Skip to Main Content

This information is provided free of charge by the Department of Industrial Relations from its web site at These regulations are for the convenience of the user and no representation or warranty is made that the information is current or accurate. See full disclaimer at
Subchapter 7. General Industry Safety Orders

Group 13. Cranes and Other Hoisting Equipment

Article 100. Inspection and Maintenance

Return to index
New query

§5031. Inspection.

(a) A qualified person shall visually inspect the crane's or derrick's controls, rigging and operating mechanism prior to the first operation on any work shift. Any unsafe conditions disclosed by the inspection requirements of this Article shall be corrected promptly. Defective components of equipment which create an imminent safety hazard shall be replaced, repaired or adjusted prior to use.
(b) Frequency of Inspections. Daily visual inspections by the operator or other qualified person shall be made of/for:
(1) All functional mechanisms for excessive wear, or maladjustments interfering with proper operation;
(2) Lines, tanks, valves, pumps, and other parts of air, hydraulic, or other pressurized systems for contamination, deterioration or leakage, particularly lines which flex in normal operation;
(3) Hydraulic system for proper fluid level;
(4) Hooks and latches for deformation, cracks, excessive wear, or damage;
(5) Hoist or load attachment chains including end connections for excessive wear, twist, distorted or stretched links interfering with proper function;
(6) Excessive wear, broken wires, stretch, kinking, or twisting of ropes and rope slings, including end connections;
(7) Wire rope reeving for compliance with the crane manufacturer's specifications;
(8) Electrical apparatus for malfunctioning, signs of excessive deterioration, dirt or moisture accumulation;
(9) Tires, when used to support the lifting operation, for proper inflation and condition;
(10) Ground conditions around the crane support system, including ground settling and ground water accumulation;
Exception to subsection (a)(10): This subsection does not apply to the inspection of ground conditions for railroad tracks and their underlying support when the railroad tracks are part of the general railroad system of transportation that is regulated pursuant to the Federal Railroad Administration under 49 CFR Part 213.
(11) The crane for level within the tolerances specified by the crane manufacturer's recommendations, both before each shift and after each move and setup;
(12) Operator cab windows for cracks, breaks, or other deficiencies that impair the operator's view;
(13) Locomotive, hammerhead tower cranes, and other specialized rail-mounted cranes in construction: Rails, rail stops, rail clamps (as applicable) and supporting surfaces when the equipment has rail traveling;
Exception to subsection (a)(13): This subsection does not apply to the inspection of rails, rail stops, rail clamps and supporting surfaces when the railroad tracks are part of the general railroad system of transportation that is regulated pursuant to the Federal Railroad Administration under 49 CFR Part 213.
(14) Safety devices and operational aids for proper operation;
(15) The operation of all limit switches without a load on the hook.
(c) Periodic inspections.
(1) Frequency:
(A) Periodic inspections shall be conducted at least four times a year.
(B) Cranes handling molten metal shall be inspected at least weekly when in use and necessary repairs made.
(2) The annual certification, as required by Section 5021(a), can serve as one of the required periodic inspections. The periodic inspections shall be evenly spaced or as close to evenly spaced as scheduling permits through the year. Cranes shall not be operated more than 750 hours, between periodic inspections.
(3) The inspection shall include the following in addition to the items in subsection (b) above:
(A) Excessive wear of all functional operating mechanisms.
(B) Ropes, brakes, friction clutches, chain drives, and other parts subject to wear which may be readily inspected.
(C) An inspection record shall be maintained which includes the items inspected and the results of the inspection, the date of the inspection, the signature of the person who performed the inspection, and the serial number or other identifier of the crane inspected. The most-recent inspection record shall be maintained on file.
(d) Annual/comprehensive. In any year in which no quadrennial (every four years) proof load test is required on cranes or derricks, such equipment shall be examined by a qualified person as described in Section 5021. Such examination shall be made not later than the anniversary date of the quadrennial certification and shall conform with the requirements of Section 5022(d), and the following:
(1) Crane hooks with cracks or with deformation of throat opening more than 15 percent in excess of normal opening or more than 10 degree twist from plane of unbent hook shall be removed from service.
(2) Ropes shall be inspected for proper lubrication, excessive wear, broken strands, and proper reeving.
Note 1: Many variable factors are involved in determining the exact time for replacement of rope and timely replacement for safety. Conditions such as the following shall be sufficient reason for replacement:
1. In running ropes, 6 randomly distributed broken wires in one rope lay, or 3 broken wires in one strand in one lay.
2. Wear of ⅓ the original diameter of outside individual wires.
3. Kinking, crushing, bird caging, or other damage resulting in distortion of the rope structure. Evidence of any heat damage.
4. Reductions from nominal diameter of more than:
1/64 inch for diameters up to 5/16 inch
1/32 inch for diameters ⅜ inch to ½ inch
3/64 inch for diameters 9/16 inch to ¾ inch
1/16 inch for diameters ⅞ inch to 11/8 inch
3/32 inch for diameters 1 ¼ inch to 1 ½ inch
5. In standing ropes, more than 2 broken wires in one lay in sections beyond end connections or more than one broken wire at an end connection.
6. Reduction of rope diameter below nominal diameter due to loss of core support, internal or external corrosion, or wear of outside wires.
Note 2: See Section 5036 for additional requirements for cranes in construction.
(3) In order to establish data for judging the proper time for replacement of hoisting rope, a continuing inspection record shall be maintained. The record shall cover factors of deterioration as listed in subsections (b), (c) and (d).
(4) Whenever it is considered necessary by the certificating agency or authorized representative and whenever it is practical and advisable to avoid disassembly of equipment, removal of pins, etc., examination of structure or parts by electronic, ultrasonic, or other nondestructive methods shall be carried out.
(5) Documentation of annual/comprehensive inspection. An inspection record shall be maintained which includes the items inspected and the results of the inspection, the date of the inspection, the name and signature of the authorized certificating agent, the serial number or other identifier of the crane inspected, and other information as required by Section 4885, Plate V. Inspection records shall be maintained on file for a minimum of 48 months by the employer. The most recent inspection record shall be maintained on file. All documents produced under this section shall be available, during the applicable document retention period, to all persons who conduct inspections under this section. (See Section 5025)
(e) Any part of a manufacturer's procedures regarding inspections that relate to safe operation (such as to a safety device or operational aid, critical part of a control system, power plant, braking system, load-sustaining structural components, load hook, or in-use operating mechanism) that is more comprehensive or has a more frequent schedule of inspection than the requirements of this section shall be followed.
(f) All rope which has been idle for a period of a month or more due to shutdown or storage of a crane on which it is installed shall be given a thorough inspection before it is placed in service. This inspection shall be for all types of deterioration and shall be performed by a qualified person whose approval shall be required for further use of the rope. A certification record shall be made available for inspection which includes the date of inspection, the signature of the person who performed the inspection, and an identifier of the rope which was inspected.
(g) Equipment that has been idle for 3 months or more shall be inspected by a qualified person in accordance with the requirements of subsection (c) (Periodic inspections) before initial use.


Note: Authority cited: Section 142.3, Labor Code. Reference: Section 142.3, Labor Code.
1. Amendment filed 2-13-75; effective thirtieth day thereafter (Register 75, No. 7).
2. Amendment filed 12-12-84; effective thirtieth day thereafter (Register 84, No. 50).
3. Amendment filed 8-29-86; effective thirtieth day thereafter (Register 86, No. 39).
4. Amendment of subsections (c) and (e) filed 3-5-90; operative 4-4-90 (Register 90, No. 12).
5. Amendment of subsection (c) filed 10-16-95; operative 11-15-95 (Register 95, No. 42).
6. Amendment of subsection (c)(3) filed 11-29-2001; operative 12-29-2001 (Register 2001, No. 48).
7. Change without regulatory effect amending subsection (c) and adding subsection (c)(4) designator filed 12-21-2006 pursuant to section 100, title 1, California Code of Regulations (Register 2006, No. 51).
8. Amendment of section filed 7-26-2022; operative 7-26-2022 pursuant to Government Code section 11343.4(b)(3) (Register 2022, No. 30). Filing deadline specified in Government Code section 11349.3(a) extended 60 calendar days pursuant to Executive Order N-40-20 and an additional 60 calendar days pursuant to Executive Order N-71-20.

Go BackGo Back to Article 100 Table of Contents