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Subchapter 20. Tunnel Safety Orders
Article 19. Shafts and Hoisting Systems
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§8494. Ladders and Ladderways in Shafts and Inclines.

(a) General.

(1) Two safe means of access and egress shall be provided for all shafts and inclines. If a ladderway is used as one of the means of access, it may terminate above the shaft bottom provided chain, wire, rope or wooden extension ladders extend the remaining distance.

Note: Ramps for inclinations of 0 degrees to 20 degrees Stairways for inclinations of 20 degrees to 45 degrees Ladders for inclinations of 35 degrees to 90 degrees.

(2) No shaft or incline used for hoisting shall have the center line of the ladder width closer than 36 inches from any part of the moving skip, cage or bucket. Unless the ladderway is in a separate, closed compartment, it shall be used only in emergency or occasional service.

(3) All ladders shall be of such design, material and construction that they will safely support all normal loads imposed upon them.

(4) Every ladderway more than 30 feet in length shall have an enclosed manway with platforms at intervals not exceeding 20 feet or a ladder cage. In all vertical shafts and where practicable in incline shafts (more than 60 degrees), the sections of the ladders shall be staggered at each platform so that no section shall be directly in line with the section above or below it.

(5) All outside edges of platforms shall be protected by standard guard railings.

(6) Ladders shall project at least 3 feet 6 inches above every platform and the collar of the shaft, unless convenient and secure hand holds are fixed at such places.

(7) All ladders shall be securely fastened.

(8) Under no circumstances shall any ladder be installed inclining backward from the vertical.

(9) Ladderways and platforms shall be kept clear of loose rock and obstructions.

Note: Authority cited: Sections 142.3 and 7997, Labor Code. Reference: Sections 142.3 and 7997, Labor Code.


1. Repealer of section heading and section, renumbering and amendment of former section 8497 to section 8494 and new Note filed 3-5-96; operative 4-4-96 (Register 96, No. 10).

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