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Subchapter 5. Electrical Safety Orders
Group 2. High-Voltage Electrical Safety Orders
Article 36. Work Procedures and Operating Procedures
(a) Application. The provisions of this section apply to the use of lockout/tagout procedures for the control of energy sources in installations for the purpose of electric power generation, including related equipment for communication or metering. Locking and tagging procedures for the deenergizing of electric energy sources which are used exclusively for purposes of transmission and distribution are addressed in Section 2940.14.
NOTE to subsection (a): Installations in electric power generation facilities that are not an integral part of, or inextricably commingled with, power generation processes or equipment are covered under Section 3314.
(1) The employer shall establish a program consisting of energy control procedures, employee training, and periodic inspections to ensure that, before any employee performs any servicing or maintenance on a machine or equipment where the unexpected energizing, start up, or release of stored energy could occur and cause injury, the machine or equipment is isolated from the energy source and rendered inoperative.
(2) The employer's energy control program shall meet the following requirements:
(A) If an energy isolating device is not capable of being locked out, the employer's program shall use a tagout system.
(B) If an energy isolating device is capable of being locked out, the employer's program shall use lockout, unless the employer can demonstrate that the use of a tagout system will provide full employee protection as follows:
1. When a tagout device is used on an energy isolating device which is capable of being locked out, the tagout device shall be attached at the same location that the lockout device would have been attached, and the employer shall demonstrate that the tagout program will provide a level of safety equivalent to that obtained by the use of a lockout program.
2. In demonstrating that a level of safety is achieved in the tagout program equivalent to the level of safety obtained by the use of a lockout program, the employer shall demonstrate full compliance with all tagout-related provisions of this standard together with such additional elements as are necessary to provide the equivalent safety available from the use of a lockout device. Additional means to be considered as part of the demonstration of full employee protection shall include the implementation of additional safety measures such as the removal of an isolating circuit element, blocking of a controlling switch, opening of an extra disconnecting device, or the removal of a valve handle to reduce the likelihood of inadvertent energizing.
(C) Whenever replacement or major repair, renovation, or modification of a machine or equipment is performed, and whenever new machines or equipment are installed, energy isolating devices for such machines or equipment shall be designed to accept a lockout device.
(c) Hazardous Energy Control Procedures. Written procedures shall be developed, documented, and used for the control of potentially hazardous energy covered by subsection (a) of this section.
(1) The procedure shall clearly and specifically outline the scope, purpose, responsibility, authorization, rules, and techniques to be applied to the control of hazardous energy, and the measures to enforce compliance including, but not limited to, the following:
(A) A specific statement of the intended use of this procedure;
(B) Specific procedural steps for shutting down, isolating, blocking and securing machines or equipment to control hazardous energy;
(C) Specific procedural steps for the placement, removal, and transfer of lockout devices or tagout devices and the responsibility for them;
(D) Specific requirements for testing a machine or equipment to determine and verify the effectiveness of lockout devices, tagout devices, and other energy control measures; and
(E) The employer's hazardous energy control procedure shall include separate procedural steps for the safe lockout/tagout of each machine or piece of equipment affected by the hazardous energy control procedure.
EXCEPTION to subsection (c)(1)(E): The procedural steps for the safe lockout/tagout of prime movers, machinery or equipment may be used for a group or type of machinery or equipment, when either of the following two conditions exist:
A. The operational controls named in the procedural steps are configured in a similar manner, and
B. The locations of disconnect points (energy isolating devices) are identified, and
C. The sequence of steps to safely lockout or tagout the machinery or equipment are similar.
Condition 2: The machinery or equipment has a single energy supply that is readily identified and isolated and has no stored or residual hazardous energy.
(F) The employer shall conduct a periodic inspection of the energy control procedure at least annually to ensure that the procedure and the provisions of subsection (o) of this section are being followed.
(G) The employer shall provide training in accordance to subsection (p).
(d) Protective Materials and Hardware.
(1) Locks, tags, chains, wedges, key blocks, adapter pins, self-locking fasteners, or other hardware shall be provided by the employer for isolating, securing, or blocking of machines or equipment from energy sources.
(2) Lockout devices and tagout devices shall be singularly identified; shall be the only devices used for controlling energy; shall not be used for other purposes; and shall meet the following requirements:
(A) Lockout devices and tagout devices shall be capable of withstanding the environment to which they are exposed for the maximum period of time that exposure is expected.
1. Tagout devices shall be constructed and printed so that exposure to weather conditions or wet and damp locations will not cause the tag to deteriorate or the message on the tag to become illegible.
2. Tagout devices shall be so constructed as not to deteriorate when used in corrosive environments.
(B) Lockout devices and tagout devices shall be standardized within the facility in at least one of the following criteria: color, shape, size. Additionally, in the case of tagout devices, print and format shall be standardized.
(C) Lockout devices shall be substantial enough to prevent removal without the use of excessive force or unusual techniques, such as with the use of bolt cutters or metal cutting tools.
(D) Tagout devices, including their means of attachment, shall be substantial enough to prevent inadvertent or accidental removal. Tagout device attachment means shall be of a non-reusable type, attachable by hand, self-locking, and nonreleasable with a minimum unlocking strength of no less than 50 pounds and shall have the general design and basic characteristics of being at least equivalent to a one-piece, all-environment-tolerant nylon cable tie.
(E) Each lockout device or tagout device shall include provisions for the identification of the employee applying the device.
(F) Tagout devices shall warn against hazardous conditions if the machine or equipment is energized and shall include a legend such as the following: Do Not Start, Do Not Open, Do Not Close, Do Not Energize, Do Not Operate.
(e) Energy Isolation. Lockout and tagout device application and removal shall only be performed by the authorized employees who are performing the servicing or maintenance.
(f) Notification. Affected employees shall be notified by the employer or authorized employee of the application and removal of lockout or tagout devices. Notification shall be given before the controls are applied and after they are removed from the machine or equipment.
NOTE to subsection (f): See also subsection (i) of this section, which requires that the second notification take place before the machine or equipment is reenergized.
(g) Lockout/Tagout Application. The established procedures for the application of energy control (the lockout or tagout procedures) shall include the following elements and actions, and these procedures shall be performed in the following sequence:
(1) Before an authorized or affected employee turns off a machine or equipment, the authorized employee shall:
(A) Notify the affected employee(s) in accordance with subsection (f).
(B) Have knowledge of the type and magnitude of the energy, the hazards of the energy to be controlled, and the method or means to control the energy.
(2) The machine or equipment shall be turned off or shut down using the procedures established for the machine or equipment. An orderly shutdown shall be used to avoid any additional or increased hazards to employees as a result of the equipment stoppage.
(3) All energy isolating devices that are needed to control the energy to the machine or equipment shall be physically located and operated in such a manner as to isolate the machine or equipment from energy sources.
(4) Lockout or tagout devices shall be affixed to each energy isolating device by authorized employees.
(A) Lockout devices shall be attached in a manner that will hold the energy isolating devices in a “safe” or “off” position.
(B) Tagout devices shall be affixed in such a manner as will clearly indicate that the operation or movement of energy isolating devices from the “safe” or “off” position is prohibited.
1. Where tagout devices are used with energy isolating devices designed with the capability of being locked out, the tag attachment shall be fastened at the same point at which the lock would have been attached.
2. Where a tag cannot be affixed directly to the energy isolating device, the tag shall be located as close as safely possible to the device, in a position that will be immediately obvious to anyone attempting to operate the device.
(5) Following the application of lockout or tagout devices to energy isolating devices, all potentially hazardous stored or residual energy shall be relieved, disconnected, restrained, or otherwise rendered safe.
(6) If there is a possibility of reaccumulation of stored energy to a hazardous level, verification of isolation shall be continued until the servicing or maintenance is completed or until the possibility of such accumulation no longer exists.
(h) Test. Before starting work on machines or equipment that have been locked out or tagged out, the authorized employee shall verify that isolation and deenergizing of the machine or equipment have been accomplished. If normally energized parts will be exposed to contact by an employee while the machine or equipment is deenergized, a test shall be performed to ensure that these parts are deenergized.
(i) Release From Lockout/Tagout. Before lockout or tagout devices are removed and energy is restored to the machine or equipment, procedures shall be followed and actions taken by the authorized employees to ensure the following:
(1) The work area shall be inspected to ensure that nonessential items have been removed and that machine or equipment components are operationally intact.
(2) The work area shall be checked to ensure that all employees have been safely positioned or removed.
(3) After lockout or tagout devices have been removed and before a machine or equipment is started, affected employees shall be notified that the lockout or tagout devices have been removed.
(4) Each lockout or tagout device shall be removed from each energy isolating device by the authorized employee who applied the lockout or tagout device. However, if that employee is not available to remove it, the device may be removed under the direction of the employer, provided that specific procedures and training for such removal have been developed, documented, and incorporated into the employer's energy control program. The employer shall demonstrate that the specific procedure provides a degree of safety equivalent to that provided by the removal of the device by the authorized employee who applied it. The specific procedure shall include at least the following elements:
(A) Verification by the employer that the authorized employee who applied the device is not at the facility;
(B) Making all reasonable efforts to contact the authorized employee to inform him or her that his or her lockout or tagout device has been removed; and
(C) Ensuring that the authorized employee has this knowledge before he or she resumes work at that facility.
(j) Additional Requirements.
(1) If the lockout or tagout devices must be temporarily removed from energy isolating devices and the machine or equipment must be energized to test or position the machine, equipment, or component thereof, the following sequence of actions shall be followed:
(A) Clear the machine or equipment of tools and materials in accordance with subsection (i)(1) of this section;
(B) Remove employees from the machine or equipment area in accordance with subsections (i)(2) and (i)(3) of this section;
(C) Remove the lockout or tagout devices as specified in subsection (i)(4) of this section;
(D) Energize and proceed with the testing or positioning; and
(E) Deenergize all systems and reapply energy control measures in accordance with subsections (g) and (h) of this section to continue the servicing or maintenance.
(k) Group Lockout or Tagout. When servicing or maintenance is performed by a crew, craft, department, or other group, they shall use a procedure which affords the employees a level of protection equivalent to that provided by the implementation of a personal lockout or tagout device. Group lockout or tagout devices shall be used in accordance with the procedures required by subsection (c) of this section including, but not limited to, the following specific requirements:
(1) Primary responsibility shall be vested in an authorized employee for a set number of employees working under the protection of a group lockout or tagout device (such as an operations lock);
(2) Provision shall be made for the authorized employee to ascertain the exposure status of all individual group members with regard to the lockout or tagout of the machine or equipment;
(3) When more than one crew, craft, department, or other group is involved, assignment of overall job-associated lockout or tagout control responsibility shall be given to an authorized employee designated to coordinate affected work forces and ensure continuity of protection; and
(4) Each authorized employee shall affix a personal lockout or tagout device to the group lockout device, group lockbox, or comparable mechanism when he or she begins work and shall remove those devices when he or she stops working on the machine or equipment being serviced or maintained.
(l) Shift or Personnel Changes. Procedures shall be used during shift or personnel changes to ensure the continuity of lockout or tagout protection, including provision for the orderly transfer of lockout or tagout device protection between off-going and on-coming employees, to minimize their exposure to hazards from the unexpected energizing or start-up of the machine or equipment or from the release of stored energy.
(m) Outside Servicing Personnel. Whenever outside servicing personnel are to be engaged in activities covered by subsection (a) of this section, the on-site employer and the outside employer shall inform each other of their respective lockout or tagout procedures, and each employer shall ensure that his or her personnel understand and comply with restrictions and prohibitions of the energy control procedures being used.
(n) System Operator. If energy isolating devices are installed in a central location and are under the exclusive control of a system operator, the following requirements apply:
(1) The employer shall use a procedure that affords employees a level of protection equivalent to that provided by the implementation of a personal lockout or tagout device.
(2) The system operator shall place and remove lockout and tagout devices in place of the authorized employee under subsections (e), (g)(4), and (i)(4) of this section.
(3) Provisions shall be made to identify the authorized employee who is responsible for (that is, being protected by) the lockout or tagout device, to transfer responsibility for lockout and tagout devices, and to ensure that an authorized employee requesting removal or transfer of a lockout or tagout device is the one responsible for it before the device is removed or transferred.
(o) Periodic Inspections.
(1) The periodic inspection shall be performed by an authorized employee who is not using the energy control procedure being inspected at least annually.
(2) The periodic inspection shall be designed to identify and correct any deviations or inadequacies.
(3) If lockout is used for energy control, the periodic inspection shall include a review, between the inspector and each authorized employee, of that employee's responsibilities under the energy control procedure being inspected.
(4) Where tagout is used for energy control, the periodic inspection shall include a review, between the inspector and each authorized and affected employee, of that employee's responsibilities under the energy control procedure being inspected, and the elements set forth in subsection (c)(1) of this section.
(5) The employer shall certify that the inspections required by this section have been accomplished. The certification shall identify the machine or equipment on which the energy control procedure was being used, the date of the inspection, the employees included in the inspection, and the person performing the inspection.
(p) Training. The employer shall provide training to ensure that the purpose and function of the energy control program are understood by employees and that the knowledge and skills required for the safe application, usage, and removal of energy controls are acquired by employees. The training shall include the following:
(1) Each authorized employee shall receive training in the recognition of applicable hazardous energy sources, the type and magnitude of energy available in the workplace, and in the methods and means necessary for energy isolation and control.
(2) Each affected employee shall be instructed in the purpose and use of the energy control procedure.
(3) All other employees whose work operations are or may be in an area where energy control procedures may be used shall be instructed about the procedures and about the prohibition relating to attempts to restart or reenergize machines or equipment that are locked out or tagged out.
(4) When tagout systems are used, employees shall also be trained in the following limitations of tags:
(A) Tags are essentially warning devices affixed to energy isolating devices and do not provide the physical restraint on those devices that is provided by a lock.
(B) When a tag is attached to an energy isolating means, it is not to be removed without authorization of the authorized person responsible for it, and it is never to be bypassed, ignored, or otherwise defeated.
(C) Tags shall be legible and understandable by all authorized employees, affected employees, and all other employees whose work operations are or may be in the area, in order to be effective.
(D) Tags and their means of attachment shall be made of materials which will withstand the environmental conditions encountered in the workplace.
(E) Tags may evoke a false sense of security, and their meaning needs to be understood as part of the overall energy control program.
(F) Tags shall be securely attached to energy isolating devices so that they cannot be inadvertently or accidentally detached during use.
(5) Retraining shall be provided by the employer as follows:
(A) Retraining shall be provided for all authorized and affected employees whenever there is a change in their job assignments, a change in machines, equipment, or processes that present a new hazard or whenever there is a change in the energy control procedures.
(B) Retraining shall also be conducted whenever a periodic inspection under subsection (o) of this section reveals, or whenever the employer has reason to believe, that there are deviations from or inadequacies in an employee's knowledge or use of the energy control procedures.
(C) The retraining shall reestablish employee proficiency and shall introduce new or revised control methods and procedures, as necessary.
(6) The employer shall certify that employee training has been accomplished and is being kept up to date. The certification shall contain each employee's name and dates of training.