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Subchapter 18. Ship Building, Ship Repairing and Ship Breaking Safety Orders
Article 5. Scaffold Construction

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§8364. Built-Up Staging. Painters' Exterior Suspended Staging (for use of painters only).

(a) Scaffold platforms shall be at least 14 inches wide, consisting of a stage ladder, as specified in the following table: two, 2x10-inch or 2x12-inch "Structural Planks" edge to edge or one 2x14-inch dressed "Structural Plank"; or a beam-type platform consisting of longitudinal side stringers with cross beams set on edge and spaced not more than 4 feet apart on which longitudinal platform planks are laid, free from damage affecting their strength are laid. Scaffolds shall be limited to a maximum width of 20 inches for the ladder-type (between side rails), and 24 inches for the plank and beam-types. The span between stirrups, hangers or falls shall not be more than 10 feet on plank-type platforms, and not more than 16 feet on beam-type platforms. Where double planks are used side by side on suspended scaffolds, as specified above, they shall be firmly cleated together so as to act as a unit.

(b)(1) Each end of the scaffold platform shall be supported by a wrought iron or mild steel stirrup or hangar, which in turn is supported by the suspension ropes.

(2) Stirrups shall be constructed so as to be equivalent in strength to wrought iron three-fourths inches in diameter.

(3) The stirrups shall be formed with a horizontal bottom member to support the platform, shall be provided with means to support the guardrail and midrail, and shall have a loop or eye at the top for securing the supporting hook on the block.

(c)(1) The staging shall be fastened to prevent abnormal sway, and all parts of such staging shall be of sufficient strength to safely support all anticipated loads.

(2) Only one employee shall be allowed to each fall or hanger. Ordinary extension ladders shall not be used as stage ladders. The overhang of the scaffold staging shall be not less than 6 inches nor more than 18 inches.

(d) Swinging or Stage Ladders:



          SPECIFICATIONS FOR SIDE RAILS OF LADDERS


                              CROSS SECTION (IN INCHES)         
LENGTH IN FEET              AT ENDS               AT CENTER
15....................... 1 7/8 x 2 3/4         1 7/8 x 3 3/4
16....................... 1 7/8 x 2 3/4         1 7/8 x 3 3/4
18....................... 1 7/8 x 3             1 7/8 x 4
20....................... 1 7/8 x 3             1 7/8 x 4
24....................... 1 7/8 x 3             1 7/8 x 4 1/2

Swinging or stage ladders used for suspended staging shall be reinforced with five-sixteenths-inch rods spaced at least every 5 feet to prevent side rails from spreading. The rungs shall be of straight-grained oak, ash, or hickory, not less than 1 1/8 inches diameter, with 7/8-inch tenons mortised into the side rails not less than 7/8-inch and shall be spaced no more than 18 inches on centers.

(e) Beam-type Platforms:

(1) The side stringers an d cross beams shall be of sound, straight-grained lumber, free from knots, and of not less than 2- x 6-inch lumber, set on edge.

(2) The stringers shall be supported on stirrups to which they shall be bolted by U-bolts passing around the stirrups and bolted through the stringers with nuts drawn up tight on the inside face.

(3) The ends of the stringers shall extend beyond the stirrups not less than 6 inches nor more than 12 inches at each end of the platform.

(4) The platform shall be formed of boards not less than 7/8-inch in thickness by not less than 6 inches in width, nailed tightly together, and extending to the outside face of the stringers, and it shall be supported on cross beams which are securely nailed to the stringers.

(5) The ends of all platform boards shall rest on the top of the cross beams, shall be securely nailed, and at no intermediate points in the length of the platform shall there be any cantilever ends.

(f) Safety lines of at least five-eighths-inch diameter manila or three-fourths-inch sisal rope * with a figure 8 knot every 6 feet, hanging from above and securely tied, shall be provided between each pair of hangers or falls. Such lines shall reach to a point at least 6 feet below the lowest position at which the staging can be used. One such line shall be provided for each employee.

(g) The ropes supporting a swinging scaffold shall be equivalent in strength to first-grade 3/4-inch diameter manila rope properly rigged into a set of standard 6-inch blocks consisting of at least one double and one single block. The rope shall be inspected before being used on each job to ascertain whether it is sound and free from flaws or deterioration from contact with any solution containing chemicals.

(h) The extension from the top block to the support of rope falls supporting scaffolds or boatswains' chairs shall be wire rope at least one-half inch in diameter or metal of equivalent strength, but in no case shall it be of structural reinforcing steel.

(i) When substances injurious to fiber rope are used, every employee on the staging shall be required to wear a safety belt with lanyard securely attached to a life line by a mechanical safety device or a sliding hitch.

(j) Whenever any washing solutions injurious to fiber rope are being used, the free ends of the falls and life lines shall be coiled in barrels or other suitable receptacles.

(k) All staging referred to in this section, suspended at an elevation of 5 feet or more, shall have a guardrail with midrail of wood or other equally rigid material of sufficient strength to prevent employees from falling, and said railing shall be not less than 42 inches nor more than 45 inches above the platform of such stagings. The guardrail shall be made of 2-inch by 4-inch lumber in one piece or equivalent.

NOTE: Three-eighths-inch wire rope, if kept taut at all times is considered equivalent; fiber line is not.

(l) When the surfaces being worked upon lead away from the vertical, the staging shall be securely tied in by means of a sufficient number of lines to render it stable and to bring it into contact with the surface.

(m) When boatswains' chairs are used by employees using blow torches or open flames, the slings shall be at least three-eighths-inch galvanized wire rope.

(n) When air hose, water hose, electric cable, or other equipment of this type is used on staging, it shall be securely fastened at not more than 15 feet from the working end and independent of the operator.

NOTE: Authority cited: Section 142.3, labor Code. Reference: Section 142.3, Labor Code.

HISTORY

1. Amendment filed 10-31-75; effective thirtieth day thereafter (Register 75, No. 44).

2. Amendment filed 1-22-88; operative 2-21-88 (Register 88, No. 6).

* Sisal rope is to be considered as having only 75 percent of the strength of manila rope.

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