COVID-19 Prevention - Non-Emergency Regulation

    New Sections 3205, 3205.1, 3205.2, and 3205.3
Public hearing: Sep. 15, 2022
45-day comment period: Jul. 29, 2022 - Sep. 15, 2022
15-day Notice comment period: Oct. 14, 2022 - Oct. 31, 2022
Filed with Secretary of State: Feb. 3, 2023
Effective date: Feb. 3, 2023

Rulemaking Documents

  1. American Textile Mfrs. Inst., Inc. v. Donovan, 452 U.S. 490 (1981). 452 U.S. 490.
  2. Baisheng Li, et al. Viral infection and transmission in a large, well-traced outbreak caused by the SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant. Nat Communications. January 24, 2022;13(1):460.
  3. Bokemper SE, Cucciniello M, Rotesi T, et al. Experimental evidence that changing beliefs about mask efficacy and social norms increase mask wearing for COVID-19 risk reduction: Results from the United States and Italy. PLoS One. 2021; 16(10): e0258282. Published online 2021 Oct 11.
  4. United States Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS). How COVID-19 is reflected in the SOII data. Updated March 18, 2022. Accessed on April 29, 2022.
  5. BLS. Median age of the labor force, by sex, race, and ethnicity. Updated September 8, 2021. Accessed on April 28, 2022.
  6. Occupational Safety and Health Standards Board (OSHSB). Petition 583 submitted by Worksafe and the Labor & Employment Committee of the National Lawyers Guild.
  7. California Health and Human Services (CHHS). COVID-19 Cases Deaths Tests Data Dictionary, updated March 20, 2021; accessed February 10, 2022.
  8. Cal/OSHA. Advisory Committee Meeting. COVID-19 Prevention, September 23, 2021. Agenda,; Committee Roster, and video recording.
  9. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Agriculture Workers and Employers, updated November 6, 2020. Accessed on April 20, 2022.
  10. CDC. CDC Newsroom Release: CDC calls on Americans to wear masks to prevent COVID-19 spread, dated July 14, 2020. Accessed on June 7, 2022.
  11. CDC. COVID-19 Employer Information for Office Buildings, Updated April 7, 2021. Accessed on May 18, 2022.
  12. CDC. COVID-19 Guidance for Shared or Congregate Housing, updated August 22, 2020. Accessed on April 20, 2022.
  13. CDC; COVID-19 Guidance for Shared or Congregate Housing, Updated December 31, 2020. Accessed on April 25, 2021.
  14. CDC. Science Brief: Evidence Used to Update the List of Underlying Medical Conditions Associated with Higher Risk for Severe COVID-19, updated February 15, 2022. Accessed on April 21, 2022.
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  20. CDC. Ventilation in Buildings, Updated June 2, 2021. Accessed on May 24, 2022.
  21. California Department of Public Health (CDPH). Tracking COVID-19 in California. “Today’s Update,” updated April 19, 2022. Accessed April 20, 2022.
  22. CDPH. Tracking Variants, dated February 3, 2022. Accessed on February 7, 2022.
  23. CDPH. Guidance for the Use of Face Masks, updated April 20, 2022. Accessed on May 20, 2022.
  24. Department of Industrial Relations (DIR). Standardized Regulatory Impact Assessment (SRIA) of the Proposed California Regulation for COVID-19 Prevention in the Workplace. April 2022.
  25. United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Ventilation and Coronavirus (COVID-19). Accessed on November 6, 2020.
  26. Federal Occupational Safety and Health Administration (Federal OSHA). Additional Considerations for Workers Who Reside in Communal Living Arrangements. Accessed on November 6, 2020.
  27. Federal OSHA. OSHA ALERT COVID-19 Guidance on Ventilation in the Workplace. Accessed on November 6, 2020.
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  33. Lindsley WG, Blachere FM, Law BF, Beezhold DH, Noti JD. Efficacy of face masks, neck gaiters and face shields for reducing the expulsion of simulated cough-generated aerosols. Health Effects Laboratory Division, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, CDC, October 7, 2020.
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  35. Menni C, et al. Symptom prevalence, duration, and risk of hospital admission in individuals infected with SARS-CoV-2 during periods of omicron and delta variant dominance: a prospective observational study from the ZOE COVID Study. Lancet 2022:399:1618-24. Published April 7, 2021.
  36. Miao D, Zhang N. Human Close Contact Behavior-Based Interventions for COVID-19 Transmission. Buildings. 2022; 12(3):365. Published March 16, 2022.
  37. Nowotny KM, Seide K, Brinkley-Rubinstein L. Risk of COVID-19 infection among prison staff in the United States. BMC Public Health 21, 1036 (2021).
  38. Federal OSHA. Analytic Spreadsheets in Support of the COVID-19 Vaccination and Testing ETS, October 2021.
  39. Ohsfeldt RL, et al. Inpatient Hospital Costs for COVID-19 Patients in the United States. Advances in therapy 38.11 (2021): 5557-5595. Published online October 5, 2021.
  40. OSHSB. COVID-19 Prevention Subcommittee meetings. June 21, 2021 (Agenda; Transcript; July 13, 2021 (Agenda; Transcript; July 20, 2021 (Agenda; Transcript; August 13, 2021 (Agenda; Transcript; August 27, 2021 (Agenda; Transcript; September 9, 2021 (Agenda; Transcript
  41. OSHSB. Petition 583 Adopted Decision. September 17, 2020.
  42. State of California. Help for agricultural workers; Housing for the Harvest; updated March 22, 2022. Accessed on April 20, 2022.
  43. State of California. Vaccination data as of April 22, 2022. Accessed on April 22, 2022.
  44. Tenforde MW, Self WH, Adams K, et al. Association Between mRNA Vaccination and COVID-19 Hospitalization and Disease Severity. JAMA. 2021;326(20):2043–2054. November 4, 2021. Accessed on April 21, 2022. doi:10.1001/jama.2021.19499.
  45. The Californian. COVID-19 rips through California motel rooms of guest workers who pick nation’s produce, updated August 26, 2020. Accessed on November 6, 2020.
  46. VC Star. Farmworker housing coronavirus outbreak: 188 test positive for COVID-19, updated July 4, 2020. Accessed on November 6, 2020.
  47. Wiersinga WJ, Rhodes A, Cheng AC, Peacock SJ, Prescott HC. Pathophysiology, Transmission, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): A Review. JAMA. 2020; 324(8):782–793. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.12839. July 10, 2020.
  48. Zangmeister, CD, et al. Filtration Efficiencies of Nanoscale Aerosol by Cloth Mask Materials Used to Slow the Spread of SARS-CoV-2. ACS Nano 14.7 (2020): 9188-9200.
  49. Elliott P, et al. Rapid increase in Omicron infections in England during December 2021: REACT-1 study. Science 2022; 375 (6587): 1406-1411. Published February 8, 2022.
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  53. Sah P, et al. Asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021; 118 (34): e2109229118. Published August 10, 2021.
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  55. Whitaker M, et al. Variant-specific symptoms of COVID-19 among 1,542,510 people in England medRxiv 2022.05.21.22275368. Posted May 23, 2022.
  56. Ulloa AC, Buchan SA, Daneman N, & Brown KA. Estimates of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron Variant Severity in Ontario, Canada. JAMA 2022; 327(13): 1286–1288. Published February 17, 2022.
  57. California Employment Development Department (EDD) Labor Market Information Division. Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages (QCEW). 2021 Q2.
  58. U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis. National Income and Product Accounts, Table 1.1.9. Implicit Price Deflators for Gross Domestic Product.
  59. U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. State Occupational Employment and Wage Estimates – California. May 2021. Accessed on April 6, 2022 at
  60. California Department of Finance (DOF). Economic Forecasts, U.S. and California. Prepared by the Economic Research Unit in April 2022. Accessed on June 3, 2022 at
  61. Federal OSHA. COVID-19 Vaccination and Testing; Emergency Temporary Standard. Published in the Federal Register November 5, 2021.
  62. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. White Paper on Ventilation for Industrial Settings during the COVID-19 Pandemic. August 2020. Originally accessed at:
  63. American Industrial Hygiene Association; Reducing the Risk of COVID-19 Using Engineering Controls. August 28, 2020.
  64. Andrejko KL, et al. Effectiveness of Face Mask or Respirator Use in Indoor Public Settings for Prevention of SARS-CoV-2 Infection — California, February–December 2021. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2022;71:212–216. DOI. February 11, 2022.
  65. Arons MM, et al. Presymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 Infections and Transmission in a Skilled Nursing Facility. N Engl J Med 2020; 382:2081-2090. May 28, 2020.
  66. American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers; ASHRAE Position Document on Infectious Aerosols. April 14, 2020.
  67. Bae SH, Shin H, Koo H-Y, Lee SW, Yang JM, Yon DK. Asymptomatic Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 on Evacuation Flight. Emerg Infect Dis. November 2020.
  68. Booth TF, Kournikakis B, Bastien N, et al. Detection of Airborne Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) Coronavirus and Environmental Contamination in SARS Outbreak Units. J Infect Dis. 2005;191(9):1472-1477. doi:10.1086/429634. Published May 1, 2005.
  69. Bourouiba L. Turbulent Gas Clouds and Respiratory Pathogen Emissions: Potential Implications for Reducing Transmission of COVID-19. JAMA. 2020; 323(18):1837–1838. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.4756. March 26, 2020.
  70. Cal/OSHA. Advisory Committee Meetings, COVID-19 Prevention, February 11, 12 & 16, 2021. (Agenda,12,16.pdf, Committee Roster, and video recording).
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  72. CDC. Agriculture Workers and Employers, Interim Guidance from CDC and the U.S. Department of Labor, Updated February 2, 2021. Accessed on April 25, 2021.
  73. CDC. Choosing Safer Activities, Updated April 27, 2021. Accessed on April 27, 2021.
  74. CDC. COVID-19 Guidance for Shared or Congregate Housing, Updated December 31, 2020. Accessed on April 26, 2021.
  75. CDPH. COVID-19 Outbreak Data (January 1, 2021 – May 31, 2022) and its key COVID-19 Outbreaks Data Dictionary. Updated June 3, 2022. Accessed June 8, 2022.
  76. CDPH. Guidance for the Use of Masks, California, USA; slides presented to the members of the Occupational Safety and Health Standards Board by Tomás J. Aragón, MD, DrPH, State Public Health Officer and Director, California Department of Public Health; June 9, 2021.
  77. CDPH. Interim Guidance for Ventilation, Filtration, and Air Quality in Indoor Environments, Updated October 7, 2021. Accessed on June 8, 2022.
  78. CDPH. letter from Tomas Aragon, MD, DrPH, Director and State Health Officer, CDPH, to OSHSB members; sent on June 7, 2021.
  79. D. Jeff Burton. Air Handling in the Era of Corona Virus: Roles Ventilation Can Play in the Control of COVID-19 Transmission in Non-Medical-Care Facilities. May 13, 2020.
  80. Cal/OSHA. Evaluation of Petition 583; July 30, 2020.
  81. Furukawa NW, Brooks JT, Sobel J. Evidence Supporting Transmission of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 While Presymptomatic or Asymptomatic. Emerging Infectious Diseases. July 2020.
  82. Gavin Newsom, Governor of California. Proclamation of a State of Emergency; March 4, 2020.
  83. Guenther T, Czech-Sioli M, Indenbirken D, Robitailles A, Tenhaken P, Exner M, Ottinger M, Fischer N, Grundhoff A, Brinkmann M. Investigation of a superspreading event preceding the largest meat processing plant-related SARS-Coronavirus 2 outbreak in Germany (July 17, 2020).
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  85. Health Impact Partners. California Local Health Department Actions for Worker Health and Safety During COVID-19 (April 2021). Accessed on November 5, 2021.
  86. Hiroshi Nishiura, Hitoshi Oshitani, Tetsuro Kobayashi, Tomoya Saito, Tomimasa Sunagawa, Tamano Matsui, Takaji Wakita. MHLW COVID-19 Response Team, Motoi Suzuki. Closed environments facilitate secondary transmission of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Posted April 16, 2020.
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  1. Heinzerling A, Nguyen A, Frederick M, et al. Workplaces Most Affected by COVID-19 Outbreaks in California, January 2020-August 2021. American Journal of Public Health. Published online August 2022; 112(8):1180–1190.
  2. Free H, Luckhaupt SE, Billock RM, et al. Reported Exposures Among In-Person Workers with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Infection in 6 States, September 2020-June 2021. Clinical Infectious Diseases. Published online June 19, 2022.
  3. Hawkins D. “Tell Me, Who's That They're Letting Down?”: COVID-19 and the Working Class. American Journal of Public Health. Published online August 2022; 112(8):1081-1083.
  4. State of California. Tracking COVID-19 in California. Update for September 29, 2022. Accessed on September 30, 2022.
  5. State of California. Tracking COVID-19 in California. Updated for September 22, 2022. Accessed on September 28, 2022.
  6. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. COVID Data Tracker. COVID-19 Vaccine Effectiveness Monthly Update. August 25, 2022.
  7. Al-Aly Z, Bowe B and Xie Y. Long COVID after breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infection. Nature Medicine, July 2022.
  8. State of California. Vaccines. Updated September 7, 2022.
  9. United States Department of Labor and Office of Disability Employment Policy. Access to Paid Leave for Family and Medical Reasons Among Workers With Disabilities. December 2021.
  10. Glynn SJ. The Rising Cost of Inaction on Work-Family Policies. Center for American Progress. January 21, 2020.
  11. California Department of Public Health (CDPH). Guidance for the Use of Face Masks. September 20, 2022.
  12. CDPH. Shifting Public Health Case Investigation, Contact Tracing, and Outbreak Investigation Priorities. March 7, 2022.
  13. CDPH. Guidance for Local Health Jurisdictions on Isolation and Quarantine of the General Public. June 9, 2022.
  14. CDPH. Updated Testing Guidance. September 15, 2022.
  15. Wagner J, Sparks TL, Miller S, et al. Modeling the impacts of physical distancing and other exposure determinants on aerosol transmission. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene. Published online September 13, 2021, Pages 495-509.


Contact the OSHSB Public Records Officer to request any Documents Relied Upon.

February 2023