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Subchapter 4. Construction Safety Orders
Article 15. Cranes and Derricks in Construction
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§ 1610.4. Design, Construction and Testing.

The following requirements apply to equipment that has a manufacturer rated hoisting/lifting capacity of more than 2,000 pounds.

(a) Crawler, truck and locomotive cranes manufactured prior to July 7, 2011 shall meet the applicable requirements for design, construction, and testing as prescribed in the applicable edition of ANSI B30.5 as prescribed by General Industry Safety Orders, Section 4884.

(b) Mobile (including crawler and truck) and locomotive cranes manufactured on or after July 7, 2011 shall meet the following portions of ASME B30.5-2004 (incorporated by reference) as applicable:

(1) In section 5-1.1.1 ( “Load Ratings - Where Stability Governs Lifting Performance”), paragraphs (a)-(d) (including subparagraphs).

(2) In section 5-1.1.2 ( “Load Ratings - Where Structural Competence Governs Lifting Performance”), paragraph (b).

(3) Section 5-1.2 ( “Stability (Backward and Forward)”).

(4) In section 5-1.3.1 ( “Boom Hoist Mechanism”), paragraphs (a), (b)(1) and (b)(2), except that when using rotation resistant rope, Section 1614(e)(4)(B)1 applies.

(5) In section 5-1.3.2 ( “Load Hoist Mechanism”), paragraphs (a)(2) through (a)(4) (including subparagraphs), (b) (including subparagraphs), (c) (first sentence only) and (d).

(6) Section 5-1.3.3 ( “Telescoping Boom”).

(7) Section 5-1.4 ( “Swing Mechanism”).

(8) In section 5-1.5 ( “Crane Travel”), all provisions except 5-1.5.3(d).

(9) In section 5-1.6 ( “Controls”), all provisions except 5-1.6.1(c).

(10) Section 5-1.7.4 ( “Sheaves”).

(11) Section 5-1.7.5 ( “Sheave sizes”).

(12) In section 5-1.9.1 ( “Booms”), paragraph (f).

(13) Section 5-1.9.3 ( “Outriggers”).

(14) Section 5-1.9.4 ( “Locomotive Crane Equipment”).

(15) Section 5-1.9.7 ( “Clutch and Brake Protection”).

(16) In section 5-1.9.11 ( “Miscellaneous equipment”), paragraphs (a), (c), (e), and (f).

(c) Prototype testing: Cranes manufactured on or after November 8, 2010 shall meet the prototype testing requirements prescribed in 29 CFR 1926.1433(c).

(d) All equipment covered by this Article shall meet the following requirements:

(1) Rated capacity and related information. The information available in the cab [see Section 1616.1(c)] regarding “rated capacity” and related information shall include, at a minimum, the following information:

(A) A complete range of the manufacturer's equipment rated capacities, as follows:

1. At all manufacturer approved operating radii, boom angles, work areas, boom lengths and configurations, jib lengths and angles (or offset).

2. Alternate ratings for use and nonuse of option equipment which affects rated capacities, such as outriggers, stabilizers, and extra counterweights.

(B) A work area chart for which capacities are listed in the load chart.

(NOTE: An example of this type of chart is in ASME B30.5-2004, section 5-1.1.3, Figure 11).

(C) The work area figure and load chart shall clearly indicate the areas where no load is to be handled.

(D) Recommended reeving for the hoist lines shall be shown.

(E) Recommended parts of hoist reeving, size, and type of wire rope for various equipment loads.

(F) Recommended boom hoist reeving diagram, where applicable; size, type and length of wire rope.

(G) Tire pressure (where applicable).

(H) Caution or warnings relative to limitations on equipment and operating procedures, including an indication of the least stable direction.

(I) Position of the gantry and requirements for intermediate boom suspension (where applicable).

(J) Instructions for boom erection and conditions under which the boom, or boom and jib combinations, may be raised or lowered.

(K) Whether the hoist holding mechanism is automatically or manually controlled, whether free fall is available, or any combination of these.

(L) The maximum telescopic travel length of each boom telescopic section.

(M) Whether sections are telescoped manually or with power.

(N) The sequence and procedure for extending and retracting the telescopic boom section.

(O) Maximum loads permitted during the boom extending operation, and any limiting conditions or cautions.

(P) Hydraulic relief valve settings specified by the manufacturer.

(2) Load hooks (including latched and unlatched types), ball assemblies and load blocks shall be of sufficient weight to overhaul the line from the highest hook position for boom or boom and jib lengths and the number of parts of the line in use.

(3) Hook and ball assemblies and load blocks shall be marked with their rated capacity and weight.

(4) Latching hooks.

(A) Hooks shall be equipped with latches, except where the requirements of subsection (d)(4)(B) of this section are met.

(B) Hooks without latches, or with latches removed or disabled, must not be used unless:

1. A qualified person has determined that it is safer to hoist and place the load without latches (or with the latches removed/tied-back).

2. Routes for the loads are preplanned to ensure that no employee is required to work in the fall zone except for employees necessary for the hooking or unhooking of the load.

(C) The latch must close the throat opening and be designed to retain slings or other lifting devices/accessories in the hook when the rigging apparatus is slack.

(5) Posted warnings. Posted warnings required by this Article as well as those originally supplied with the equipment by the manufacturer shall be maintained in legible condition.

(6) An accessible fire extinguisher shall be on the equipment.

(7) Cabs. Equipment with cabs shall meet the following requirements:

(A) Cabs shall be designed with a form of adjustable ventilation and method for clearing the windshield for maintaining visibility and air circulation. Examples of means for adjustable ventilation include air conditioner or window that can be opened (for ventilation and air circulation); examples of means for maintaining visibility include heater (for preventing windshield icing), defroster, fan, windshield wiper.

(B) Cab doors (swinging, sliding) shall be designed to prevent inadvertent opening or closing while traveling or operating the machine. Swinging doors adjacent to the operator shall open outward. Sliding operator doors shall open rearward.

(C) Windows.

1. The cab shall have windows in front and on both sides of the operator. Forward vertical visibility shall be sufficient to give the operator a view of the boom point at all times.

2. Windows shall have sections designed to be opened or readily removed. Windows with sections designed to be opened shall be designed so that they can be secured to prevent inadvertent closure.

3. Windows shall be of safety glass or material with similar optical and safety properties, that introduce no visible distortion or otherwise obscure visibility that interferes with the safe operation of the equipment.

(D) A clear passageway shall be provided from the operator's station to an exit door on the operator's side.

(E) Areas of the cab roof that serve as a workstation for rigging, maintenance or other equipment-related tasks shall be capable of supporting 250 pounds without permanent distortion.

(8) Belts, gears, shafts, pulleys, sprockets, spindles, drums, fly wheels, chains, and other parts or components that reciprocate, rotate or otherwise move shall be guarded where contact by employees (except for maintenance and repair employees) is possible in the performance of normal duties.

(9) All exhaust pipes, turbochargers, and charge air coolers shall be insulated or guarded where contact by employees (except for maintenance and repair employees) is possible in the performance of normal duties.

(10) Hydraulic and pneumatic lines shall be protected from damage to the extent feasible.

(11) The equipment shall be designed so that exhaust fumes are not discharged in the cab and are discharged in a direction away from the operator.

(12) Friction mechanisms. Where friction mechanisms (such as brakes and clutches) are used to control the boom hoist or load line hoist, they shall be:

(A) Of a size and thermal capacity sufficient to control all rated loads with the minimum recommended reeving.

(B) Adjustable to permit compensation for lining wear to maintain proper operation.

(13) Hydraulic load hoists. Hydraulic drums shall have an integrally mounted holding device or internal static brake to prevent load hoist movement in the event of hydraulic failure.

(e) The employer's obligations under subsections (a) through (c) and (d)(7) through (13) of this section are met where the equipment has not changed (except in accordance with Section 1610.6 (Equipment modifications)) and it can refer to documentation from the manufacturer showing that the equipment has been designed, constructed and tested in accordance with those subsections.

(f) Proof load tests and examinations of cranes and their accessory gear shall be conducted as required by General Industry Safety Orders, Section 5022.

Note: Authority cited: Section 142.3, Labor Code. Reference: Section 142.3, Labor Code.


1. New section filed 7-7-2011; operative 7-7-2011. Exempt from OAL review pursuant to Labor Code section 142.3(a)(3) (Register 2011, No. 27).

2. New subsection (f) filed 10-2-2012; operative 11-1-2012 (Register 2012, No. 40).

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