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Subchapter 7. General Industry Safety Orders
Group 8. Points of Operation and Other Hazardous Parts of Machinery
Article 59. Woodworking Machines and Equipment

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§4297. Definitions.

Arbor. The rotating spindle or shaft used for mounting and transmitting torque to cutting, grinding, or sanding tools and other devices such as lathe chucks.

Band Knife. A power saw with a blade consisting of a non-toothed metal band running around the circumference of two or more wheels.

Band Saw. A power saw with a blade consisting of a toothed metal band running around the circumference of two or more wheels.

Belt Sander. A powered sander designed to remove surface material with a seamless belt of an abrasive medium mounted on a pair of drums or pulleys.

Boring and Mortising Machine. A machine that uses boring bits or mortising chains to cut cavities in the material being worked for mortise and tenon joints, mortised openings for door hardware, etc.

Box Shook Cut-Off Saw. A powered circular crosscut saw generally used for cutting box shook, which are pre-cut sets of parts for assembling wooden boxes used in fields, orchards and packing houses, etc. Unlike a table saw, the wood material is passed through the circular saw blade on a sliding cradle or carriage.

Brush and Slash Chipper. Powered equipment used to reduce tree debris to wood chips.

Circular Knife. A power saw with a non-toothed smooth circular blade or a circular blade with wavy serrations.

Comb (Featherboard). A work-guiding and hold down device with spring-like fingers cut at an angle that flex in the direction of the stock travel. The device prevents the stock from being pushed back at the operator and also keeps the stock aligned against the table saw fence as it passes through the saw blade.

Cordwood Saw. A circular saw powered by a power takeoff or other drive mechanism on a tractor or other farm vehicle/equipment.

Crosscutting. A sawing operation through the thickness of the workpiece made across the grain in natural wood or across the shorter dimension on a rectangular workpiece of reconstituted wood.

Crosscut Saw. A saw with a blade designed for cutting across the wood grain of natural wood, or across the shorter dimension on a rectangular piece of reconstituted wood.

Dado. A straight sided non-through slot, perpendicular to the face of the workpiece.

Disc Sander. A powered sander with the abrasive material mounted to a round head which performs in an orbital motion parallel to the work surface.

Drum Sander. A powered sander with the abrasive material mounted directly to the circumference of a revolving cylinder.

Elbow Sander. A disc sander mounted on an articulating arm mounted to the wall or machine frame.

Hog Mill. A powered chipper used for reducing lumber mill waste into wood chips.

Jointer. A machine used for creating flat surfaces and straight edges on board lumber.

Kerf. The slot made by a saw blade as it saws through a workpiece.

Mandrel. See Arbor.

Miter Saw. Consists of a table top and fence which support the position of the workpiece and a powered circular saw mounted on a carriage with a pivoting arm that plunges into the workpiece or has a carriage that allows for plunging and sliding over the workpiece. The saw unit can be adjusted to make a miter cut. The saw unit may also be able to make a bevel or a compound cut.

Planer. A woodworking machine with a table and a cutter head/feed roller assembly mounted over the work support table and is used for removing surface material.

Planing, Molding, Sticking and Matching Machine. A specialized machine equipped with revolving cutting heads used for planing and/or cutting irregular contours on straight strips of wood.

Push Block. A non-metallic device, most commonly designed as a short block of wood with one or more handles and a flat bottom surface either with a heel or friction material on it, which is used for pushing stock over revolving cutters.

Push stick. A narrow strip of wood or other soft material with a notch cut into one end which is used to push pieces of material through woodworking machines.

Rabbet. An operation making a two-side notch in the side or face of a workpiece.

Ripping. A sawing operation made through the thickness of the workpiece with the grain of natural wood, along the long dimension of a rectangular workpiece, and usually parallel to that edge on reconstituted wood products.

Ripsaw. A saw with a blade designed for cutting wood in the direction of the grain, where the saw kerf tends to close on the blade after the blade has passed through the wood.

Shaper. A stationary woodworking machine with a cutter head mounted on a spindle protruding vertically from the table. The workpiece is supported by a fence and stationary table or moving table to control the horizontal depth of the cut. A guide, fixture or template is used to control the operation.

Spreader. A flat metal device slightly narrower than the saw kerf designed to prevent the saw blade kerf in the workpiece from closing on the sides of the blade during a sawing operation.

Swing Cut-Off Saw. A powered circular saw mounted on a swing arm above the table.

Table Saw. A machine designed to use a circular saw blade mounted on an arbor below the work support means which can be stationary or moving or a combination of both. A guiding means is used for all operations when manually feeding the stock. The arbor or its support means can be fixed, or be capable of being tilted at an angle to the work support means of less than 90 degrees to each other. See Figure A.

Tenoning Machine. A woodworking machine with circular saw blades or cutting heads used to cut away part of the end of a workpiece, leaving a rectangular tab or tenon which can be inserted into a rectangular mortise hole in another piece of material to create a mortise-and- tenon joint.

Wobble Saw. A circular saw used to cut dadoes with a single blade attached to the saw arbor with a split hub, so that the blade is mounted at an angle to the arbor shaft and wobbles while it rotates through the stock.

Wood Turning Lathe. A powered machine generally used for creating cylindrical products such as furniture legs. The stock spins between two arbor ends and is shaped either by fixed cutting tools or hand-held chisels or gouges.

Note: Authority cited: Section 142.3, Labor Code. Reference: Section 142.3, Labor Code.


1. New section filed 10-25-74; effective thirtieth day thereafter (Register 74, No. 43).

2. Amendment and renumbering of Section 4299 to Section 4297 filed 4-27-79; effective thirtieth day thereafter (Register 79, No. 17).

3. Amendment filed 8-15-86; effective thirtieth day thereafter (Register 86, No. 41).

4. Amendment and new Figure A filed 6-30-2008; operative 7-30-2008 (Register 2008, No. 27).

5. Amendment filed 10-2-2012; operative 11-1-2012 (Register 2012, No. 40).

6. Amendment of definitions of “Band Knife” and “Band Saw” filed 1-7-2014; operative 4-1-2014 (Register 2014, No. 2).

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