Occupational Exposures to Respirable Crystalline Silica - Non-Emergency Regulation

    Section 5204
Public Hearing: Jun. 20, 2024
45-day comment period: May 3, 2024 - Jun. 20,2024
Filed with Secretary of State:
Effective date:

Rulemaking Documents

  1. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) (2002). Health Effects of Occupational Exposure to Respirable Crystalline Silica (publication no. 2002–129); April 2002. https://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/2002-129/default.html. Accessed April 26, 2023.
  2. Fazio JC, et al. Silicosis Among Immigrant Engineered Stone (Quartz) Countertop Fabrication Workers in California. JAMA Internal Medicine. Published online July 24, 2023. https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamainternalmedicine/article-abstract/2807615. Accessed August 16, 2023.
  3. Krefft S, Wolff J, Rose C. Silicosis: An Update and Guide for Clinicians. Clinics in Chest Medicine. December 2020;41(4):709‐722. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33153689/. Accessed August 16, 2023.
  4. Akgun M, et al. Silicosis Appears Inevitable Among Former Denim Sandblasters: A 4-Year Follow-up Study. CHEST Journal. September 2015; 148 (3): 64 –654. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25654743/. Accessed August 15, 2023.
  5. U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). Overview: Silica, Crystalline. https://www.osha.gov/silica-crystalline. Accessed August 16, 2023.
  6. Carrieri M, et al. Characterization of Silica Exposure during Manufacturing of Artificial Stone Countertops. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. June 22, 2020; 17(12): 4489. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7345731/. Accessed August 16, 2023.
  7. Morris J, Rojas LB. Ancient Lung Disease Strikes Countertop Cutters in Southern California. Public Health Watch. December 2, 2022. https://publichealthwatch.org/2022/12/02/lung-disease-silica-countertops-southern-california/. Accessed August 16, 2023.
  8. Blackley DJ, et al. Transplantation for work‐related lung disease in the USA. Occupational & Environmental Medicine. August 28, 2020;77(11):790‐794. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7702182/. Accessed August 16, 2023.
  9. OSHA and NIOSH (2015). Hazard Alert: Worker Exposure to Silica during Countertop Manufacturing, Finishing and Installation. Publication number 2015-106. https://www.osha.gov/sites/default/files/publications/OSHA3768.pdf. Accessed August 15, 2023.
  10. Freedonia Group (September 2022). Industry Reports, United States. US Engineered Stone Countertops. https://www.freedoniagroup.com/industry-study/engineered-stone-countertops-4395.htm. Accessed August 16, 2023.
  11. Heinzerling A, et al. Radiographic Screening Reveals High Burden of Silicosis among Workers at an Engineered Stone Countertop Fabrication Facility in California. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. March 15, 2021;203(6):764‐766. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33207123/. Accessed May 8, 2023.
  12. Leso V, et al. Artificial Stone Associated Silicosis: A Systematic Review. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. February 16, 2019;16(4):568. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30781462/. Accessed May 8, 2023.
  13. Rose C, et al. Severe Silicosis in Engineered Stone Fabrication Workers—California, Colorado, Texas, and Washington, 2017–2019. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. September 27, 2019;68(38):813‐818. https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/68/wr/mm6838a1.htm. Accessed May 9, 2023.
  14. Tustin AW, et al. An outbreak of work‐related asthma and silicosis at a US countertop manufacturing and fabrication facility. American Journal of Industrial Medicine. October 20, 2021;65(1):12‐19. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34671999/. Accessed May 8, 2023.
  15. Paolucci V, et al. Silicosis in Workers Exposed to Artificial Quartz Conglomerates: Does It Differ From Chronic Simple Silicosis? Archivos de Bronconeumologia. December 2015;51(12):e57‐e60. https://archbronconeumol.org/en-silicosis-trabajadores-expuestos-conglomerados-artificiales-articulo-S1579212915001883. Accessed May 9, 2023.
  16. Hoy RF, et al. Identification of early‐stage silicosis through health screening of stone benchtop industry workers in Victoria, Australia. Occupational & Environmental Medicine. April 2021;78(4):296‐302. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33115923/. Accessed May 10, 2023.
  17. Newbigin K, et al. Stonemasons with silicosis: preliminary findings and a warning message from Australia. Respirology. December 2019;24(12):1220‐1221. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31407419/. Accessed May 9. 2023.
  18. Moyce SC, Schenker M. Occupational Exposures and Health Outcomes Among Immigrants in the USA. Current Environmental Health Reports. September 2017;4:349–54. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28812286/. Accessed May 8, 2023.
  19. Wu N, et al. Artificial stone-associated silicosis in China: A prospective comparison with natural stone-associated silicosis. Respirology. May 2020; 25, 518–524. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7187561/. Accessed August 16, 2023.
  20. California Department of Public Health. Health Advisory. Global Epidemic Comes to California: Silicosis in Countertop Workers (July 25, 2023). https://www.cdph.ca.gov/Programs/OPA/Pages/CAHAN/Global-Epidemic-Comes-to-California-Silicosis-in-Countertop-Workers.aspx. Accessed November 2, 2023.
  21. Bos S, et al. Survival in adult lung transplantation: where are we in 2020? Current Opinion in Organ Transplant. 2020; 25(3):268-273. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32332197/. Accessed November 2, 2023.
  22. León-Jiménez A, et al. Artificial Stone Silicosis: Rapid Progression Following Exposure Cessation. Chest Journal. September 2020;158(3):1060-1068. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32563682/. Accessed August 16, 2023.
  23. Ramkissoon C, et al. Engineered Stone Fabrication Work Releases Volatile Organic Compounds Classified as Lung Irritants. Annals of Work Exposures and Health. February 13, 2023); 67(2) 288–293. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36239208/. Accessed August 16, 2023.
  24. Ramkissoon C, et al. Characterisation of dust emissions from machined engineered stones to understand the hazard for accelerated silicosis. Scientific Reports. March 14, 2022; 12:42351 (2022). https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-022-08378-8. Accessed August 16, 2023
  25. Pavan C, et al. Editor’s Highlight: Abrasion of Artificial Stones as a New Cause of an Ancient Disease. Physicochemical Features and Cellular Responses. Toxicological Sciences. June 2, 2016; 153(1), 4–17. https://academic.oup.com/toxsci/article/153/1/4/2223603?login=false. Accessed August 16, 2023.
  26. California Division of Occupational Safety and Health (Cal/OSHA). Special emphasis program—occupational exposure to Respirable crystalline silica cut stone and stone product manufacturing. https://www.dir.ca.gov/DOSHPol/DOSH-PP-SEP-on-Silica.pdf. Accessed April 27, 2023.
  27. Surasi K, et al. Elevated exposures to respirable crystalline silica among engineered stone fabrication workers in California, January 2019–February 2020. American Journal of Industrial Medcine. September 2022;65:701‐707. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35899403/. Accessed April 24, 2023.
  28. Spiegel A, et al. Self‐reported silica exposures and workplace protections among engineered stone fabrication workers in California. American Journal of Industrial Medicine. December 2022;65:1022-1024. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36214615/. Accessed May 8, 2023.
  29. Hoy R, et al. Prevalence and risk factors for silicosis among a large cohort of stone benchtop industry workers. Occup Environ Med (2023) 1-8. https://oem.bmj.com/content/oemed/80/8/439.full.pdf . Accessed January 25, 2023.
  30. Georgia Institute of Technology. Georgia Tech Enterprise Innovation Institute. Respirable Crystalline Silica Air Sampling Data From Cut Stone Industry in Georgia (Copy of Copy of SHES Flyer (oshapptfiles.s3.amazonaws.com) and https://apha.confex.com/apha/2023/meetingapp.cgi/Paper/535533 Accessed Feb 3, 2024.
  31. Zwack, Victory, Brueck, Qi. (March 2016). Evaluation of Crystalline Silica Exposure during Fabrication of Natural and Engineered Stone Countertops. HHE Report No. 2014-0215-3250. U.S. Dept of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). https://www.cdc.gov/niosh/hhe/reports/pdfs/2014-0215-3250.pdf. Accessed Feb 2, 2024.
  32. Chaolong Qi and Alan Echt (June 2021). Comprehensive Report: Engineering Control of Silica Dust from Stone Countertop Fabrication and Installation – Evaluation of Wetting Methods for Grinding. EPHB Report No. 2021-DFSE-710. U.S. Dept of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). https://www.cdc.gov/niosh/surveyreports/pdfs/2021-DFSE-710.pdf Accessed Feb 2, 2024.
  33. American Textile Mfrs. Inst., Inc. v. Donovan, 452 U.S. 490 (1981). 452 U.S. 490. https://supreme.justia.com/cases/federal/us/452/490/. Accessed Feb 6, 2023.
  34. U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration, “Final Economic Analysis and Final Regulatory Flexibility Analysis: Supporting Document for the Final Rule for Occupational Exposure to Respirable Crystalline Silica,” in Occupational Safety and Health Administration, “Occupational Exposure to Respirable Crystalline Silica: Final Rule,” Federal Register, Vol. 81, No. 58, March 24, 2016 § VII. https://www.regulations.gov/document/OSHA-2010-0034-4247. Accessed Feb 6, 2024.
  35. Attfield, M. D., and J. Costello, “Quantitative Exposure-Response for Silica Dust and Lung Cancer in Vermont Granite Workers,” Am J of Ind Med, Vol. 45, No. 2, February 2004, pp. 129–138. Quantitative exposure-response for silica dust and lung cancer in Vermont granite workers - PubMed (nih.gov)
  36. Steenland, N. Kyle, and Scott Michael Bartell, Silica Exposure: Risk Assessment for Lung Cancer, Silicosis, and Other Diseases, Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Labor, Directorate of Standards and Guidance, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, OSHA-2010-0034-0469, December 7, 2004.https://www.regulations.gov/document/OSHA-2010-0034-0469
  37. Steenland K., M. Attfield, and A. Mannejte, 2002. Pooled analyses of renal disease mortality and occupational crystalline silica exposure in three cohorts. Annals of Occ Hygiene. Vol 46, Supplement 1, pp. 4-9. https://doi.org/10.1093/annhyg/46.suppl_1.4
  38. Park, R., F. Rice, L. Stayner, R. Smith, S. Gilbert, and H. Checkoway, “Exposure to Crystalline Silica, Silicosis, and Lung Disease Other Than Cancer in Diatomaceous Earth Industry Workers: A Quantitative Risk Assessment,” Occ and Env Med, Vol. 59, No. 1, January 2002, pp. 36–43.(PDF) Exposure to crystalline silica, silicosis, and lung disease other than cancer in diatomaceous earth industry workers: a quantitative risk assessment (researchgate.net)
  39. Buchanan, D., B. G. Miller, and C. A. Soutar, “Quantitative Relations Between Exposure to Respirable Quartz and Risk of Silicosis,” Occ and Env Med, Vol. 60, 2003, pp. 159–164. Quantitative relations between exposure to respirable quartz and risk of silicosis - PubMed (nih.gov)
  40. California Occupational Safety and Health Standards Board (2023). Petition File No. 597 Title 8, General Industry Safety Orders, Section 5204. Petition File No. 597, Western Occupational and Environmental Medical Association (WOEMA). https://www.dir.ca.gov/oshsb/documents/petition-597.pdf.
  41. California Occupational Safety and Health Standards Board (2023). Cal/OSHA Evaluation of Petition File No. 597 Title 8, General Industry Safety Orders, Section 5204, Western Occupational and Environmental Medical Association (WOEMA). https://www.dir.ca.gov/oshsb/documents/petition-597-CalOSHAeval.pdf
  42. California Occupational Safety and Health Standards Board (2023). Standards Board staff Evaluation of Petition File No. 597 Title 8, General Industry Safety Orders, Section 5204, Western Occupational and Environmental Medical Association (WOEMA). https://www.dir.ca.gov/oshsb/documents/petition-597-staffeval.pdf
  43. California Occupational Safety and Health Standards Board (2023). Section 5204 Silica Emergency Temporary Standard (ETS). Text approved by the Office of Administrative Law. https://www.dir.ca.gov/OSHSB/documents/Respirable-Crystalline-Silica-Emergency-apprvdtxt.pdf.


Contact the OSHSB Public Records Officer to request any Documents Relied Upon.

June 2024