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Subchapter 4. Construction Safety Orders
Article 2. Definitions

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§1504. Definitions.

(a) The following definitions shall apply in the application of these Orders.
Access. A means of reaching a workspace or a work area.
Accessible. Within reach from a workspace or work area.
Adequate Ventilation. Ventilation which, under normal operating conditions, is sufficient to keep the concentration of a hazardous gas, vapor, mist, fume or dust below the amount which will produce harmful effects or below 20 percent of the lower explosive limit, whichever is lower.
Anchorage. A secure point of attachment for lifelines, lanyards or deceleration devices.
Approved. See section 1505.
Body Belt. A simple or compound strap with means for securing it about the waist and for securing a lanyard to it.
Body Harness. Straps which may be secured about the employee in a manner that will distribute the fall arrest forces over at least the thighs, pelvis, waist, chest and shoulders with means for attaching it to other components of a personal fall arrest system.
Buckle. Any device for holding the body belt or body harness closed around the employee's body.
Bulldozer. A tractor having a blade in front for moving earth or other materials.
Bull Float. A tool used to spread out and smooth a concrete surface.
Carryall. A self-loading and unloading vehicle pulled by a tractor or powered attachment, and used for movement and placing of earth or other materials.
Certified Safety Professional or CSP. A safety professional who has met education and experience standards, has demonstrated by examination the knowledge that applies to professional safety practice, continues to meet recertification requirements established by the Board of Certified Safety Professionals (BCSP), and is authorized by BCSP to use the Certified Safety Professional designation.
Closed Container. A container as herein defined, so sealed by means of a lid or other device that neither liquid nor vapor will escape from it at ordinary temperatures.
Combustible Liquid. A liquid having a flash point greater than 199.4°F (93°C) (formerly designated Class IIIB Combustible liquids).
Competent Person. One who is capable of identifying existing and predictable hazards in the surroundings or working conditions which are unsanitary, hazardous, or dangerous to employees, and who has authorization to take prompt corrective measures to eliminate them.
Connector. A device which is used to couple (connect) parts of the personal fall arrest system and positioning device systems together. It may be an independent component of the system, such as a carabiner, or it may be an integral component of part of the system (such as a buckle or deering sewn into a body belt or body harness, or a snap-hook spliced or sewn to a lanyard or self-retracting lanyard).
Contaminant. A harmful, irritating or nuisance material that is foreign to the environment.
Note: For definition of “harmful exposure” refer to section 5140 of General Industry Safety Orders.
Controlled Access Zone (CAZ). An area in which certain work may take place without the use of guardrails, personal fall arrest systems, or safety nets and access to the zone is controlled. Coon. To straddle and move horizontally on a beam while walking on the bottom flanges.
Crawling Board (Chicken Ladder). A plank with cleats spaced and secured at equal intervals and used by workers on roofs as a means of access.
Dangerous Equipment. Equipment (such as pickling or galvanizing tanks, degreasing units, machinery, electrical equipment, and other construction related equipment such as hoppers and conveyors) which, as a result of form or function, may be hazardous to employees who fall onto or into such equipment.
Deceleration Device. Any mechanism, such as a rope grab, rip-stitch lanyard, specially-woven lanyard, tearing or deforming lanyards, automatic self-retracting lifelines/lanyards, etc., which serves to dissipate a substantial amount of energy during a fall arrest, or otherwise limit the energy imposed on an employee during fall arrest.
Deceleration Distance. The additional vertical distance a falling employee travels, excluding lifeline elongation and free fall distance, before stopping, from the point at which the deceleration device begins to operate. It is measured as the distance between the location of an employee's body belt or body harness attachment point at the moment of activation (at the onset of fall arrest forces) of the deceleration device during a fall, and the location of that attachment point after the employee comes to a full stop.
Dedicated Pile Driver. A machine that is designed to function exclusively as a pile driver. These machines typically have the ability to both hoist the material that will be pile-driven and to pile-drive that material.
Defect. Any characteristic or condition which tends to weaken or reduce the strength or the safety of the tool, machine, object, or structure of which it is a part.
Division. The current Division of Occupational Safety and Health or any of its predecessors including the former Division of Industrial Safety or the Division of Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Reference to the former Division of Industrial Safety or Division of Occupational Safety and Health Administration in these Orders is meant to refer to their successor, the Division of Occupational Safety and Health, or any subsequent successor agency.
Drop Line (Safety Line). A vertical line from a fixed anchorage, independent of the work surface, to which the lanyard is affixed.
Elevator, Construction. Any means used to hoist persons or material of any kind on a building under course of construction, when operated within guides, by any power other than muscular power.
Emergency Medical Services.
(A) Appropriately Trained Person. A physician or registered nurse currently licensed in California or a person possessing a current certificate (training within the past three years or as specifically stated on the certificate) from the American National Red Cross or equivalent training that can be likewise verified. Acceptable Red Cross certificates are those from the Standard First-Aid Multimedia, Standard First Aid and Personal Safety, or Advanced First Aid and Emergency Care courses.
Note: Equivalent training includes, but is not limited to, training which is equivalent to that provided by the American National Red Cross, or training required for certification as mobile intensive care paramedics as provided under chapter 2.5, article 3, sections 1480 through 1484.4 of the California Health and Safety Code; and, courses that are given by nationally recognized voluntary health organizations, official agencies, such as Mine Safety and Health Administration, or accredited teaching institutions.
(B) Emergency Medical Services. The communications, transportation and medical and related services, such as first aid, rendered in response to the individual need for immediate medical care in order to reduce or prevent suffering and disability and reduce the incidence of death.
(C) First Aid. The recognition of, and prompt care for injury or sudden illness prior to the availability of medical care by licensed health-care personnel.
(A) The State and every State agency.
(B) Each county, city, district, and all public and quasi-public corporations and public agencies therein.
(C) Every person including any public service corporation which has any natural person in service.
(D) The legal representative of any deceased employer. Excavation, Trenches, Earthwork.
(A) Bank. A mass of soil rising above a digging level.
(B) Exploration Shaft. A shaft created and used for the purpose of obtaining subsurface data.
(C) Geotechnical Specialist (GTS). A person registered by the State as a Certified Engineering Geologist, or a Registered Civil Engineer trained in soil mechanics, or an engineering geologist or civil engineer with a minimum of 3 years applicable experience working under the direct supervision of either a Certified Engineering Geologist or Registered Civil Engineer.
(D) Hard Compact (as it applies to section 1542). All earth material not classified as running soil.
(E) Lagging. Boards which are joined, side-by-side, lining an excavation.
(F) Running Soil (as it applies to section 1542). Earth material where the angle of repose is approximately zero, as in the case of soil in a nearly liquid state, or dry, unpacked sand which flows freely under slight pressure. Running material also includes loose or disturbed earth that can only be contained with solid sheeting.
(G) Shaft. An excavation under the earth's surface in which the depth, is much greater than its cross-sectional dimensions such as those formed to serve as wells, cesspools, certain foundation footings, and under streets, railroads, buildings, etc.
Exhaust Retrofit. An emission control device installed on a vehicle after the vehicle's manufacture, including, but not limited to, modified or added sections of exhaust pipe that connects the emission control device to the engine.
Exit. Exit is a continuous and unobstructed means of egress to a public way, and shall include intervening doors, doorways, corridors, exterior exit balconies, ramps, stairways, smoke-proof enclosures, horizontal exits, exit passageways, exit courts, and yards.
Failure. Load refusal, breakage, or separation of component parts. Load refusal is the point where the ultimate strength is exceeded.
Falsework and Shoring for Concrete Construction. Temporary formwork and vertical shoring, etc., to support concrete and placing operations for supported slabs of concrete structures.
Fire Area. An area of a building separated from the remainder of the building by construction having a fire resistance of at least 1 hour and having all communicating openings properly protected by an assembly having a fire resistance rating of at least 1 hour.
Fire Extinguishers, Portable.
(A) Portable fire extinguishers are classified for use on certain classes of fires and rated for relative extinguishing effectiveness at a temperature of plus 70 degrees Fahrenheit by nationally recognized testing laboratories. This is based upon the classification of fires and the fire-extinguishment potentials as determined by fire tests.
(B) The classification and rating system described in this standard is that used by Underwriters' Laboratories, Inc., and Underwriters' Laboratories of Canada and is based on extinguishing pre-planned fires of determined size and description as follows:
1. Class A Rating. Wood and excelsior.
2. Class B Rating. Two-inch depth n-heptane fires in square pans.
3. Class C Rating. No fire test. Agent must be a nonconductor of electricity.
4. Class D Rating. Special tests on specific combustible metal fires. Fires.
(A) Class A. Fires in ordinary combustible materials, such as wood, cloth, paper, rubber, and many plastics.
(B) Class B. Fires in flammable liquids, gases, and greases.
(C) Class C. Fires which involve energized electrical equipment where the electrical nonconductivity of the extinguishing media is of importance. (When electrical equipment is de-energized, extinguishers for Class A or B fires may be used safely.)
(D) Class D. Fires in combustible metals, such as magnesium, titanium, zirconium, sodium, and potassium.
Flammable Liquid. Any liquid having a vapor pressure not exceeding 40 pounds per square inch (absolute) at 100 °F (37.8 °C) and having a flashpoint at or below 199.4 °F (93 °C). Flammable liquids are divided into four categories as follows:
(A) Category 1 shall include liquids having flashpoints below 73.4 °F (23 °C) and having a boiling point at or below 95 °F (35 °C).
(B) Category 2 shall include liquids having flashpoints below 73.4 °F (23 °C) and having a boiling point above 95 °F (35 °C).
(C) Category 3 shall include liquids having flashpoints at or above 73.4 °F (23 °C) and at or below 140 °F (60 °C).
(D) Category 4 shall include liquids having flashpoints above 140 °F (60 °C) and at or below 199.4 °F (93 °C).
Flash point of the liquid. The temperature at which it gives off vapor sufficient to form an ignitable mixture with the air near the surface of the liquid or within the vessel used as determined by appropriate test procedure and apparatus as specified below.
(A) The flashpoint of liquids having a viscosity less than 45 Saybolt Universal Second(s) at 100 °F (37.8 °C) and a flashpoint below 175 °F (79.4 °C) shall be determined in accordance with the Standard Test Method for Flash Point by Tag Closed Cup Tester, ASTM D-56-05, which is incorporated herein by reference, or an equivalent method as defined by Section 5194 Appendix B.
(B) The flashpoints of liquids having a viscosity of 45 Saybolt Universal Second(s) or more at 175 °F (79.4 °C) or higher shall be determined in accordance with the Standard Test Methods for Flash Point by Pensky-Martens Closed Cup Tester, ASTM D-93-08, which is incorporated herein by reference, or an equivalent method as defined by Section 5194 Appendix B.
Floor Area. The area included within the surrounding exterior walls of a building or portion thereof, exclusive of vent shafts and courts. The floor area of a building, or portion thereof, not provided with surrounding exterior walls shall be the usable area under the horizontal projection of the roof or floor above.
Free Fall. The act of falling before a personal fall arrest system begins to apply force to arrest the fall.
Free Fall Distance. The vertical displacement of the fall arrest attachment point on the employee's body belt or body harness between onset of the fall and just before the system begins to apply force to arrest the fall. This distance excludes deceleration distance, and lifeline/lanyard elongation, but includes any deceleration device slide distance or self-retracting lifeline/lanyard extension before they operate and fall arrest forces occur.
Grade (Adjacent Ground Elevation). The lowest point of elevation of the finished surface of the ground, paving or sidewalk, within the area between the building and the property line, or when the property line is more than 5 feet from the building, between the building and a line 5 feet from the building.
Guardrail. (See Railing)
Guy. A line that steadies a mast or structure by pulling against an off-center load.
Handrail. A rail used to provide employees with a handhold for support. Haulage Vehicle, as used in these Orders. A self-propelled vehicle including its trailer, used to transport materials on construction projects. The term “haulage vehicle” includes trucks, truck and trailer combinations, and all other similar equipment used for haulage.
Hazardous Substance. One which by reason of being explosive, flammable, extremely flammable, poisonous, corrosive, oxidizing, irritant, or otherwise harmful is likely to cause injury.
Helicopter. A rotary wing aircraft which depends principally for its support and motion in the air upon the lift generated by one or more power-driven rotors, rotating on substantially vertical axes. It can hover, fly backward and sideways, in addition to forward flight. (The following definitions (A) through (K) apply to helicopter operations only.):
(A) Automatic Release Device. A mechanism for releasing the load without deliberate action by the pilot or crewmen.
(B) Dangerous Materials. Explosives, flammables, oxidizing materials, corrosive liquids, compressed gases, poisons, radioactive materials, or a combination of other materials which could produce dangerous material.
(C) Dust Control. The control of dust by use of water or other materials.
(D) Emergency. Human lifesaving or protective operation.
(E) External Load (Helicopter). A cargo which is not contained wholly within the fuselage of the aircraft.
(F) Ground Crew (Helicopter). Those employees not on board the helicopter who are directly involved with helicopter operations.
(G) Heliport. An area used for regular helicopter landings and takeoffs.
(H) Line Stringing Operation (Helicopter). The placing of any line (power, communication, or other line, including the pulling line) between two or more points by pulling it with an airborne helicopter. This does not include towers, poles, or coiled lines transported as a unit.
(I) Passenger (Helicopter). A person to be transported who is not a member of the helicopter crew.
(J) Practicable. Means capable of being accomplished by reasonably available and workable means.
(K) Sling Load (Helicopter). An external load carried below or partly below the level of the landing gear.
Hole. Any opening in a floor or platform, which is smaller than an opening.
Jacking Operation. The task of lifting a slab (or group of slabs) vertically from one location to another (e.g., from the casting location to a temporary (parked) location, or from a temporary location to another temporary location, or to its final location in the structure), during the construction of a building/structure where the lift-slab process is being used.
Jobsite vehicle. A vehicle which is operated on a jobsite exclusively and is excluded from the provisions of applicable traffic and vehicular codes, and haulage and earthmoving vehicles regulated by the provisions of Article 10 of these Orders.
(A) Ladder. A device other than a ramp or stairway, designed for use in ascending or descending at an angle with the horizontal. A ladder is intended to be stationary while in service and consists of two side pieces called siderails, joined at short intervals by crosspieces called steps, rungs or cleats.
(B) Ladder, Double Cleat. A ladder that is similar to a single cleat ladder, but is wider, with an additional center rail which will allow for two-way traffic for workers in ascending and descending.
(C) Ladder, Extension. A ladder consisting of two or more sections, with guides or brackets so arranged that the ladder may be adjusted to different lengths by sliding and locking the movable section or sections.
(D) Ladder, Extension Trestle. A ladder consisting of an “A” or trestle ladder with an additional single ladder, which is supported in a vertical position by the “A” ladder.
(E) Ladder, Fixed. A ladder permanently fastened to a structure.
(F) Ladder, Jacob's ladder. A ladder having rigid rungs suspended between two vertical chain or wire rope stringers, instead of the rigid side rails used on fixed or portable ladders.
(G) Ladder, Job-built. A ladder that is fabricated by employees, typically at the construction site, and is not commercially manufactured.
(H) Ladder, Portable. A ladder, not permanently fixed in place, which may be used at various locations.
(I) Ladder, Single-rail. A portable ladder with rungs, cleats, or steps mounted on a single rail instead of the normal two rails used on most other ladders.
(J) Ladder, Steps. Either rungs, treads, or cleats.
(K) Ladder, Stepladder. A ladder having treads and so constructed as to be self-supporting.
(L) Ladder, Step stool. A self-supporting, collapsible, portable ladder, nonadjustable in length, 32 inches or less in overall size, with flat steps and without a pail shelf, designed to be climbed on the ladder top cap as well as all steps. The rails may continue above the top cap.
(M) Ladder, Trestle or “A.” A ladder consisting of two special, single ladders hinged together at the top to form equal angles with the surface on which they stand.
Lanyard. A flexible line to secure a wearer of a safety belt or harness to a drop line, lifeline, or fixed anchorage.
Leading Edge. The edge of a floor, roof, or formwork for a floor or other walking/working surface (such as the deck) which changes location as additional floor, roof, decking, or formwork sections are placed, formed, or constructed. A leading edge is considered to be an “unprotected side and edge” during periods when it is not actively and continuously under construction.
Lifeline. A horizontal line (i.e. catenary line) between two fixed anchorages, independent of the work surface, to which the lanyard is secured either by tying off or by means of a suitable sliding connection. For the purposes of these orders, lifelines may be vertical as well as horizontal (i.e. when used with a body harness).
Lift-Slab. An operation whereby a concrete slab is lifted into an elevated position by means of jacks located above the slab on columns or other supporting members.
Limited Access Zone. An area alongside a masonry wall which is under construction and which is clearly demarcated to limit access by employees.
Linemen's Body Belt. A leather or web (cotton or nylon) belt designed specifically for employees working on poles. It consists of a waist belt, generally cushioned, with a front buckle, two D rings for attaching safety straps and a multiple-looped strap for holding, rings, snaphooks, holsters and other tool holding devices.
Liquid. As applied to flammable and combustible liquids means any material which has a fluidity greater than that of 300 penetration asphalt when tested in accordance with ASTM Test for Penetration for Bituminous Materials, D-5-7.1.
Loading Device. A mobile mechanical-powered machine of the skip loader type used for picking up materials and loading or dumping them into haulage vehicles, bins, or hoppers, excluding boom-type excavators and endless belt or chain conveyors.
Lower Levels. Those areas or surfaces to which an employee can fall. Such areas or surfaces include, but are not limited to, ground levels, floors, platforms, ramps, runways, excavations, pits, tanks, material, water, equipment, structures, or portions thereof.
(A) Douglas Fir or Equivalent. “Selected lumber” or other suitable material of proper size, having strength at least equal to the specified Douglas fir members.
(B) “Selected Lumber.” Douglas fir that has been graded under standards as high as those followed by the West Coast Lumber Inspection Bureau or by the Western Wood Products Association as suitable for a bending stress of 1,500 psi.
(C) “Structural Plank.”
1. Douglas fir graded for scaffold plank use and which has an allowable bending stress of at least 2,200 pounds per square inch (psi). Select structural scaffold plank, as described in Paragraph 171-b of the January 1, 2000 Standard Grading Rules No. 17, published by the West Coast Lumber Inspection Bureau and Scaffold No. 2 as described in Paragraph 58.12 of the 1998 Edition of the Western Lumber Grading Rules published by the Western Wood Products Association, satisfy this definition.
2. Southern Pine graded for scaffold plank use that meets the Standard Grading Rules for Southern Pine, effective July 1, 2002, Section 501 for Dense Industrial 72 Scaffold Plank and Section 502 for Dense Industrial 65 Scaffold Plank.
3. Other solid sawn wood planking graded as a scaffold plank that meets the scaffold plank grading rules of an agency approved by the American Lumber Standards Committee for the species of wood used.
(D) Size. Unless otherwise stated, the lumber sizes referred to in these Orders mean nominal sizes and thus include both the rough and dressed members of those nominal sizes.
Mast Tower. A single vertical member on which a cantilevered platform, suitable for carrying material, may be moved up and down.
Material Hoist. A hoist for raising and lowering materials only, with the hoisting of persons being prohibited.
(A) Cage. The load-carrying unit, consisting of a platform and enclosure, and including a top as well as walls.
(B) Cantilevered Hoist Tower. A hoist tower in which the platform, cage, or bucket travels on guide rails that are generally an integral part of the vertical tower member(s) and in a vertical plane, outboard from the tower member.
(C) Equivalent. An alternate design, feature, device, or protective action which provides an equal degree of safety.
(D) Hoistway. A shaft way for the travel of one or more platforms, cages, or buckets. It includes the pit and terminates at the underside of the beam at the top of the tower or structure.
(E) Inside Hoists. Hoistways contained entirely within the building being served, which sometimes use the building structure itself for the support of the top beams, guide rails, and appurtenant parts necessary for the proper functioning of the platform.
(F) Load. The total superimposed weight on the hoist platform or bucket.
(G) Platform. The load-carrying unit, including the frame, which directly supports the load.
(H) Rated Load. The maximum load for which the material hoist is designed and built by the manufacturer and which is shown on the equipment nameplate(s).
(I) Rated Speed. The speed at which the platform, cage, or bucket is designed to operate in the up direction with a rated load in or on the load-carrying unit.
(J) Rope. Refers to wire rope only.
(K) Tower. The primary structure which forms the hoistway for the travel of the platform, cage, or bucket, and which provides the support for the top beams, guide rails, and other appurtenant parts necessary for the operation of such units.
Mechanical Equipment. All motor or human propelled wheeled equipment used for roofing work, except wheelbarrows and mopcarts.
Midrail. A rail approximately midway between the top rail and platform, that is secured to the uprights erected along the exposed sides and ends of platforms.
Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratory (NRTL). A laboratory which has been recognized by the Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) as meeting the requirements of 29 CFR 1910.7.
O.D. O.D. means optical density and refers to the light refractive characteristics of a lens.
Opening. An opening in any floor or platform, 12 inches or more in the least horizontal dimension. It includes: stairway floor openings, ladderway floor openings, hatchways and chute floor openings.
Personal Fall Arrest System. A system used to arrest an employee in a fall from a working level. It consists of an anchorage, connectors, a body belt or body harness and may include a lanyard, deceleration device, lifeline, or suitable combinations of these. As of January 1, 1998, the use of a body belt for fall arrest is prohibited.
Personal Fall Restraint System. A system used to prevent an employee from falling. It consists of anchorages, connectors, body belt/harness. It may include, lanyards, lifelines, and rope grabs designed for that purpose.
Personal Fall Protection System. A personal fall protection system includes personal fall arrest systems, positioning device systems, fall restraint systems, safety nets and guardrails.
Personal Protective Equipment. Protection where modified by the words head, eye, body, hand, and foot, as required by the Orders in Subchapter 4, means the safeguarding obtained by means of safety devices and safeguards of the proper type for the exposure, and of such design, strength, and quality as to eliminate, preclude, or mitigate the hazard.
Note: See “approved.”
Personnel Hoist. A mechanism for use in connection with the construction, alteration, maintenance, or demolition of a building structure, or other work. It is used for hoisting and lowering workers or materials, or both, is equipped with a car that moves on guide members during its vertical movement, and includes its hoistway.
(A) Buffer. A device used on construction elevators designed to stop a descending car or counterweight beyond its normal limit of travel by storing or by absorbing and dissipating the kinetic energy of the car or counterweight.
1. Buffer, Hydraulic. A buffer using fluid as a medium which absorbs and dissipates the kinetic energy of the descending car or counterweight.
2. Buffer Stroke, Hydraulic. The fluid-displacing movement of the buffer plunger or piston, excluding the travel of the buffer-plunger accelerating device.
3. Spring Buffer. A buffer which stores in a spring the kinetic energy of the descending car or counterweight.
4. Spring-Buffer Load Rating. The load required to compress the spring an amount equal to its stroke.
5. Spring-Buffer Stroke. The distance the contact end of the spring can move under a compressive load until all coils are essentially in contact.
(B) Car (Cage).
1. Hoist Car. The load-carrying unit including its platform, car frame, enclosure, and car door or gate.
2. Car Door or Gate Electric Contact. An electrical device, the function of which is to prevent operation of the driving machine by the normal operating device unless the car door or gate is in the closed position.
3. Car Enclosure. The top and the walls of the car resting on, and attached to, the car platform.
4. Car Frame (Sling). The supporting frame to which the car platform, upper and lower sets of guide shoes, car safety, and the hoisting ropes or hoisting rope sheaves or other lifting mechanism are attached.
5. Car Platform. The structure which forms the floor of the car and which directly supports the load.
(C) Clearance.
1. Bottom Car Clearance. The clear vertical distance from the pit floor (ground or foundation) to the lowest structural or mechanical part, equipment, or device installed beneath the car platform, except guide shoes or rollers, safety-jaw assemblies, and platform aprons or guards, when the car rests on its fully compressed buffers.
2. Top Car Clearance. The shortest vertical distance between the top of the car crosshead, or between the top of the car where no crosshead is provided, and the nearest part of the overhead structure, or any other obstruction, when the car floor is level with the top terminal landing.
3. Top Counterweight Clearance. The shortest vertical distance between any part of the counterweight structure and the nearest part of the overhead structure, or any other obstruction, when the car floor is level with the bottom terminal landing.
(D) Door or Gate.
1. Car or Hoistway Door Gate. The sliding portion of the car or the hinged or sliding portion in the hoistway enclosure which closes the opening, giving access to the car or to the landing.
2. Biparting Door. A vertically or horizontally sliding door consisting of two or more sections so arranged that the sections or groups of sections open away from each other and so interconnected that all sections operate simultaneously.
3. Manually Operated Door or Gate. A door or gate which is opened and closed by hand.
(E) Emergency Stop Switch. A device located in the car which, when manually operated, causes the power to be removed from the driving-machine motor, thereby causing the brake to be applied.
(F) Guide Members. Fixed vertical steel sections designed to prevent lateral movement of the car. Guide members may be standard elevator T-rails or other suitable sections.
(G) Guide Shoes or Rollers. Devices attached to the car frame or counterweight which cause the car to be guided by the guide members.
(H) Hoistway. A temporary shaftway; the space traveled by the car.
1. Hoistway Enclosure. The structure which isolates the hoistway from all other parts of the building and on which the hoistway doors or gates, and door or gate assemblies, are installed.
2. Hoistway-Door or Gate Interlock. A device having the following two related and interdependent functions which are:
a. Preventing the operation of the driving machine by the normal operating device unless the hoistway door or gate is locked in the closed position and,
b. Preventing the opening of the hoistway door or gate from the landing side unless the car is within the landing zone and is either stopped or being stopped.
3. Car Door or Gate Separate Mechanical Lock. A mechanical device, the function of which is to lock a car door or gate in the closed position as the car leaves the receiving landing and to prevent the door or gate from being opened unless the car is within the landing zone.
4. Hoistway Unit System. A series of hoistway-door or gate interlocks, the function of which is to prevent operation of the driving machine by the normal operating device unless all hoistway doors or gates are in the closed position and locked.
(I) Landing.
1. Hoist Landing. That portion of a floor, balcony, or platform used to receive and discharge passengers or material.
2. Electric Driving Machine. A machine whose energy is applied by an electric motor.
3. Geared-Drive Machine. A direct-drive machine in which the energy is transmitted from the motor to the driving sheave, drum, or shaft through gearing.
4. Gearless Traction Machine. A traction machine without intermediate gearing, which has the traction sheave and the brake drum mounted directly on the motor shaft.
5. Rack and Pinion Machine. A machine in which the motion of a car is obtained by a power-driven rotating pinion, or pinions, mounted on the car, traveling on a stationary rack mounted on the supporting mast (tower).
6. Traction Machine. A machine in which the motion of a car is obtained through friction between the suspension ropes and a traction sheave.
7. Winding-Drum Machine. A geared-drive machine in which the hoisting ropes are fastened to, and wind on, a drum.
8. Worm-Geared Machine. A direct-drive machine in which the energy from the motor is transmitted to the driving sheave or drum through worm gearing.
(K) Mast (Tower). A vertical structure which supports and guides the cart (and the counterweight and overhead when used) outside of the mast structure.
(L) Operating Device. The car switch, push button, lever, or other manual device used to actuate the control.
(M) Operation. The method of actuating the control.
1. Car-Switch Operation. An operation wherein the movement and direction of travel of the car are directly and solely under the control of the operator by means of a manually operated car switch in the car.
(N) Overhead Structure (Cathead). All of the structural members or platforms supporting the hoist machinery, sheaves, or equipment at the top of the hoistway.
(O) Oxygen Deficient Atmosphere. An atmosphere containing oxygen at a concentration of less than 19.5 percent by volume.
(P) Pit. That portion of a hoistway extending from the threshold level of the lowest landing door to the floor (ground or foundation) at the bottom of the hoistway.
(Q) Rated Load. The load for which the hoist is designed and installed to lift at the rated speed.
(R) Rated Speed. The speed in the up direction, with rated load in the car, at which a hoist is designed to operate.
(S) Rope. Hoist wire ropes, governor wire ropes, and compensating wire ropes.
(T) Runby.
1. Bottom Hoist-Car Runby. The distance between the car-buffer striker plate and the striking surface of the car buffer when the car floor is level with the bottom terminal landing.
2. Bottom Hoist-Counterweight Runby. The distance between the counterweight-buffer striker plate and the striking surface of the counterweight buffer when the car floor is level with the top terminal landing.
(U) Safety, Car or Counterweight. A mechanical device attached to the car frame or to an auxiliary frame, or to the counterweight frame, to stop and hold the car or counterweight in case of predetermined over-speed or free fall, or if the hoisting ropes slacken.
(V) Slack-Rope Switch. A device which automatically causes the power to be removed from the hoist driving-machine motor and applies the brake when the hoisting ropes of a winding-drum machine become slack.
(W) Stopping Device.
1. Terminal Speed-Limiting Device. A device which automatically reduces the speed as a car approaches a terminal landing, independently of the functioning of the operating device and the normal-terminal stopping device, if these devices fail to slow down the car as intended.
2. Final-Terminal Stopping Device. A device which automatically causes the power to be removed from a hoist driving-machine motor and applies the brake independent of the functioning of the normal-terminal stopping device, the operating device, or an emergency terminal stopping device, after the car has passed terminal landings.
3. Normal-Terminal Stopping Device. A device or devices to slow down and stop a hoist car automatically at or near a terminal landing, independently of the functioning of the operating device.
(X) Tower. A vertical structure which supports and guides the car (and the counterweight and overhead when used) within the tower structure.
(Y) Travel (Rise). The vertical distance between the bottom terminal landing and the top terminal landing of a hoist.
Platform. An elevated working area or surface used for supporting workers, materials and equipment.
Powder-Actual Tools.
(A) Cased Power Load. A power load with the propellant contained in a closed case.
(B) Caseless Power Load. A power load with the propellant in solid form not requiring containment.
(C) To Chamber. To fit the chamber exactly without force.
(D) Fasteners. Any pins (unthreaded heads) or studs (threaded heads) driven by powder-actuated tools.
(E) Fixture. A special shield which provides equivalent protection where the standard shield cannot be used.
(F) Head. That portion of a fastener which extends above the work surface after being properly driven.
(G) High-Velocity Tool. A tool whose velocity has been measured 10 times while utilizing the combination of:
(1) The lightest commercially available fastener designed for the tool.
(2) The strongest commercially available power load that will properly chamber in the tool that will produce an average velocity from the 10 tests in excess of 492 feet per second (150m/s).
(H) Medium-Velocity Tool. A tool whose test velocity has been measured 10 times while utilizing the highest velocity combination of:
(1) The lightest commercially available fastener designed for the tool.
(2) The strongest commercially available power load that will properly chamber in the tool.
(3) The piston designed for that tool and appropriate for that fastener that will produce an average test velocity from 10 tests in excess of 328 feet per second (100m/s) but not in excess of 492 feet per second (150m/s) with no single test having a velocity of 525 feet per second (160m/s).
(I) Low-Velocity Tool. A tool whose test velocity has been measured 10 times while utilizing the highest velocity combination of:
(1) The lightest commercially available fastener designed for the specific tool.
(2) The strongest commercially available power load that will properly chamber in the tool.
(3) The piston designed for that tool and appropriate for that fastener that will produce an average test velocity from the 10 tests not in excess of 328 feet per second (100m/s) with no single test having a velocity of over 354 feet per second (108m/s).
(J) Misfire. A condition in which the power load fails to ignite after the tool has been operated.
(K) Pole Tool Assembly. An attachment to a powder-actuated tool to facilitate remote operation.
(L) Powder-Actuated Fastening System. A fastening system using a powder-actuated tool, a power load and a fastener.
(M) Powder-Actuated Tool, also known as Tool. A tool that utilizes the expanding gases from a power load to drive a fastener.
(N) Power Load. The energy source used in powder-actuated tools.
(O) Shield. A device, attached to the muzzle end of a tool, which is designed to confine flying particles.
(P) Spalled Area. A damaged and nonuniform concrete or masonry surface, such as one damaged by a blow or a previously unsuccessful fastening.
(Q) Valid Operator's Card. A card issued by a qualified and authorized instructor which certifies the holder of the card has been trained in the proper operation of and is currently authorized to use the tool or tools specified on such card.
Precast Concrete. Concrete members (such as walls, panels, slabs, columns, and beams) which have been formed, cast, and cured prior to final placement in a structure.
Positioning Device System. A body belt or body harness system rigged to allow an employee to be supported on an elevated surface, such as a wall, and work with both hands free while leaning.
Qualified Person, Attendant or Operator. A person designated by the employer who by reason of training, experience or instruction has demonstrated the ability to safely perform all assigned duties and, when required, is properly licensed in accordance with federal, state, or local laws and regulations.
Radiant Energy. Energy that travels outward in all directions from its source.
Railing. A barrier consisting of a top rail and a midrail secured to uprights and erected along the exposed sides and ends of platforms.
Ramp. A surfaced sloping passageway connecting two different levels.
Readily Available. Means in a location with no obstacles to prevent immediate acquisition for use.
Reeving. A rope system in which the rope travels around drums and sheaves.
Reshoring. The construction operation in which shoring equipment (also called reshores or reshoring equipment) is placed, as the original forms and shores are removed, in order to support partially cured concrete and construction loads.
Roofing (or Bearer) Bracket. A bracket used in slope roof construction, having provisions for fastening over the ridge and secured to some suitable object.
Rope. Refers to wire rope unless otherwise specified.
Rope Grab. A deceleration device which travels on a lifeline and automatically, by friction, engages the lifeline and locks so as to arrest the fall of an employee. A rope grab usually employs the principle of inertial locking, cam/level locking, or both.
ROPS. ROPS means roll-over protective structure.
Runway. An elevated passageway.
S.A.E. S.A.E. means Society of Automotive Engineers.
Safety Belt or Harness. A device specifically for the purpose of securing, suspending, or retrieving a worker in or from a hazardous work area.
Safety Factor. Ratio of the ultimate breaking strength of a member or piece of material or equipment to the actual working stress or safe load when in use.
Safety Line. One that is provided to protect a worker from falls caused by failure of scaffolds, working platforms, or loss of balance, and shall extend to within 4 feet of ground or other stable surface.
Safety-Monitoring System. A safety system in which a competent person is responsible for recognizing and warning employees of fall hazards.
Self-Retracting Lifeline/Lanyard. A deceleration device containing a drum-wound line which can be slowly extracted from, or retracted onto, the drum under slight tension during normal employee movement, and which, after onset of a fall, automatically locks the drum and arrests the fall.
Safety Strap. A web strap designed specifically for use in conjunction with a linemen's belt as an aid in climbing poles and to secure the employee to the pole in a manner that permits work with both hands.
Scaffolds and Staging.
(A) Scaffold. Any temporary, elevated structure used for the support of a platform.
Note: The term “scaffold” is used with inclusion of the platform and all supporting members when reference is made to loading factors.
(B) Scaffold, Engineered. Scaffold designed by a Civil Engineer currently registered in the State of California and experienced in scaffold design.
(C) Scaffold, Light-Duty. A scaffold designed and constructed to carry a working load of 25 pounds per square foot of scaffold platform, including weight of materials and workers on the platform.
Note: Load requirements for light-duty interior scaffolds are contained in Section 1640(c)(1).
(D) Scaffold, Medium-Duty. A scaffold designed and constructed to carry a working load of 50 pounds per square foot of scaffold platform, including weight of materials and workers on the platform.
(E) Scaffold, Heavy-Duty. A scaffold designed and constructed to carry a working load of 75 pounds per square foot of scaffold platform, including weight of materials and workers on the platform.
(F) Scaffold, Special-Duty. A scaffold designed and constructed to carry a working load that exceeds 75 pounds per square foot of scaffold platform, including weight of materials and workers on the platform.
(G) Ledger. The horizontal member of a scaffold that runs at right angles to the wall and directly supports the planking of the platform.
(H) Ribbon. The horizontal member in a scaffold which runs from upright to upright parallel to the building and is normally placed directly under the ledger.
(I) Uprights. The vertical members of a pole scaffold, such as posts, poles, or columns.
(J) Scaffold, Outrigger. A scaffold not suspended by ropes, that is supported by outrigger beams cantilevered out from the structure to which they are anchored.
(K) Scaffold, Suspended. A scaffold suspended from above by ropes or cables and rigged with pulley blocks, winches, or equivalent, so that the scaffold elevation is easily adjustable.
(L) Scaffold, Suspended, Power-Driven. Any suspended scaffold equipped with 1 or more power units for raising or lowering that are a part of and travel with the scaffold.
(M) Thrust-Out. The beam extending out from a structure to support a suspended scaffold.
(N) Stud Jack. A scaffold device of metal with saw-like teeth that grip the stud when the load is applied, and having a cantilevered ledger for the support of a working platform.
(O) Catenary or Stretch Cables. Cables for the support of staging, that are secured at each end and extend in a nearly horizontal plane. The staging is placed on and supported by these cables.
(P) Boatswain's Chair. A seat which may be raised or lowered by means of attached rigging which suspends it and the seated worker from above.
(Q) Working Load. Load imposed by workers, materials and equipment.
(R) Brace. A tie that holds one scaffold member in a fixed position with respect to another.
(S) Coupler. A device for locking together the component parts of a tubular metal scaffold. (The material used for the couplers shall be of a structural type, such as drop-forged steel, malleable iron, or structural grade aluminum.)
(T) Maximum Rated Load. The total of all loads including the working load, the weight of the scaffold, and such other loads that may be reasonably anticipated.
(U) Scaffold, Bricklayer's Square. A scaffold composed of framed wood squares which support a platform.
(V) Scaffold, Carpenter's Bracket. A scaffold consisting of wood or metal brackets that support a platform.
(W) Scaffold, Float. A scaffold hung from overhead supports by means of ropes and usually consisting of a ¾ -inch plywood platform supported by 2 securely fastened bearers.
(X) Scaffold, Horse. A scaffold composed of horses supporting a work platform.
(Y) Scaffold, Interior Hung. A scaffold suspended from the ceiling or roof structure.
(Z) Scaffold, Ladder Jack. A light trade scaffold supported by brackets attached to ladders.
(AA) Scaffold, Manually Propelled Mobile. (See Rolling Scaffold.)
(BB) Scaffold, Needle Beam. (See Outrigger Scaffold.)
(CC) Scaffold, Pole. A scaffold built of one or two rows of vertical members, horizontal ledgers, platform planks, ribbons and braces.
(DD) Scaffold, Rolling. A portable rolling scaffold supported by caster wheels.
(EE) Scaffold, Tube and Coupler. An assembly consisting of tubing which serves as posts, ledgers, ribbons, ties and braces, a base supporting the posts, and special couplers which serve to connect the uprights and to join the various members.
(FF) Scaffold, Tubular Welded Frame. A sectional panel or frame metal scaffold substantially built-up of prefabricated, welded sections which consist of posts and horizontal ledgers with intermediate members.
(GG) Scaffold, Window Jack. A scaffold, the platform of which is supported by a bracket or jack which projects through a window opening.
(HH) Scaffold, Wooden Pole. A scaffold built of one or two rows of vertical members (uprights), horizontal ledgers, platform planks, ribbons and braces. A single pole scaffold consists of one row of uprights and a double pole scaffold consists of two rows of uprights.
Shall. Mandatory.
Sheet Pile. A pile, or sheeting, that may form one of a continuous interlocking line, or a row of timber, concrete, or steel piles, driven in close contact to provide a tight wall to resist the lateral pressure of water, adjacent earth, or other materials.
Shore. A supporting member that resists a compressive force imposed by a load.
Should. Recommended.
Side Pull or Side Loading. A load applied at any angle to the vertical plane of the boom.
Single-User Toilet Facility. A toilet facility with a locking mechanism, controlled by the user, with one toilet, or one toilet and one urinal.
Skip. A container with sides in which materials are hoisted.
Snaphook. A connector comprised of a hook-shaped member with a normally closed keeper, or similar arrangement, which may be opened to permit the hook to receive an object and, when released, automatically closes to retain the object.
Stairs, Stairways. A series of steps and landings having 2 or more risers leading from one level or floor to another.
Standard. Standard as referred to ladders, ROPS, railings, etc., means as described elsewhere in the Orders, ultimately based upon standards established by ANSI, SAE, engineers competent in specialized fields, equipment manufacturers and other duly recognized authorities.
Standing Rope (Guy). A supporting rope which maintains a constant distance between the points of attachment to the two components connected by the rope.
Story. That portion of a building included between the upper surface of any floor and the upper surface of the floor next above, except that the topmost story shall be that portion of a building included between the upper surface of the topmost floor and the ceiling or roof above. If the finished floor level directly above a basement, cellar or unused underfloor space is more than 6 feet above grade as defined herein for more than 50 percent of the total perimeter or is more than 12 feet above grade as defined herein at any point, such basement, cellar or unused underfloor space shall be considered as a story.
Structural Competence. The ability of the machine and its components to withstand the stresses imposed by applied loads.
Structure. That which is built or constructed, an edifice or building of any kind, or any piece of work artificially built up or composed of parts joined together in some definite manner.
Toeboard. A barrier secured along the sides and ends of a platform at the platform level used to guard against the falling of material.
Trench Jack. Screw, pneumatic or hydraulic type jacks used as cross bracing in a trench shoring system.
Trench Shield. A shoring system composed of plates and bracing, welded or bolted together, which can safely support the walls of a trench from the ground level to the trench bottom and which can be moved along as work progresses.
Unprotected Sides and Edges. Any side or edge (except at entrances to points of access) of a walking/working surface, e.g., floor, roof, ramp, or runway where there is no wall or standard guardrail or protection provided.
Vertical Slip Forms. Forms which are jacked vertically during placement of concrete.
Wall opening. A gap or void 30 inches or more high and 18 inches or more wide, in a wall or partition, through which employees can fall to a lower level.


Note: Authority cited: Section 142.3, Labor Code. Reference: Section 142.3, Labor Code.
1. Amendment filed 2-15-90; operative 3-17-90 (Register 90, No. 8). For prior history, see Register 87, No. 24.
2. Amendment of subsection (a) filed 10-22-90; operative 11-21-90 (Register 90, No. 48).
3. Amendment of section adding definition for “Competent Person” and amending subsections under Excavation, Trenches, and Earthwork filed 8-26-91; operative 9-25-91 (Register 92, No. 13).
4. Addition of “Handrail,” new subsections (D), (E) and (I) and relettering under Ladders filed 6-1-92; operative 7-1-92 (Register 92, No. 23).
5. New definition “Jacking Operation” filed 8-11-92; operative 9-10-92 (Register 92, No. 33).
6. Amendment of “Qualified Person” definition filed 5-22-95; operative 6-21-95 (Register 95, No. 21).
7. Amendment of definition of “Explosives” filed 6-26-97; operative 7-26-97 (Register 97, No. 26).
8. Amendment of “Lifeline” and adoption of twenty-five new definitions filed 7-30-97; operative 8-29-97 (Register 97, No. 31).
9. Amendment of definition of “Lumber” filed 6-19-2001; operative 7-19-2001 (Register 2001, No. 25).
10. Amendment of definition of “scaffolds and staging” repealing subsections (B) and (C), adding new subsection (B), relettering subsections and amending newly designated subsections (C)-(F), (P) and (DD) filed 7-11-2003; operative 8-10-2003 (Register 2003, No. 28).
11. Amendment of subsection (a) and repealer of definition “Explosives” filed 7-11-2003; operative 8-10-2003 (Register 2003, No. 28).
12. New definition of “Jobsite vehicle” filed 3-5-2008; operative 4-4-2008 (Register 2008, No. 10).
13. Amendment of definition of “Lumber” redesignating subsection (C) as subsection (C)1. and adopting subsections (C)2.-3. filed 11-2-2010; operative 12-2-2010 (Register 2010, No. 45).
14. Amendment of definition of “Ladders” filed 8-5-2011; operative 9-4-2011 (Register 2011, No. 31).
15. Editorial correction of definitions of “Combustible Liquid” and “Flammable Liquid” (Register 2011, No. 32).
16. New definition of “Certified Safety Professional or CSP” filed 8-29-2011; operative 9-28-2011 (Register 2011, No. 35).
17. New definition of “Exhaust retrofit” filed 2-1-2012; operative 3-2-2012 (Register 2012, No. 5).
18. Amendment of definitions of “Combustible Liquid” and “Flammable Liquid” and new definitions of “Fire Area” and “Flash point of the liquid” filed 5-5-2014; operative 5-6-2014 pursuant to Government Code section 11343.4(b)(3) (Register 2014, No. 19).
19. New definition of “Single-User Toilet Facility” filed 3-3-2020; operative 7-1-2020 (Register 2020, No. 10).
20. New definition of “Dedicated Pile Driver” filed 7-26-2022; operative 7-26-2022 pursuant to Government Code section 11343.4(b)(3) (Register 2022, No. 30). Filing deadline specified in Government Code section 11349.3(a) extended 60 calendar days pursuant to Executive Order N-40-20 and an additional 60 calendar days pursuant to Executive Order N-71-20.

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