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Subchapter 7. General Industry Safety Orders
Group 1. General Physical
Conditions and Structures Orders
Article 6. Powered Platforms and Equipment for Building Maintenance
(a) General Requirements. The following requirements apply to equipment which are part of a powered platform installation, such as platforms, stabilizing components, carriages, outriggers, davits, hoisting machines, wire ropes and electrical components:
(1) Equipment installations shall be designed by or under the direction of a professional engineer currently registered in the State of California and experienced in such design;
(2) The design shall provide for a minimum live load of 250 pounds for each occupant of a suspended or supported platform;
(3) Equipment that is exposed to wind when not in service shall be designed to withstand forces generated by winds of at least 100 miles per hour at 30 feet above grade;
(4) Equipment that is exposed to wind when in service shall be designed to withstand forces generated by winds of at least 50 miles per hour for all elevations; and
(5) Equipment shall not be cascaded between structure levels using craning methods unless the procedures and equipment utilized have been previously approved by the Division.
(b) Construction Requirements. Bolted connections shall be self-locking or shall otherwise be secured to prevent loss of the connections by vibration.
(c) Suspension Methods. Elevated building maintenance equipment shall be suspended by a carriage, outriggers, davits or an equivalent method.
(1) Carriages. Carriages used for suspension of elevated building maintenance equipment shall comply with the following:
(A) The horizontal movement of a carriage shall be controlled so as to ensure its safe movement and allow accurate positioning of the platform for vertical travel or storage;
(B) Powered carriages shall not exceed a traversing speed of 50 feet per minute;
(C) The initiation of a traversing movement for a manually propelled carriage on a smooth level surface shall not require a person to exert a horizontal force greater than 40 pounds;
(D) Structural stops and/or curbs shall be provided to prevent the traversing of the carriage beyond its designed limits of travel;
(E) Traversing controls for a powered carriage shall be of continuous pressure weatherproof type. Multiple controls when provided shall be arranged to permit operation from only one control station at a time. An emergency stop device shall be provided on each end of a powered carriage for interrupting power to the carriage drive motors;
(F) The operating control(s) shall be so connected that in the case of suspended equipment, traversing of a carriage is not possible until the suspended portion of the equipment is located at its uppermost designed position for traversing; and is free of contact with the face of the building or building guides. In addition, all protective devices and interlocks are to be in the proper position to allow traversing of the carriage;
(G) Stability for underfoot supported carriages shall be obtained by gravity, by an attachment to a structural support, or by a combination of gravity and a structural support. The use of flowing counterweights, such as water or sand, to achieve stability is prohibited.
1. The stability factor against overturning shall not be less than two for horizontal traversing of the carriage, including the effects of impact and wind.
2. The carriages and their anchorages shall be capable of resisting accidental over-tensioning of the wire ropes suspending the working platform, and this calculated value shall include the effect of one and one-half times the stall capacity of the hoist motor. All parts of the installation shall be capable of withstanding without damage to any part of the installation the forces resulting from the stall load of the hoist and one half the wind load.
3. Roof carriages which rely on having tie-down devices secured to the building to develop the required stability against overturning shall be provided with an interlock which will prevent vertical platform movement unless the tie-down is engaged.
(H) An automatically applied braking or locking system, or equivalent, shall be provided that will prevent unintentional traversing of power traversed or power assisted carriages;
(I) A manual or automatic braking or locking system or equivalent, shall be provided that will prevent unintentional traversing of manually propelled carriages;
(J) A means to lock out the power supply for the carriage shall be provided;
(K) Safe access to and egress from the carriage shall be provided from a safe surface. If the carriage traverses an elevated area, any operating area on the carriage shall be protected by a guardrail system in compliance with the provisions of subsection (e)(1)(G) of this section. Any access gate shall be self-closing and self-latching, or provided with an interlock;
(L) Each carriage work station position shall be identified by location markings and/or position indicators; and
(M) The motors shall stall if the load on the hoist motors is at any time in excess of three times that necessary for lifting the working platform with its rated load.
(2) Portable Outriggers.
(A) Portable outriggers may be used as a method of suspension for ground rigged working platforms where the point of suspension does not exceed 130 feet above a safe surface unless acceptable to the Division.
(B) Platform stabilization system(s) shall be provided which meet the requirements of Section 3294(b).
(C) Portable outriggers shall be used only with self-powered, ground rigged working platforms.
(D) Each portable outrigger shall be secured with a tie-down to a verified anchorage on the building during the entire period of its use. The anchorage shall be designed to have a stability factor of not less than four against overturning or upsetting of the outrigger.
(E) Access to and egress from the working platform shall be from and to a safe surface below the point of suspension.
(F) The working platform shall be provided with wheels, casters or a carriage for traversing horizontally.
(G) Each portable outrigger shall be designed for lateral stability to prevent rollover in the event an accidental lateral load is applied to the outrigger. The accidental lateral load to be considered in this design shall be not less than 70 percent of the rated load of the hoist.
(H) Each portable outrigger shall be designed to support an ultimate load of not less than four times the rated load of the hoist.
(I) Each portable outrigger shall be so located that the suspension wire ropes for two point suspended working platforms are hung parallel.
(J) A portable outrigger shall be tied-down to a verified anchorage on the building with a rope equivalent in strength to the suspension rope.
(K) The tie-back rope shall be installed parallel to the centerline of the outrigger.
(L) Where applicable, the forces or weights referenced in Section 3295(c)(3)(D), (E) and (F) shall apply to outriggers.
(A) Every davit installation, fixed or portable, rotatable or non-rotatable shall be designed and installed to ensure that it has a stability factor against failure or overturning of not less than four.
(B) The following requirements apply to roof rigged davit systems:
1. Access to and egress from the working platform shall be from a safe surface. Access or egress shall not require persons to climb over a building's parapet or guard railing; and
2. The working platform shall be provided with wheels, casters or a carriage for traversing horizontally.
(C) The following requirements apply to ground rigged davit systems:
1. The point of suspension shall not exceed 130 feet above a safe surface unless acceptable to the Division;
2. Platform stabilization system(s) shall be provided which meet the requirements of Section 3294(b); and
3. Access and egress to and from the working platform shall only be from a safe surface below the point of suspension.
(D) A rotating davit shall not require a horizontal force in excess of 40 pounds per person to initiate a rotating movement.
(E) A davit or part of a davit weighing more than 80 pounds shall be provided with a means for its transport, which shall keep the center of gravity of the davit at or below 36 inches above the safe surface during transport.
(F) Davits or davit components which weigh more than 140 pounds shall be provided with a mechanical means for hoisting them into position.
(G) Portable davits shall have a maximum reach of 8 feet, 6 inches (2600 mm) and a maximum fully assembled weight of 300 pounds (135 kg).
(H) Roof-rigged davits shall be provided with pivoting sockets or with bases that will allow the insertion or removal of a davit at a position of not more than 35 degrees above the horizontal, with the complete davit inboard of the building face being serviced.
(I) A means shall be provided to lock the davit to its socket or base before it is used to suspend the platform.
(J) Portable davit sockets, if used, shall be fitted with wheels to allow ready movement from pedestal to pedestal, shall not require lifting to mate with the pedestal and shall have a pedestal pin attachment connection or positive locking pin connection to the pedestal. Socket/pedestal connections requiring bolts or other threaded fasteners shall not be used.
(d) Hoisting Machines.
(1) Raising and lowering of suspended or supported equipment shall be performed only by a hoisting machine.
(2) Each hoisting machine shall be capable of arresting any overspeed descent of the load.
(3) Each hosting machine shall be powered only by air, electric or hydraulic sources.
(4) Flammable liquids shall not be carried on the working platform.
(5) Each hoisting machine shall be capable of raising or lowering 125 percent of the rated load of the hoist.
(6) Moving parts of a hoisting machine shall be enclosed or guarded in compliance with Section 4002 of the General Industry Safety Orders.
(7) Winding drums, traction drums, sheaves and directional sheaves used in conjunction with hoisting machines shall be compatible with, and sized for, the wire rope used.
(8) Each winding drum shall be provided with a positive means of attaching the wire rope to the drum. The attachment shall be capable of developing at least four times the rated load of the hoist.
(9) Each hoisting machine shall be provided with a primary brake and at least one independent secondary brake, each capable of stopping and holding not less than 125 percent of the lifting capacity of the hoist.
(A) The primary brake shall be directly connected to the drive train of the hoisting machine, and shall not be connected through belts, chains, clutches, or set screw type devices. The brake shall automatically set when power to the prime mover is interrupted.
(B) 1. The secondary brake shall be an automatic emergency type of brake that, if actuated during each stopping cycle, shall not engage before the hoist is stopped by the primary brake.
2. When a secondary brake is actuated, it shall stop and hold the platform within a vertical distance of 24 inches.
(10) Any component of a hoisting machine which requires lubrication for its protection and proper functioning shall be provided with a means for that lubrication to be applied.
(e) Suspended Equipment.
(1) General Requirements.
(A) Each suspended unit component, except suspension ropes and guardrail systems, shall be capable of supporting, without failure, at least four times the maximum intended live load applied or transmitted to that component.
(B) Each suspended unit component shall be constructed of materials that will withstand anticipated weather conditions.
(C) Each suspended unit shall be provided with a load rating plate, conspicuously located, stating the unit weight and rated load of the suspended unit.
(D) When the suspension points on a suspended unit are not at the unit ends, the unit shall be capable of remaining continuously stable under all conditions of use and position of the live load, and shall maintain at least a 1.5 to 1 stability factor against unit upset.
(E) Guide rollers, guide shoes or building face rollers shall be provided, and shall compensate for variations in building dimensions and for minor horizontal out-of-level variations of each suspended unit.
(F) Each working platform of a suspended unit shall be secured to the building facade by one or more of the following methods, or by an equivalent method:
1. Continuous engagement to building anchors as provided in Section 3294(b)(1);
2. Intermittent engagement to building anchors as provided in Section 3294(b)(3)(A);
3. Button guide engagement as provided in Section 3294(b)(3)(B) ; or
4. Angulated roping and building face rollers as provided in Section 3294(b)(3)(C).
(G) Each working platform of a suspended unit shall be provided with a guardrail system on all sides which shall meet the following requirements:
1. The system shall consist of a top guardrail, midrail, and a toeboard;
2. The system shall consist of a 42 inch high enclosure on the ends and outboard side. The inboard side shall be not less than 36 inches high;
3. The top guardrail and midrail shall be able to withstand at least a 100 pound force applied in any direction;
4. The areas between the guardrail and toeboard on the ends and outboard side, and the area between the midrail and toeboard on the inboard side, shall be closed with a material that is capable of withstanding a load of 100 pounds applied horizontally over any area of one square foot. The material shall have all openings small enough to reject passage of a one inch steel ball and potential falling objects which may be hazardous to persons below;
5. Toeboards shall be capable of withstanding, without failure, a force of at least 50 pounds applied in any downward or horizontal direction at any point along the toeboard;
6. Toeboards shall be three and one-half inches minimum in height from their top edge to the level of the platform floor;
7. Toeboards shall be securely fastened in place at the outermost edge of the platform and have no more than one-half inch clearance above the platform floor; and
8. Toeboards shall be solid or with an opening not over one inch in the greatest dimension.
(2) Two and Four-Point Suspended Working Platforms.
(A) The working platform shall be not less than 24 inches wide and shall be provided with a minimum of a 12 inch wide passage at or past any obstruction on the platform.
(B) The flooring shall be of slip-resistant type and shall contain no opening that would allow the passage of safety lines, cables and other potential falling objects. If a larger opening is provided, it shall be protected by placing a material under the opening which shall prevent the passage of a one inch steel ball and potential falling objects.
(C) The working platform shall be provided with a means of suspension that will restrict the platform's inboard to outboard roll about its longitudinal axis to a maximum of 15 degrees from a horizontal plane when moving the live load from the inboard to the outboard side of the platform.
(D) Any cable suspended from above the platform shall be provided with a means for storage to prevent accumulation of the cable on the floor of the platform.
(E) All operating controls for the vertical travel of the platform shall be of the continuous-pressure type, and shall be located on the platform.
(F) Each operating station of every working platform shall be provided with a means of interrupting the power supply to all hoist motors to stop any further powered ascent or descent of the platform.
(G) The maximum rated speed of the platform shall not exceed 50 feet per minute with single speed hoists, nor 75 feet per minute with multi-speed hoists.
(H) Provisions shall be made for securing all tools, water tanks, and other accessories to prevent their movement or accumulation on the floor of the platform.
(I) Portable fire extinguishers conforming to the provisions of Section 6151 shall be provided and securely attached on all working platforms.
(J) Access to and egress from a working platform, except for those that land directly on a safe surface, shall be provided by stairs, ladders, platforms and runways conforming to the provisions of Article 4 of the General Industry Safety Orders. Access gates shall be self-closing and self-latching.
(K) Means of access to or egress from a working platform which is 48 inches or more above a safe surface shall be provided with a guardrail system or ladder handrails that conform to the provisions of Article 2 of the General Industry Safety Orders.
(L) The platform shall be provided with a secondary wire rope suspension system if the platform contains overhead structures which restrict the emergency egress of employees. A horizontal safety line or a direct connection anchorage shall be provided, as part of a fall arrest system which meets the requirements of Appendix C, for each employee on such a platform.
(M) A vertical safety line shall be provided as part of a fall arrest system which meets the requirements of Appendix C, for each employee on a working platform suspended by two or more wire ropes, if the failure of one wire rope or suspension attachment will cause the platform to upset. If a secondary wire rope suspension is used, vertical safety lines are not required for the fall arrest system, provided that each employee is attached to a horizontal safety line anchored to the platform.
(N) An emergency electric operating device shall be provided on roof powered platforms near the hoisting machine for use in the event of failure of the normal operating device located on the working platform, or failure of the cable connected to the platform. The emergency electric operating device shall be mounted in a secured compartment, and the compartment shall be labeled with instructions for use. A means for opening the compartment shall be mounted in a break-glass receptacle located near the emergency electric operating device or in an equivalent secure and accessible location.
(3) Single Point Suspended Working Platforms.
(A) The requirements of Section 3295(e)(2)(A) through (K) shall also apply to a single point working platform.
(B) Each single point suspended working platform shall be provided with a secondary wire rope suspension system, which will prevent the working platform from falling should there be a failure of the primary means of support, or if the platform contains overhead structures which restrict the egress of the employee. A horizontal safety line or a direct connection anchorage shall be provided, as part of a fall arrest system which meets the requirements of Appendix C.
(4) Ground-Rigged Working Platforms.
(A) Ground-rigged working platforms shall comply with all the requirements of Section 3295(e)(2)(A) through (M).
(B) After each day's use, the power supply within the building shall be disconnected from a ground-rigged working platform, and the platform shall be either disengaged from its suspension points or secured and stored at grade.
(5) Intermittently Stabilized Platforms.
(A) The platform shall comply with Section 3295(e)(2)(A) through (M).
(B) Each stabilizer tie shall be equipped with a “quick connect-quick disconnect” device which cannot be accidentally disengaged, for attachment to the building anchor, and shall be resistant to adverse environmental conditions.
(C) The platform shall be provided with a stopping device that will interrupt the hoist power supply in the event the platform contacts a stabilizer tie during its ascent.
(D) Building face rollers shall not be placed at the anchor setting if exterior anchors are used on the building face.
(E) Stabilizer ties used on intermittently stabilized platforms shall allow for the specific attachment length needed to effect the predetermined angulation of the suspended wire rope. The specific attachment length shall be maintained at all building anchor locations.
(F) The platform shall be in continuous contact with the face of the building during ascent and descent.
(G) This attachment and removal of stabilizer ties shall not require the horizontal movement of the platform.
(H) The platform-mounted equipment and its suspension wire ropes shall not be physically damaged by the loads from the stabilizer tie or its building anchor. The platform, platform mounted equipment and wire ropes shall be able to withstand a load that is at least twice the ultimate strength of the stabilizer tie.
See Figure 2 in Appendix B of this article for a description of a typical intermittent stabilization system.
(6) Button-Guide Stabilized Platforms.
(A) The platform shall comply with Section 3295(e)(2)(A) through (M).
(B) Two guide tracks shall be mounted on the platform and shall provide continuous contact with the building face.
(C) Each guide track on the platform shall engage a minimum of two guide buttons during any vertical travel of the platform following the initial button engagement.
(D) Each guide track on a platform that is part of a roof rigged system shall be provided with a storage position on the platform.
(E) Each guide track on the platform shall be sufficiently maneuverable by platform occupants to permit easy engagement of the guide buttons, and easy movement into and out of its storage position on the platform.
(F) The load carrying components of the button guide stabilization system which transmit the load into the platform shall be capable of supporting the weight of the platform, or provision shall be made in the guide track connectors or platform attachments to prevent the weight of the platform from being transmitted to the platform attachments.
Note: See Figure 3 in Appendix B of this article for a description of a typical button guide stabilization system.
(f) Supported Equipment.
(1) Supported equipment shall maintain a vertical position in respect to the face of the building by means other than friction.
(2) Cog wheels or equivalent means shall be incorporated to provide climbing traction between the supported equipment and the building guides. Additional guide wheels or shoes shall be incorporated as may be necessary to ensure that the drive wheels are continuously held in positive engagement with the building guides.
(3) Launch guide mullions indexed to the building guides and retained in alignment with the building guides shall be used to align drive wheels entering the building guides.
(4) Occupied platforms used on supported equipment shall comply with the requirements of Section 3295(e)(2)(A), (e)(2)(B), and (e)(2)(D) through (K) covering suspended equipment.
(g) Suspension Wire Ropes and Rope Connections.
(1) Each specific installation shall use suspension wire ropes or combination cable and connections meeting the specification recommended by the manufacturer of the hoisting machine used. Connections shall be capable of developing at least 80 percent of the rated breaking strength of the wire rope.
(2) Each suspension rope shall have a “Design Factor” of at least 10. The “Design Factor” is the ratio of the rated strength of the suspension wire rope to the rated working load, and shall be calculated using the following formula:
S=Manufacturer's rated strength of one suspension rope
N=Number of suspension ropes under load
W=Rated working load on all ropes at any point of travel
(3) Suspension wire rope grade shall be at least improved plow steel or equivalent.
(4) Suspension wire ropes shall be sized to conform with the required design factor, but shall not be less than 5/16 inch in diameter.
(5) No more than one reverse bend in six wire rope lays shall be permitted.
(6) A corrosion-resistant tag shall be securely attached to one of the wire rope fastenings when a suspension wire rope is to be used at a specific location and will remain in that location. This tag shall bear the following wire rope data:
A. The diameter (inches);
B. Construction classification;
C. Whether non-preformed or preformed;
D. The grade of material;
E. The manufacturer's rated strength;
F. The manufacturer's name;
G. The month and year the ropes were installed; and
H. The name of the person or company which installed the ropes.
(7) A new tag shall be installed at each rope renewal.
(8) The original tag shall be stamped with the date of the resocketing, or the original tag shall be retained and a supplemental tag shall be provided when ropes are resocketed. The supplemental tag shall show the date of resocketing and the name of the person or company that resocketed the rope.
(9) Winding drum type hoists shall contain at least three wraps of the suspension wire rope on the drum when the suspended unit has reached the lowest possible point of its vertical travel.
(10) Traction drum and sheave type hoists shall be provided with a wire rope of sufficient length to reach the lowest possible point of vertical travel of the suspended unit, and an additional length of the wire rope of at least four feet.
(11) The lengthening or repairing of suspension wire ropes is prohibited.
(12) Babbitted fastenings for suspension wire ropes are prohibited.
(h) Control Circuits, Power Circuits and Their Components.
(1) Electrical wiring and equipment shall comply with the Electrical Safety Orders, except as otherwise required by this section.
(2) Electrical runway conductor systems shall be of a type designed for use in exterior locations, and shall be located so that they do not come into contact with accumulated snow or water.
(3) Cables shall be protected against damage resulting from over-tensioning or from other causes.
(4) Devices shall be included in the control system for the equipment which will provide protection against electrical overloads, three phase reversal and phase failure. The control system shall have a separate method, independent of the direction control circuit, for breaking the power circuit in case of an emergency or malfunction.
(5) Suspended or supported equipment shall have a control system which will require the operator of the equipment to follow predetermined procedures.
(6) The following requirements shall apply to electrical protection devices:
(A) On installations where the carriage does not have a stability factor of at least four against overturning, electrical contact(s) shall be provided and so connected that the operating devices for the suspended or supported equipment shall be operative only when the carriage is located and mechanically retained at an established operating point.
(B) Overload protection shall be provided in the hoisting or suspension system to protect against the equipment operating in the “up” direction with a load in excess of 125 percent of the rated load of the platform; and
(C) An automatic detector shall be provided for each suspension point that will interrupt power to all hoisting motors for travel in the “down” direction, and apply the primary brakes if any suspension wire rope becomes slack. A continuous-pressure rigging-bypass switch designed for use during rigging is permitted. This switch shall only be used during rigging.
(7) Upper and lower directional switches designed to prevent the travel of suspended units beyond safe upward and downward levels shall be provided.
(8) Emergency stop switches shall be provided on remote controlled, roof-powered platforms adjacent to each control station on the platform.
(9) Cables which are in constant tension shall have overload devices which will prevent the tension in the cable from interfering with the load limiting device required in Section 3295(h)(6)(B) or with the platform roll limiting device required in Section 3295(e)(2)(C). The setting of these devices shall be coordinated with other overload settings at the time of design of the system, and shall be clearly indicated on or near the device. The device shall interrupt the equipment travel in the “down” direction. (Title 24, Part 2, 2-8522)
1. Repealer and and new section filed 3-9-93; operative 4-8-93 (Register 93, No. 11). For prior history, see Register 85, No. 40.
2. Change without regulatory effect amending subsection (c)(2)(A) filed 9-13-95 pursuant to section 100, title 1, California Code of Regulations (Register 95, No. 37).
3. Change without regulatory effect amending subsections (c)(2)(J) and (c)(2)(L) filed 10-23-95 pursuant to section 100, title 1, California Code of Regulations (Register 95, No. 43).
4. Amendment of subsections (c)(3)(A), (c)(3)(B)2., and (c)(3)(C)1.-2., redesignation and amendment of subsections (c)(3)(D)1.-5. as subsections (c)(3)(E)-(F) and (c)(3)(H)-(J), new subsection (c)(3)(G) and amendment of Note filed 3-27-2007; operative 4-26-2007 (Register 2007, No. 13).
5. Editorial correction of subsection (d)(6) (Register 2007, No. 32).
6. Change without regulatory effect amending subsection (c)(2)(L) filed 2-28-2019 pursuant to section 100, title 1, California Code of Regulations (Register 2019, No. 9).