(a) Atmospheric storage tanks shall be adequately vented to prevent the development of vacuum or pressure sufficient to distort the roof of a cone roof tank or exceeding the design pressure in the case of other atmospheric tanks, as a result of filling or emptying, and atmospheric temperature changes.
(b) Normal vents shall be sized either in accordance with the American Petroleum Institute Standard No. 2000, Venting Atmospheric and Low-Pressure Storage Tanks, 1968, or other accepted standard, or shall be at least as large as the filling or withdrawal connection, whichever is larger but in no case less than 1 1/4-inch nominal inside diameter.
(c) Low-pressure tanks and pressure vessels shall be adequately vented to prevent development of pressure or vacuum, as a result of filling or emptying and atmospheric temperature changes, from exceeding the design pressure of the tank or vessel. Protection shall also be provided to prevent overpressure from any pump discharging into the tank or vessel when the pump discharge pressure can exceed the design pressure of the tank or vessel.
(d) If any tank or pressure vessel has more than one fill or withdrawal connection and simultaneous filling or withdrawal can be made, the vent size shall be based on the maximum anticipated simultaneous flow.
(e) The outlet of all vents and vent drains on tanks equipped with venting to permit pressures exceeding 2.5 psig shall be arranged to discharge in such a way as to prevent localized overheating of or flame impingement on any part of the tank, in the event vapors from such vents are ignited.
(f) Tanks and pressure vessels storing Category 1 flammable liquids shall be equipped with venting devices which shall be normally closed except when venting to pressure or vacuum conditions. Tanks and pressure vessels storing Category 2 flammable liquids and Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100oF (37.8oC) shall be equipped with venting devices which shall be normally closed except when venting under pressure or vacuum conditions, or with approved flame arresters.
EXCEPTION: Tanks of 3,000 bbls. capacity or less containing crude petroleum in crude-producing areas; and, outside aboveground atmospheric tanks under 1,000 gallons capacity containing other than Category 1 flammable liquids may have open vents. (See Section 5594(b).)
(g) Flame arresters or venting devices required in (f) may be omitted for Category 2 flammable liquids and Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100oF (37.8oC) where conditions are such that their use may, in case of obstruction, result in tank damage. Liquid properties justifying the omission of such devices include, but are not limited to, condensation, corrosiveness, crystallization, polymerization, freezing or plugging. When any of these conditions exist, consideration may be given to heating, use of devices employing special materials of construction, the use of liquid seals, or inserting.