacturing, distribution facilities and more. 

Workers should be trained on the health effects of wildfire smoke. Smoke from wildfires contains chemicals, gases and fine particles that can harm health. The greatest hazard comes from breathing fine particles in the air (called PM2.5), which can reduce lung function, worsen asthma or other existing heart and lung conditions, and cause coughing, wheezing and difficulty breathing.

If the AQI for PM2.5 is 151 or greater, employers must take these steps to protect employees:

  • Communication – Inform employees of the AQI for PM2.5 and the protective measures available to them.
  • Training and Instruction – Provide effective training and instruction to all employees on the information in section 5141.1 Appendix B.
  • Modifications – Implement modifications to the workplace, if feasible, to reduce exposure. Examples include providing enclosed structures or vehicles for employees to work in, where the air is filtered.
  • Changes – Implement practicable changes to work procedures or schedules. Examples include changing the location where employees work or reducing the time they work outdoors or exposed to unfiltered outdoor air.
  • Respiratory protection – Provide proper respiratory protection equipment, such as disposable respirators, for voluntary use. 
    • To filter out fine particles, respirators must be labeled N-95, N-99, N-100, R-95, P-95, P-99, or P-100, and must be labeled as approved by the US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).

If the AQI for PM2.5 exceeds 500 due to wildfire smoke, respirator use is required. Employers must ensure employees use respirators and implement a respiratory protection program as required in California’s respiratory standard. For information or help on developing a respiratory protection program, see Cal/OSHA’s Respiratory Protection Fact Sheet.

Guidance for employers and workers on wildfire smoke, cleanup and other hazards is available on Cal/OSHA’s web page along with frequently asked questions about N95 respirators. Cal/OSHA’s Training Academy offers free courses in English and Spanish on wildfire hazards and the proper use of N95 respirators. Information on the wildfire smoke requirements and free training materials can be requested in English and Spanish on www.WildfireSmokeCalifornia.org and www.HumodeIncendios.org.

Cal/OSHA helps protect workers from health and safety hazards on the job in almost every workplace in California. Cal/OSHA’s Consultation Services Branch provides free and voluntary assistance to employers to improve their health and safety programs. Workers who have questions about wildfire smoke hazards and protections can call 833-579-0927 to speak with a Cal/OSHA representative during normal business hours. Complaints about workplace safety and health hazards can be filed confidentially with Cal/OSHA district offices.

Media Contact: Communications@dir.ca.gov (510) 286-1161

Employers with Questions on Requirements May Contact: InfoCons@dir.ca.gov, or call your local Cal/OSHA Consultation Office