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Subchapter 4. Construction Safety Orders
Article 15. Cranes and Derricks in Construction

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§1616.3. Work Area Control.

(a) Swing radius hazards.

(1) The requirements of this section apply where there are accessible areas in which the equipment's rotating superstructure poses a hazard of:

(A) Striking and injuring an employee; or

(B) Pinching/crushing an employee against another part of the equipment or another object.

(2) To prevent employees from entering these hazard areas, the employer shall:

(A) Train each employee assigned to work on or near the equipment (“authorized personnel”) in how to recognize struck-by and pinch/crush hazard areas posed by the rotating superstructure.

(B) Erect and maintain control lines, warning lines, railings or similar barriers to mark the boundaries of the hazard areas.

EXCEPTION: When the employer can demonstrate that it is not feasible to erect such barriers on the ground or on the equipment, the hazard areas shall be clearly marked by a combination of warning signs (such as “Danger -Swing/Crush Zone”) and high visibility markings on the equipment that identify the hazard areas. The markings shall be visible to employees from outside the hazard area. In addition, the employer shall train each employee to understand what these markings signify.

(3) Protecting employees in the hazard area.

(A) Before an employee goes to a location in the hazard area that is out of view of the operator, the employee shall inform the operator that he/she is going to that location.

(B) When the operator has been informed of employee entry to a location covered by subsection (a)(1), the operator shall not rotate the superstructure until the operator is informed by the employee or visually confirms that the employee has exited the location and is in a safe position.

Where any part of a crane/derrick is within the load radius of another crane/derrick, the controlling entity shall institute a system to coordinate operations. If there is no controlling entity, the employer (if there is only one employer operating the multiple pieces of equipment) shall institute such a system.

Note: Authority cited: Section 142.3, Labor Code. Reference: Section 142.3, Labor Code.


1. New section filed 7-7-2011; operative 7-7-2011. Exempt from OAL review pursuant to Labor Code section 142.3(a)(3) (Register 2011, No. 27).

2. Amendment filed 1-28-2013; operative 4-1-2013 (Register 2013, No. 5).

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