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Subchapter 7. General Industry Safety Orders
Group 3. General Plant Equipment and Special Operations
Article 13. Agricultural Operations
§3449. Outdoor Agricultural Operations During Hours of Darkness (Between Sunset and Sunrise).
(a) Illumination. Outdoor agricultural operations taking place between sunset and sunrise shall be illuminated at levels no less than the levels stated in Table 1. Illumination levels for task lighting shall be measured at the task/working surface, in the plane in which the task/work surface is present. Illumination levels for area lighting shall be measured at approximately 30 inches above the floor or other horizontal, vertical or sloped surface on or through which the employee walks, works or gains access to a work area.
NOTE: The illumination levels required in Table 1 may be provided by one or more light source (e.g. lamp mounted on equipment, vehicles, or personal hands free portable lighting) or a combination of methods.
(1) The employer shall provide and maintain hands-free portable personal lighting or area lighting or both to employees.
Table 1 - Illumination Levels
Operations, Areas or Tasks
Poultry harvesting or catching operations.
Meeting area and meal/rest area.
Outdoor agricultural operations except where otherwise specified in this table.
Pathways leading to and around restrooms and drinking water.
Inside restroom facilities.
Storage areas accessed by employees.
Intermittently exposed or exposed point of operation equipment, covered under
Group 8. Points of Operation and Other Hazardous Parts of Machinery.
Operationally visible moving parts of machinery covered under Group 6. Power
Transmission, Prime Movers, and Machine Parts of the General Industry Safety Orders.
Task lighting for agricultural operations that involve the use of tools that can
potentially cause cuts, lacerations, or punctures.
Task lighting for maintenance work on equipment.
NOTES to Subsection (a):
NOTE 1: Area lighting should be set up in a manner that minimizes glare to the workers (selection of lamps, shielding, proper adjustment of the beam angle, glare avoidance screens).
NOTE 2: See Non-mandatory appendix for additional information regarding selecting light sources.
EXCEPTION to Subsection (a): In order to prevent glare while vehicles are traveling on farm roads, additional lighting installed to meet Table 1 does not need to be activated.
(b) Safety meetings. Supervisory employees shall conduct a safety meeting at the beginning of each shift to inform employees of the location of the restrooms, drinking water, designated break areas, nearby bodies of water, and high traffic areas.
NOTE to Subsection (b): Safety meetings are part of the implementation of Section 3203(a)(3).
(c) The employer shall provide and require workers to wear Class 2 high visibility garments meeting the requirements of Section 3380(e) and conforming to specifications of American National Standard for High-Visibility Safety Apparel and Accessories, (ANSI/ISEA) 107-2015, which is hereby incorporated by reference, for work activities between sunset and sunrise.
NOTE to Subsection (c): See Sections 3380, Personal Protective Devices and 3383(b), Body Protection.
Non-Mandatory Appendix to Section 3449
This Appendix serves as a guide to employers in selecting light sources or lamps.
Wattage is a unit of power, amount of electricity the light bulb will consume. Use a light bulb that is appropriate for the light fixture. Do not use a light bulb that exceeds the maximum wattage on your fixture.
Quantity of Light or Brightness
Lumens is a unit of luminous flux, a measure of the quantity of visible light emitted by a source.
Beam angle, beam radius, and target distance from the fixture
Different lamps have different beam angles, from a narrow beam for spot lighting to very wide angle for flood lighting. The brightest output is usually located at the center of the beam. It is important to match the beam angle, beam radius, and target distance to the application of use.
Photopic, Scotopic and Mesopic Vision
Photopic vision-human colour vision under normal lighting conditions during the day.
Scotopic vision-visual perception in dim light “night vision”. Scotopic vision is more sensitive to blue light.
Mesopic vision-combination of photopic and scotopic vision which takes into account the combination of the higher total sensitivity of the rod cells in the eye for blue range, with the colour perception of the cone cells.
Light sources with a higher S/P ratio are better for night vision because their spectral distribution includes more blue and green light. A higher S/P ratio translates to a higher visually effective lux. A ratio higher than 1 means that the lamp is producing more scotopic lumens than photopic lumens.
General Scotopic/Photopic Ratios of Commercially Available Light Sources
Metal Halide (warm white)
Metal Halide (daylight)
High Pressure Sodium
Low Pressure Sodium
Source: Lighting Industry Association Technical Statement, Issue 1-05/2013
(3) Formula to Convert Photopic Readings to Visually Effective Lux
For Ambient Lighting:
Lux from photopic light meter *(S/P).78 = Visually Effective Lux
Lux from photopic light meter *(S/P) = Visually Effective Lux
Color Rendering Index
The color rendering index (CRI) is a measure of light source's ability to show object colors “realistically” or “naturally” compared to a familiar reference source, either incandescent light or daylight. The maximum value of CRI index is 100.
A lamp with a high CRI would aid in distinguishing between different surfaces. CRI may be of critical importance to harvesting operations.