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Subchapter 7. General Industry Safety Orders
Group 16. Control of Hazardous Substances
Article 109. Hazardous Substances and Processes
Appendix B - Section 5198 Summary.
This appendix summarizes key provisions of the standard that you as a worker should become familiar with.
I. Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL)
The standard sets a permissible exposure limit (PEL) of fifty micrograms of lead per cubic meter of air (50μg/m3), averaged over an 8-hour workday. This is the highest level of lead in air to which you may be permissibly exposed over an 8-hour workday. Since it is an 8-hour average it permits short exposures above the PEL so long as for each 8-hour workday your average exposure does not exceed the PEL.
This standard recognizes that your daily exposure to lead can extend beyond a typical 8-hour workday as the result of overtime or other alterations in your work schedule. To deal with this, the standard contains a formula which reduces your permissible exposure when you are exposed more than 8 hours. For example, if you are exposed to lead for 10 hours a day, the maximum permitted average exposure would be 40μg/m3.
II. Exposure Monitoring
If lead is present in any quantity in the workplace where you work, your employer is required to make an initial determination of whether the action level is exceeded for any employee. This initial determination must include instrument monitoring of the air for the presence of lead and must cover the exposure of a representative number of employees who are reasonably believed to have the highest exposure levels. If your employer has conducted appropriate air sampling for lead in the past year he may use these results. If there have been any employee complaints of symptoms which may be attributable to exposure to lead or if there is any other information or observations which would indicate employee exposure to lead, this must also be considered as part of the initial determination. This determination must have been completed within 30 days of the effective date of the standard. If this initial determination shows that a reasonable possibility exists that any employee may be exposed, without regard to the use of respirators, over the action level (30μg/m3), your employer must set up an air monitoring program to determine the exposure level of every employee exposed to lead at your workplace.
In carrying out this air monitoring program, your employer is not required to monitor the exposure of every employee but must monitor a representative number of employees and job types. Enough sampling must be done to enable each employee's exposure level to be reasonably represented by at least one full-shift (at least 7 hours) air sample. In addition, these air samples must be taken under conditions which represent each employee's regular, daily exposure to lead. All initial exposure monitoring must have been completed within 90 days of the effective date of the standard.
If you are exposed to lead and air sampling is performed, your employer is required to quickly notify you in writing of air monitoring results which represent your exposure. If the results indicate your exposure exceeds the PEL (without regard to your use of respirators), then your employer must also notify you of this in writing and also provide you with a description of the corrective action that will be taken to reduce your exposure.
Your exposure must be rechecked by monitoring every six months if your exposure is over the action level but below the PEL. Air monitoring must be repeated every three months if you are exposed over the PEL. Your employer may discontinue monitoring for you if two consecutive measurements, taken at least two weeks apart, are below the action level. However, whenever there is a production, process, control, or personnel change at your workplace which may result in new or additional exposure to lead, or whenever there is any other reason to suspect a change which may result in new or additional exposure to lead, your employer must perform additional monitoring.
Except for certain industries, the regulation requires employers to reduce and maintain employee exposure to lead at or below the permissible exposure limit by means of engineering, work practice, and administrative controls to the extent that such controls are feasible. Even though such controls may not be sufficient to effect compliance with the PEL, they must be instituted to achieve the lowest feasible exposure level and the employer must provide supplemental protection in the form of respirators.
Where employee exposure above the PEL occurs intermittently for no more than 30 days per year, feasible engineering controls must be implemented to achieve compliance with an exposure limit of 150μg/m3 but compliance with the PEL may be accomplished by any combination of engineering, work practice, and administrative controls and respiratory protection.
IV. Respiratory Protection
Your employer is required to provide and assure your use of respirators when your exposure to lead is not controlled below the PEL by other means. The employer must pay the cost of the respirator. Whenever you request one, your employer is also required to provide you a respirator even if the air exposure level does not exceed the PEL. You might desire a respirator when, for example, you intend to have children in the near future, and want to reduce the level of lead in your body to minimize adverse reproductive effects. While respirators are the least satisfactory means of controlling your exposure, they are capable of providing significant protection when properly chosen, fitted, worn, cleaned, and maintained and are replaced when they stop providing adequate protection.
Your employer is required to select respirators from the types listed in the respiratory protection subsection of the standard. Any respirator chosen must be approved by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) under the provisions of 42 CFR part 84. The respirator selection table will enable your employer to choose a type of respirator which will give you proper protection based on your airborne lead exposure. Your employer may select a type of respirator that provides greater protection than that required by the standard; that is, one recommended for a higher concentration of lead than that to which you are exposed.
An air purifying respirator is any respirator which has a filter, cartridge or canister which cleans the work room air as you breathe it. The typical air purifying respirator is a negative pressure respirator because it requires the force of your inhalation to draw air through the filtering element. It is less protective than a powered air purifying respirator (PAPR) which also has a filter, cartridge or canister to clean the air, but a power source which continuously blows filtered air into your breathing zone. Your employer might make a PAPR available to you to ease the burden of having to wear a negative pressure air purifying respirator for long periods of time. The standard provides that you can obtain a PAPR upon request.
Supplied-air respirators are also available which, as the name implies, are respirators to which breathing quality air is supplied from a source such as an air compressor, blower or compressed air cylinder. Three types of supplied-air respirators are availabledemand, pressure demand, and continuous flow. The demand-type requires the force of inhalation to open a diaphragm valve thus admitting air from the supply source. As any leakage around the facepiece will permit the concurrent admission of contaminated air, the demand-type only provides protection generally equivalent to that of the typical negative pressure air purifying respirator of the same facepiece type. Greater protection is provided by either the pressure-demand or continuous-flow types as positive air pressure exists within the respirator at all times.
Your employer must also start a Respiratory Protection Program in accordance with General Industry Safety Orders section 5144. This program must include written procedures for the proper selection, use, cleaning, storage, and maintenance of respirators.
Your employer must assure that your respirator facepiece fits properly. Proper fit of a respirator facepiece is critical and no single facepiece fits all facial configurations equally well. Obtaining a proper fit thus may require your employer to make available two or three different mask types in order that facepiece leakage is minimized for each employee. In order to assure that your respirator fits properly and that facepiece leakage is minimized, your employer must give you either a “quantitative or qualitative fit test” as specified in Appendix A of Section 5144, Respiratory Protection.
You must also receive from your employer proper training in the use of respirators. Your employer is required to teach you how to wear a respirator, to know why it is needed, and to understand its limitations.
The standard provides that if your respirator uses filter elements, you must be given an opportunity to change the filter elements whenever an increase in breathing resistance is detected. You also must be permitted to periodically leave your work area to wash your face and respirator facepiece whenever necessary to prevent skin irritation. If you ever have difficulty in breathing during a fit test or while using a respirator, your employer must make a medical examination available to you to determine whether you can safely wear a respirator. The result of this examination may be to give you a positive pressure respirator (which reduces breathing resistance) or to provide alternative means of protection.
V. Protective Work Clothing and Equipment
If you are exposed to lead above the PEL, or if you are exposed to lead compounds such as lead arsenate or lead azide which can cause skin and eye irritation, your employer must provide you with protective work clothing and equipment appropriate for the hazard. If work clothing is provided, it must be provided in a clean and dry condition at least weekly, and daily if your exposure to airborne lead is greater than 150μg/m3. Appropriate protective work clothing and equipment can include coveralls or similar full-body work clothing, gloves, hats, shoes or disposable shoe coverlets, and face shields or vented goggles. Your employer is required to provide all such equipment at no cost to you. He is responsible for providing repairs and replacement as necessary, and also is responsible for the cleaning, laundering or disposal of protective clothing and equipment. Contaminated work clothing or equipment must be removed in change rooms and not worn home or you will extend your exposure and expose your family since lead from your clothing can accumulate in your house, car, etc. Contaminated clothing which is to be cleaned, laundered or disposed of must be placed in closed containers in the change room. At no time may lead be removed from protective clothing or equipment by any means which disperses lead into the workroom air.
Your employer must establish a housekeeping program sufficient to maintain all surfaces as free as practicable of accumulations of lead dust. Vacuuming is the preferred method of meeting this requirement, and the use of compressed air to clean floors and other surfaces is absolutely prohibited. Dry or wet sweeping, shoveling, or brushing may not be used except where vacuuming or other equally effective methods have been tried and do not work. Vacuums must be used and emptied in a manner which minimizes the reentry of lead into the workplace.
VII. Hygiene Facilities and Practices
The standard requires that change rooms, showers, and lunchrooms be made available to workers exposed to lead above the PEL. When the PEL is exceeded, the employer must assure that food and beverage is not present or consumed, tobacco products are not present or used, and cosmetics are not applied, except in these facilities. Change rooms, showers, and lunchrooms, if available, must be used by workers exposed in excess of the PEL. After showering, no clothing or equipment worn during the shift may be worn home, and this includes shoes and underwear. Your own clothing worn during the shift should be carried home and cleaned carefully so that it does not contaminate your home. Lunchrooms may not be entered with protective clothing or equipment unless surface dust has been removed by vacuuming, downdraft booth, or other cleaning method. Finally, workers exposed above the PEL must wash their hands and faces prior to eating, drinking, smoking or applying cosmetics.
All of the facilities and hygiene practices just discussed are essential to minimize additional sources of lead absorption from inhalation or ingestion of lead that may accumulate on you, your clothes, or your possessions. Strict compliance with these provisions can virtually eliminate several sources of lead exposure which significantly contribute to excessive lead absorption.
VIII. Medical Surveillance
The medical surveillance program is part of the standard's comprehensive approach to the prevention of lead-related disease. Its purpose is to supplement the main thrust of the standard which is aimed at minimizing airborne concentrations of lead and sources of ingestion. Only medical surveillance can determine if the other provisions of the standard have effectively protected you as an individual. Compliance with the standard's provisions will protect most workers from the adverse effects of lead exposure, but may not be satisfactory to protect individual workers (1) who have high body burdens of lead acquired over past years, (2) who have additional uncontrolled sources of non-occupational lead exposure, (3) who exhibit unusual variations in lead absorption rates, or (4) who have specific non-work related medical conditions which could be aggravated by lead exposure (e.g., renal disease, anemia). In addition, control systems may fail, or hygiene and respirator programs may be inadequate. Periodic medical surveillance of individual workers will help detect those failures. Medical surveillance will also be important to protect your reproductive ability regardless of whether you are a man or woman.
All medical surveillance required by the standard must be performed by or under the supervision of a licensed physician. The employer must provide required medical surveillance without cost to the employees and at a reasonable time and place. The standard's medical surveillance program has two parts periodic biological monitoring and medical examinations.
Your employer's obligation to offer medical surveillance is triggered by the results of the air monitoring program. Medical surveillance must be made available to all employees who are exposed in excess of the action level (without regard to the use of respirators) for more than 30 days a year. The initial phase of the medical surveillance program, which includes blood lead level tests and medical examinations, must be completed for all covered employees within 150 days of the effective date of the lead standard. Priority within this first round of medical surveillance must be given to employees whom the employer believes to be at greatest risk from continued exposure (for example, those with the longest prior exposure to lead, or those with the highest current exposure). Thereafter, the employer must periodically make medical surveillance both biological monitoring and medical examinations available to all covered employees.
Biological monitoring under the standard consists of blood lead level (PbB) and zinc protoporphyrin tests at least every 6 months after the initial PbB test. If a worker's PbB exceeds 40μg/100g the monitoring frequency must be increased from every 6 months to at least every 2 months and not reduced until two consecutive PbBs indicate a blood lead level below 40μg/100g. Each time your PbB is determined to be over 40μg/100g, your employer must notify you of this in writing within five working days of his receipt of the test results. The employer must also inform you that the standard requires temporary medical removal with economic protection when your PbB exceeds certain criteria (See Discussion of Medical Removal Protection). During the first year of the standard, this removal criterion is 80μg/100g. Anytime your PbB exceeds 80μg/100g your employer must make available to you a prompt follow-up PbB test to ascertain your PbB. If the two tests both exceed 80μg/100g and you are temporarily removed, then your employer must make successive PbB tests available to you on a monthly basis during the period of your removal.
Medical examinations beyond the initial one must be made available on an annual basis if your blood lead level exceeds 40μg/100g at any time during the preceding year. The initial examination will provide information to establish a baseline with which subsequent data can be compared. An initial medical examination must also be made available (prior to assignment) for each employee being assigned for the first time to an area where the concentration of airborne lead equals or exceeds the action level. In addition, a medical examination or consultation must be made available as soon as possible if you notify your employer that you are experiencing signs or symptoms commonly associated with lead poisoning or that you have difficulty breathing while wearing a respirator or during a respirator fit test. You must also be provided a medical examination or consultation if you notify your employer that you desire medical advice concerning the effects of current or past exposure to lead on your ability to procreate a healthy child.
Finally, appropriate follow-up medical examinations or consultations may also be provided for employees who have been temporarily removed from exposure under the medical removal protection provisions of the standard (See Part IX, below).
The standard specifies the minimum content of pre-assignment and annual medical examinations. The content of other types of medical examinations and consultations is left up to the sound discretion of the examining physician. Pre-assignment and annual medical examinations must include (1) a detailed work history, (2) a thorough physical examination, and (3) a series of laboratory tests designed to check your blood chemistry and your kidney function. In addition, at any time upon your request, a laboratory evaluation of male fertility will be made (microscopic examination of a sperm sample), or a pregnancy test will be given.
The standard does not require that you participate in any of the medical procedures, tests, etc. which your employer is required to make available to you. Medical surveillance can, however, play a very important role in protecting your health. You are strongly encouraged, therefore, to participate in a meaningful fashion The standard contains a multiple physician review mechanism which provides you with the right to a second medical opinion from a physician of your choice if you are dissatisfied with an examination by a physician chosen by your employer. The standard requires the two physicians to attempt a resolution of any difference in their opinions. If any dispute remains unresolved, the standard provides that a third physician, selected by you and your employer, shall make a final, binding medical determination unless you and your employer reach an agreement which is otherwise consistent with the recommendations of one of the physicians. Generally, your employer will choose the physician who conducts medical surveillance under the lead standard unless you and your employer otherwise agree on the choice of a physician or physicians. Some companies and unions have agreed in advance, for example, to use certain independent medical laboratories or panels of physicians. Any of these arrangements are acceptable so long as required medical surveillance is made available to workers.
The standard requires your employer to provide certain information to a physician to aid in his or her examination of you. This information includes (1) the standard and these appendices, (2) a description of your duties as they relate to lead exposure, (3) your exposure level, (4) a description of personal protective equipment you wear, (5) prior blood lead level results, and (6) prior written medical opinions concerning you that the employer may have. After a medical examination or consultation the physician must prepare a written report which must contain (1) the physician's opinion as to whether you have any medical condition which places you at increased risk of material impairment to health from exposure to lead, (2) any recommended special protective measures to be provided to you, (3) any blood lead level determinations, and (4) any recommended limitation on your use of respirators. This last element must include a determination of whether you can wear a powered air purifying respirator (PAPR) if you are found unable to wear a negative pressure respirator.
The medical surveillance program of the lead standard may at some point in time serve to notify certain workers that they have acquired a disease or other adverse medical condition as a result of occupational lead exposure. If this is true, workers may have legal rights to compensation from public agencies, their employers, firms that supply hazardous products to their employers, or other persons. The results of the medical surveillance program can significantly affect the legal remedies of a worker who has acquired a job-related disease or impairment.
The medical surveillance subsection of the standard also contains provisions dealing with chelation. Chelation is the use of certain drugs (administered in pill form or injected into the body) to reduce the amount of lead absorbed in body tissues. Experience accumulated by the medical and scientific communities has largely confirmed the effectiveness of this type of therapy for the treatment of very severe lead poisoning. On the other hand, it has also been established that there can be a long list of extremely harmful side effects associated with the use of chelating agents. The medical community has balanced the advantages and disadvantages resulting from the use of chelating agents in various circumstances and has established when the use of these agents is acceptable. The standard includes these accepted limitations due to a history of abuse of chelation therapy by some lead companies. The most widely used chelating agents are calcium disodium EDTA, Ca Na2 EDTA), calcium disodium versenate (Versenate), and d-penicillamine (penicillamine or Cupramine).
The standard prohibits “prophylactic chelation” of any employee by any person the employer retains, supervises or controls. “Prophylactic chelation” is the routine use of chelating or similarly acting drugs to prevent elevated blood levels in workers who are occupationally exposed to lead, or the use of these drugs to routinely lower blood levels to predesignated concentrations believed to be ‘safe’. It should be emphasized that where an employer takes a worker who has no symptoms of lead poisoning and has chelation carried out by a physician (either inside or outside of a hospital) solely to reduce the worker's blood lead level, such practice is generally considered prophylactic chelation. The use of a hospital and a physician does not mean that prophylactic chelation is not being performed. Routine chelation to prevent increased or reduce current blood lead levels is unacceptable whatever the setting. The standard allows the use of “therapeutic” or “diagnostic” chelation if administered under the supervision of a licensed physician in a clinical setting with thorough and appropriate medical monitoring. Therapeutic chelation responds to severe lead poisoning where there are marked symptoms. Diagnostic chelation involves giving a patient a dose of the drug then collecting all urine excreted for some period of time as an aid to the diagnosis of lead poisoning.
In cases where the examining physician determines that chelation is appropriate, you must be notified in writing of this fact before such treatment. This will inform you of a potentially harmful treatment and allow you to obtain a second medical opinion if you choose to do so.
IX. Medical Removal Protection
Excessive lead absorption subjects you to increased risk of disease. Medical removal protection (MRP) is a means of protecting you when, for whatever reasons, other methods such as engineering and administrative controls, work practices, and respirators have failed to provide the protection you need. MRP involves the temporary removal of a worker from his or her regular job to a place of significantly lower exposure without any loss of earnings, seniority, or other employment rights or benefits. The purpose of this program is to cease further lead absorption and allow your body to naturally excrete lead which has previously been absorbed. Temporary medical removal can result from an elevated blood lead level, or a medical opinion. Up to eighteen months of protection is provided as a result of either form of removal. The vast majority of removed workers, however, will return to their former jobs long before this eighteen-month period expires. The standard contains special provisions to deal with the extraordinary but possible case where a worker's bloodlead level does not adequately decline during eighteen months of removal.
If your blood lead level is 50μg/100g or above, you must be removed from any exposure where your air lead level without a respirator would be 30μg/m3 or above. If you are removed from your normal job you may not be returned until your blood lead level declines to at least 40μg/100g.
You may also be removed from exposure even if your blood lead levels are below these criteria if a medical determination indicates that you temporarily need reduced lead exposure for medical reasons. If the physician who is implementing your employer's medical program makes a written opinion recommending your removal or other special protective measures, your employer must implement the physician's recommendation. If you are removed in this manner, you may only be returned when the doctor indicates that it is safe for you to do so.
The standard does not give specific instructions dealing with what an employer must do with a removed worker. Your job assignment upon removal is a matter for you, your employer and your union (if any) to work out consistent with procedures or agreements for job assignments which may exist in your place of employment. Each removal must be accomplished in a manner consistent with existing collective bargaining relationships. Your employer is given broad discretion to implement temporary removals so long as no attempt is made to override existing agreements. Similarly, a removed worker is provided no right to veto an employer's choice which satisfies the standard.
In most cases, employers will likely transfer removed employees to other jobs with sufficiently low lead exposure. Alternatively, a worker's hours may be reduced so that the time-weighted average exposure is reduced, or he or she may be temporarily laid off if no other alternative is feasible.
In all of these situations, MRP benefits must be provided during the period of removal that is, you continue to receive the same earnings, seniority, and other rights and benefits you would have had if you had not been removed. Earnings include more than just your base wage; they include overtime, shift differentials, incentives, and other compensation you would have earned if you had not been removed. During the period of removal you must also be provided with appropriate follow-up medical surveillance. If you were removed because your blood lead level was too high, you must be provided with a monthly blood test. If a medical opinion caused your removal, you must be provided medical tests or examinations that the doctor believes to be appropriate. If you do not participate in this follow up medical surveillance, you may lose your eligibility for MRP benefits.
When you are medically eligible to return to your former job, your employer must return you to your “former job status.” This means that you are entitled to the position, wages, benefits, etc., you would have if you had not been removed. If you would still be in your old job if no removal had occurred, you are to be returned to this job. If you would not be in your old job, the job assignment to which you return must be consistent with the decision which your employer would have been obliged to make had no removal occurred. MRP only seeks to maintain your rights, not expand them or diminish them.
If you are removed under MRP and you are also eligible for worker compensation or other compensation for lost wages, your employer's MRP benefits obligation is reduced by the amount that you actually receive from these other sources. Similarly, if you obtain other employment during the time you are laid off, the benefits you receive under MRP are reduced by the amount you earn in such other employment.
The standard also covers situations where an employer voluntarily removes a worker from exposure to lead due to the effects of lead on the employee's medical condition, even though the standard does not require removal. In these situations MRP benefits must also be provided as though the standard required removal. Finally, it is important to note that in all cases where removal is required, respirators cannot be used as a substitute. Respirators may be used before removal becomes necessary, but not as an alternative to a transfer to a low exposure job or to a lay-off with MRP benefits.
X. Employee Information and Training
Your employer is required to provide an information and training program for all employees exposed to lead at or above the action level or who may suffer skin or eye irritation from lead. This program must inform these employees of the specific hazards associated with their work environment, protective measures which can be taken, the danger of lead to their bodies (including their reproductive systems), and their rights under the standard. In addition your employer must make readily available to all employees, including those exposed below the action level, a copy of the standard and these appendices.
Your employer is required to complete this training program for all new employees (who may be exposed to lead at or above the action level or for whom the possibility exists of eye or skin irritation from lead exposure) prior to initial assignment.
This training program must also be provided at least annually thereafter.
The standard requires that the following warning sign must be posted in work areas where the exposure to lead exceeds the PEL:
MAY DAMAGE FERTILITY OR THE UNBORN CHILD
CAUSES DAMAGE TO THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
DO NOT EAT, DRINK OR SMOKE IN THIS AREA
However, prior to June 1, 2016, employers may use the following legend in lieu of that specified above:
Your employer is required to keep all records of exposure monitoring for airborne lead. These records must include the name and job classification of employees measured, details of the sampling and analytic techniques, the result of this sampling, and the type of respiratory protection being worn by the person sampled. Your employer is also required to keep all records of biological monitoring and medical examination results. These must include the names of the employee, the physician's written opinion, and a copy of the results of the examination. All of the above kinds of records must be kept for 40 years or for at least 20 years after your termination of employment, whichever is longer.
Recordkeeping is also required if you are temporarily removed from your job under the medical removal protection program. This record must include your name and social security number, the date of your removal and return, how the removal was or is being accomplished, and whether or not the reason for the removal was an elevated blood lead level. Your employer is required to keep each medical removal record only for the duration of an employee's employment.
The standard requires that if you request to see or copy environmental monitoring, blood lead level (PbB) monitoring, or medical removal records, they must be made available to you or to a representative that you authorize. Your union also has access to these records. Upon your request, your complete medical records must also be provided to you, to your physician or to any other person whom you may specifically designate. Your union does not have access to your personal medical records unless you authorize such access.
XIII. Observation of Monitoring
When air monitoring for lead is performed at your workplace as required by the standard, your employer must allow you or someone you designate to observe the monitoring. The observer is entitled to an explanation of the measurement procedure and to record the results obtained. Since results will not normally be available at the time of the monitoring, the observer is entitled to record or receive the results of the monitoring when returned by the laboratory. Your employer is required to provide the observer with any personal protective devices required to be worn by employees working in the area that is being monitored. The employer must require the observer to wear all such equipment and to comply with all other applicable safety and health procedures.
XIV. Effective Date
The standard's effective date is September 8, 1979, and the employer obligations under the standard begin to come into effect as of that date.
XV. For Additional Information
A. Copies of the Federal lead standard and explanatory materials can be obtained free of charge by calling or writing the OSHA Office of Publications, Room S-1212, United States Department of Labor, Washington, D.C. 20210; Telephone, (202) 523-6138. The following publications are available:
1. The Federal lead standard and summary of the statement of reasons (preamble), Federal Register, Volume 43, pp. 52952-53014, November 14, 1978.
2. The full statement of reasons (preamble), Federal Register, Volume 43, pp. 54354-54509, November 21, 1978.
3. Partial Administrative Stay and Corrections to the Federal lead standard, Federal Register, Volume 44, pp. 5446-5448, January 26, 1979.
4. Notice of the Partial Judicial Stay, Federal Register, Volume 44, pp. 14554-14555, March 13, 1979.
5. Corrections to the preamble, Federal Register, Volume 44, pp. 20680-20681, April 6, 1979.
6. Additional correction to the preamble concerning the construction industry, Federal Register, Volume 44, p. 50338, August 28, 1979.
7. Appendices A, B and C to the Federal lead standard, Federal Register, Volume 44, pp. 60980-60994, October 23, 1979. Corrections to the appendices, Federal Register, Volume 44, p. 68828, November 30, 1979.
8. Notice of Limited Reopening of Rulemaking Record (and summary of U.S. Court of Appeals decision), Federal Register, Volume 45, pp. 63881-3, September 26, 1980.
9. Supplemental feasibility statement (in response to U.S. Court of Appeal's remand order), Federal Register, Volume 46, pp. 6134-6228, January 21, 1981.
10. Revised supplemental feasibility statement, Federal Register, Volume 46, pp. 60758-60776, December 11, 1981.
11. Revisions of the Federal standard and appendices and new Appendix D. Federal Register, Volume 47, pp. 51110-51119, November 12, 1982.
B. Additional information about the California lead standard, its enforcement, and your employer's compliance can be obtained from the nearest CAL/OSHA Consulting Service Office in Downey, Fresno, Panorama City, Sacramento, San Diego, and San Francisco. The CAL/OSHA Consulting Service is listed in telephone directories under California State Government/Industrial Relations Department.
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