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Subchapter 13. Logging and Sawmill Safety Orders Article 1. Introduction

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§6249. Definitions and Glossary.

Adequate. Sufficient to reduce the risk to an acceptable minimum.

Arch. Piece of equipment attached to the rear of a tractor and used for raising one end of the logs to facilitate skidding.

Back Cut or Felling Cut. Final cut in a felling operation, made on the opposite side of the tree from the undercut.

Ball Hooting. Rolling or skidding loose logs down a hillside.

Bell or Cup Hook with Spike. Hook consisting of a cylindrical cup with a spike projecting from its center.

Bight. Area within the loop of a rope, its ends made fast; or the area within the angle formed by a line running through a block.

Binder. Wrapper tightening device.

Bolt. Short section of log or timber, rough sawn to length, from which shingles, laths, etc., are cut.

Brow Log. Log placed parallel to any roadway at a landing or dump to protect vehicles during loading or unloading.

Buck. Process of severing a tree into sections (logs or bolts).

Bucker. Worker who saws logs into desired lengths.

Buckle Guyline. Wire rope used to stiffen or support a tree, pole, or structure between the top guys and the base.

Bunk. Cross support for logs on a logging car or truck.

Butt Hook. Sleeve type hook attached to the butt rigging. Also the hook on the end of the tractor winch line.

Cant. Log slabbed on one or more sides.

Capped Fuse. Piece of fuse to which a blasting cap has been crimped.

Carriage (Log Carriage). Framework mounted on wheels which runs on tracks or in grooves in a direction parallel to the face of the saw, and which contains apparatus to hold a log securely and advance it towards the saw.

Chaser. Member of the yarding crew who unhooks the logs at the landing.

Chipper (Wood). Machine which cuts waste lumber or logs into uniform sized chips.

Chock, Bunk Block or Cheese Block. Wedge that prevents logs from rolling off the bunks.

Choker. Wire rope with special attachments that is put around a log near its end to facilitate hauling or lifting.

Chunking Out. Clearing material from a specific area.

Cold Deck. Any pile of logs which is stored and left for future removal or use.

Cold Shut. Link for permanently joining two chains closed cold with a hammer and not welded.

Cross Haul, or Parbuckling. Rolling logs by means of rope or a power device.

Crotch Lines. Type of two-leg sling forming an inverted "V" or crotch, with each loose end terminating in a load-attachment fitting, such as load hook, clevis, shackle, etc., for attaching the load to a hoisting line.

Crummy. Vehicle used to transport employees to and from a job site.

D or Strap Socket. Socket with a closed loop for attaching to the end of a line or block.

Dead Man. Buried log or other object used as an anchor.

Debark. Removing bark from trees or sections of trees, generally by mechanical means rather than manual peeling.

Division. Unless otherwise designated in this subchapter, the phrase "division" refers to the current Division of Occupational Safety and Health or any of its predecessors including the former Division of Industrial Safety. Reference to the former Division of Industrial Safety in these orders is meant to refer to its successor, the Division of Occupational Safety and Health or any subsequent successor organization.

Donkey (Yarder). Steam, diesel, or gasoline engine, equipped with drum and cable for moving or transporting logs, as in loading or yarding.

Equivalent. Alternative design or features which will provide an equal degree or factor of safety.

Fair-lead. Device used to guide a rope coming from any direction to a drum or sheave without fouling.

Guarded. Protected by a cover, shield, rail, or other device, or by location, to reduce the probability of injury.

Gut Wrapper. Intermediate wrapper for an individual tier of logs.

Guylines. Ropes used to stay or support spar trees, booms, etc.

Head Tree. Tree where loading and/or yarding takes place.

Heel Block. Block in the heel of a boom.

Heel Boom. Type of loading in which one end of the log is pulled up against the boom.

Hog. Machine for cutting or grinding slabs and refuse from the mill into coarse chips.

Hook Tender. Person who supervises the moving of logs from the woods to the place of loading.

Hot Deck. Deck from which logs are constantly being moved.

Husk. Head saw framework on a mill.

Hydraulic Excavator Type, Load Loader. Unit converted usually from a hydraulic backhoe having a grapple instead of a bucket, and using vertical cycling of the boom and stick to elevate and lower the logs.

Hydraulic Tree Jack. A mechanical device powered by internal pressure used to control the direction in which a tree is to be felled.

Jaggers. Any projecting wires of a cable.

Jill-Poke. A spear-like object.

Jill-Pole. Pivoted pole used as a lever to move logs from the car into the pond.

Kicker. Mechanical device used to move logs or material.

Knob. Metal ferrule attached to the end of a line.

Landing. Any place where logs are laid after being yarded, awaiting loading.

Landing Chute or Landing Slip. The head of the skid trail or yarder road where the logs are temporarily placed before handling, loading and hauling.

Lang Lay Rope. Wire rope in which the wires in the strands and the strands in the rope are laid in the same direction.

Leaner. Live or dead leaning trees.

Lift Tree. Tree or trees between the head spar and tail anchor upon which the skyline is hung but not anchored.

Loading Boom. Any structure projecting from a pivot point to guide a log when it is lifted.

Lodged Tree. A tree leaning against another tree or object which prevents its falling to the ground.

Log Haul. Conveyer for transferring the logs into the mill.

Log Stacker. A mobile machine mounted on a wheeled or tracked chassis with a frontally mounted grapple, tusk or forklift device to handle logs.

Logging Machines. Mobile yarders, including donkeys, A-frames, towers, masts, and converted cranes used for cable logging.

Metal Spar. Portable steel mast used to support the sheaves and/or blocks and lines for cable logging systems.

Molle or Molly Hogan. Piece of wire strand or rope used as a temporary means of fastening together the spliced loop ends of two pieces of rope; or a piece of wire strand used in place of a cotter pin, shackle pin, etc.

Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratory (NRTL). A laboratory which has been recognized by the Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) as meeting the requirements of 29 CFR 1910.7.

Operation, Show, Woods Layout, or Side. Any place where logging is being done.

Pass Line. Small line threaded through a block at the top of a spar tree to assist the high climber.

Peeling Bar. Tool for removing bark from trees or logs.

Pike Pole. Long pole that ends in a sharp steel spike or point.

Pitman Rod. Connecting rod.

Reach. Rod or beam connecting a trailer to a logging truck.

Road (Cable or Yarding). The road along which logs are yarded to the landing with one setting of the rigging.

Rock Saw. Small coarse-toothed saw carried on an adjustable arm in line with the main circular mill saw.

Rolled Eyes. Rolling two halves of a line back on each other to form an eye.

Root Wad. Ball of roots which extends above ground level when a tree is up- rooted.

Rub Tree. See Siwash Tree.

Running Lines. Any moving wire rope, distinguished from a stationary wire rope such as a guyline.

Safety Factor. Calculated reduction factor which may be applied to laboratory test values to obtain safe working stresses.

Sail Guy. Guyline which holds the outer end of a boom.

Scaler. Worker who calculates the footage of logs.

Shall. Mandatory requirement.

Shoe. See Tree Jack.

Shotgun Feed. Piston-fed carriage drive.

Shovel-Type Loader. Boom-type mobile crane or shovel using cable and tongs, hooks or grapple as the hoisting and lowering means with the boom angle remaining fairly constant.

Show. See Operations.

Side. Unit of a logging operation, including workers and equipment, that is sufficient to fall, buck, and load logs from an area.

Side Winder. Piece of brush or limb thrown up by a cable or a tractor; tree knocked down by another in falling.

Siwash Tree. Tree used to deflect a line.

Skidder. A machine used to skid logs.

Skidding. Yarding bolts, logs, or trees by pulling or towing across the terrain.

Skyline. A wire rope which serves as a track and support for a carriage to which logs are attached. See Appendix for various skyline systems.

Slack Line. Form of skyline that is spooled on the drum of a yarder and may be raised or lowered.

Slope. Increase in height over a horizontal distance, measured in percent. (An increase of one vertical foot over a horizontal distance of five feet is expressed as a 20% slope.)

Snag. Any dead standing tree or portion thereof.

Snubbing. Retarding or controlling the movement of logs or machines by means of looping the rope around a stationary object.

Spar Tree. Tree from which the top and limbs have been cut and used to support the blocks and ropes for various systems of logging.

Spault. Waste material from the first cut and piece remaining after the last cut from a shingle block.

Spring Board. Board shod with iron at the heel and used by fallers to stand on when they must work above ground level.

Spring Pole. Section of tree, sapling, limb, etc. which is, by virtue of its arrangement, in relation to other materials, under bending stress.

Spud, Barking Bar. Tool for removing bark from trees or logs.

Squirrel. Weight used to swing a boom when the power unit does not have enough drums to do it mechanically.

Stickers. Strips placed between layers of lumber when piling to keep the layers separated for airing and drying; also used for stabilizing loads during transportation.

Strap. Any short piece of line used for securing or holding together equipment or parts of equipment or for loading.

Straw Line. Small line used for miscellaneous purposes.

Swamping. Clearing brush and other material around or along a specified place.

Tail Hold. Any anchor used for making fast any line.

Telltale. Device that serves as a warning for overhead objects.

Tight Line. Condition in which force is exerted on both mainline and haulback at the same time.

Tong Line Block. Block hung in a boom through which the tong line operates.

Tongs. Grapples used to lift logs.

Topping. Cutting off the top section of a tree preparatory to rigging the tree.

Tractor. Track-laying or rubber-tired machine used to skid logs or build roads.

Tree Harvester. Machine with tracks or tires and having a shear and grip head that cuts and maneuvers trees and may also delimb and cut them into selected lengths.

Tree Jack. Saddle with set of grooved rollers set between side plates, secured to a tree as a guide for lines.

Tree Plates. Steel protectors spiked around a tree to prevent the guys from cutting into the tree.

Tree Shoe. Saddle with a solid curved and grooved seat between side plates, secured to a tree as a support for lines.

Turn. Single log or group of logs being yarded as a unit.

Twister. A line (usually small diameter wire rope "haywire") that provides additional support for a tailhold stump, guyline stump, or tree used for anchorage in cable logging systems. This is done by connecting the tailhold tree or tree to another stump or tree opposite by wrapping the two with a line. This line is then tightened by placing a piece of large-diameter limb between the wrappings and twisting them together.

Undercut. Notch cut in the tree to guide the tree in falling.

V Lead. Angle of the mainline between the machine drum, high-lead block, and swing or yarding road that is less than 90 degrees.

Widow Maker. Overhanging limb or section of tree which could become dislodged and drop to the ground. (See also lodged tree.)

Windfall. Tree felled by wind or other natural cause.

Work Area. Any area where job assignments are performed.

Wrapper. Chain, cable, strap, etc., used for binding loads of logs, poles or lumber.

Yarding. Collecting logs for one central loading or shipping point.

Note: Authority cited: Section 142.3, Labor Code. Reference: Section 142.3, Labor Code.


1. Amendment filed 2-6-85; effective thirtieth day thereafter (Register 85, No. 6).

2. Amendment filed 2-15-90; operative 2-15-90 (Register 90, No. 8).

3. Amendment filed 10-24-01; operative 11-23-01 (Register 2001, No. 43).

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