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Subchapter 4. Construction Safety Orders Article 15. Cranes and Derricks in Construction
(a) This section contains supplemental requirements for tower cranes; all sections of this Article 15 apply to tower cranes unless specified otherwise.
(b) Erecting, climbing and dismantling.
The erection, climbing (up and down) and dismantling of a fixed tower crane shall comply with the requirements of Title 8, Section 341.1(c)(2) and General Industry Safety Orders, Section 4966. In addition the following supplemental requirements are applicable for all tower cranes.
(1) Section 1611.1 (Assembly/Disassembly - selection of manufacturer or employer procedures), Section 1611.2 (Assembly/Disassembly - general requirements (applies to all assembly and disassembly operations)), Section 1611.3 (Disassembly - additional requirements for dismantling of booms and jibs (applies to both the use of manufacturer procedures and employer procedures)), and Section 1611.4 (Assembly/Disassembly - Employer Procedures - general requirements), apply to tower cranes (except as otherwise specified), except that the term “assembly/disassembly” is replaced by “erecting, climbing and dismantling,” and the term “disassembly” is replaced by “dismantling.”
(2) Dangerous areas (self-erecting tower cranes). In addition to the requirements in Section 1611.2(e), for self-erecting tower cranes, the following applies: Employees shall not be in or under the tower, jib, or rotating portion of the crane during erecting, climbing and dismantling operations until the crane is secured in a locked position and the competent person in charge indicates it is safe to enter this area, unless the manufacturer's instructions direct otherwise and only the necessary personnel are permitted in this area.
(3) Foundations and structural supports. Tower crane foundations and structural supports (including both the portions of the structure used for support and the means of attachment) shall be designed by the manufacturer or a certified agent.
(A) The controlling entity shall ensure the tower crane foundations and structural supports are installed in accordance with the manufacturer's or certified agent's instructions.
(B) The controlling entity shall provide a written statement of compliance with subsection (A), above, to the erecting entity prior to erection or jump of the tower crane.
(C) The top of the support/foundation shall be accessible and free of debris, materials and standing water. No materials shall be stored on the support unless approved by a qualified person. The foundation and fasteners shall remain accessible and visible for inspection at all times.
(4) Addressing specific hazards. The requirements in Section 1611.2(h)(1) through (9) apply. In addition, the A/D director shall address the following:
(A) Foundations and structural supports. The A/D director shall determine that tower crane foundations and structural supports are installed in accordance with their design.
(B) Loss of backward stability. Backward stability before swinging self-erecting cranes or cranes on traveling or static undercarriages.
(C) Wind speed. Wind must not exceed the speed recommended by the manufacturer or, where manufacturer does not specify this information, the speed determined by a qualified person.
(5) Plumb tolerance. Towers shall be erected plumb to the manufacturer's tolerance and verified by a qualified person. Where the manufacturer does not specify plumb tolerance, the crane tower shall be plumb to a tolerance of at least 1:500 (approximately 1 inch in 40 feet).
(6) Multiple tower crane jobsites. On jobsites where more than one fixed jib (hammerhead) tower crane is installed, the cranes shall be located such that no crane can come in contact with the structure of another crane. Cranes are permitted to pass over one another.
(7) Climbing procedures. Prior to, and during, all climbing procedures (including inside climbing and top climbing), the employer shall:
(A) Comply with all manufacturer prohibitions.
(B) Have a certified agent verify that the host structure is strong enough to sustain the forces imposed through the braces, brace anchorages and supporting floors.
(A) Equipment shall not be erected, dismantled or operated without the amount and position of counterweight and/or ballast in place as specified by the manufacturer or a certified agent familiar with the equipment.
(B) The maximum counterweight and/or ballast specified by the manufacturer or certified agent familiar with the equipment shall not be exceeded.
(c) Signs. The size and location of signs installed on tower cranes shall be in accordance with manufacturer specifications. Where these are unavailable, a certified agent familiar with the type of equipment involved shall approve in writing the size and location of any signs.
(d) Safety devices.
(1) Section 1615.1 does not apply to tower cranes.
(2) The following safety devices are required on all tower cranes unless otherwise specified:
(A) Boom stops on luffing boom type tower cranes.
(B) Jib stops on luffing boom type tower cranes if equipped with a jib attachment.
(C) Travel rail end stops at both ends of travel rail.
(D) Travel rail clamps on all travel bogies.
(E) Integrally mounted check valves on all load supporting hydraulic cylinders.
(F) Hydraulic system pressure limiting device.
(G) The following brakes, which shall automatically set in the event of pressure loss or power failure, are required:
1. A hoist brake on all hoists.
2. Swing brake.
3. Trolley brake.
4. Rail travel brake.
(H) Deadman control or forced neutral return control (hand) levers.
(I) Emergency stop switch at the operator's station.
(J) Trolley end stops shall be provided at both ends of travel of the trolley.
(3) Proper operation required.
Operations shall not begin unless the devices listed in this section are in proper working order. If a device stops working properly during operations, the operator shall safely stop operations. The equipment shall be taken out of service, and operations shall not resume until the device is again working properly. See Section 1616.1(g). Alternative measures are not permitted to be used.
(e) Operational aids.
(1) Section 1615.2 does not apply to tower cranes.
(2) The devices listed in this section ( “operational aids”) are required on all tower cranes covered by this Article, unless otherwise specified.
(3) Operations shall not begin unless the operational aids are in proper working order, except where the employer meets the specified temporary alternative measures. More protective alternative measures specified by the tower crane manufacturer, if any, shall be followed. See Section 1616.1(j) for additional requirements.
(4) If an operational aid stops working properly during operations, the operator shall safely stop operations until the temporary alternative measures are implemented or the device is again working properly.
(5) Category I operational aids. Operational aids listed in this subsection shall be operational prior to and during operation at all times.
(A) Trolley travel limiting device. The travel of the trolley shall be restricted at both ends of the jib by a trolley travel limiting device to prevent the trolley from running into the trolley end stops.
(B) Boom hoist limiting device. The range of the boom shall be limited at the minimum and maximum radius.
(C) Anti two-blocking device. The tower crane shall be equipped with a device which automatically prevents damage from contact between the load block, overhaul ball, or similar component, and the boom tip (or fixed upper block or similar component). The device(s) shall prevent such damage at all points where two-blocking could occur.
(D) Hoist drum lower limiting device. Tower cranes manufactured after July 7, 2012 shall be equipped with a device that prevents the last 2 wraps of hoist cable from being spooled off the drum.
(E) Load moment limiting device. The tower crane shall have a device that prevents moment overloading.
(F) Hoist line pull limiting device. The capacity of the hoist shall be limited to prevent overloading, including each individual gear ratio if equipped with a multiple speed hoist transmission.
(G) Rail travel limiting device. The travel distance in each direction shall be limited to prevent the travel bogies from running into the end stops or buffers.
(H) Boom hoist drum positive locking device and control. The boom hoist drum shall be equipped with a control that will enable the operator to positively lock the boom hoist drum from the cab. Temporary alternative measure: The device shall be manually set when required if an electric, hydraulic or automatic control is not functioning.
(I) Boom angle or hook radius indicator.
1. Luffing boom tower cranes shall have a boom angle indicator readable from the operator's station.
2. Hammerhead tower cranes manufactured after July 7, 2012 shall have a hook radius indicator readable from the operator's station.
(J) Trolley travel deceleration device. The trolley speed shall be automatically reduced prior to the trolley reaching the end limit in both directions.
(K) Boom hoist deceleration device. The boom speed shall be automatically reduced prior to the boom reaching the minimum or maximum radius limit.
(L) Load hoist deceleration device. The load speed shall be automatically reduced prior to the hoist reaching the upper limit.
(M) Wind speed indicator. A device shall be provided to display the wind speed and shall be mounted above the upper rotating structure on tower cranes. On self erecting cranes, it shall be mounted at or above the jib level.
Temporary alternative measures:
Use of wind speed information from a properly functioning indicating device on another tower crane on the same site, or a qualified person estimates the wind speed.
(N) Load indicating device. Cranes manufactured after July 7, 2012 shall have a device that displays the magnitude of the load on the hook. Displays that are part of load moment limiting devices that display the load on the hook meet this requirement.
(1) Sections 1613.1-1613.9 (Inspections) apply to tower cranes, except that the term “assembly” is replaced by “erection.” Section 1613.10 (Wire rope - Inspection) applies to tower cranes.
(2) Pre-erection inspection. Before each crane component is erected, it shall be inspected by a qualified person for damage or excessive wear.
(A) The qualified person shall pay particular attention to components that will be difficult to inspect thoroughly during shift inspections.
(B) If the qualified person determines that a component is damaged or worn to the extent that it would create a safety hazard if used on the crane, that component shall not be erected on the crane unless it is repaired and, upon reinspection by the qualified person, found to no longer create a safety hazard.
(C) If the qualified person determines that, though not presently a safety hazard, the component needs to be monitored, the employer shall ensure that the component is checked in the monthly inspections. Any such determination shall be documented, and the documentation shall be available to any individual who conducts a monthly inspection.
(3) Post-erection inspection. In addition to the requirements in Section 1613.3, the following requirements shall be met:
(A) A load test using certified weights, or scaled weights using a certified scale with a current certificate of calibration, shall be conducted after each erection.
(B) The load test shall be conducted in accordance with General Industry Safety Orders, Section 5022 and the manufacturer's instructions when available. Where the manufacturer's instructions are unavailable, other methods of proof load testing may be substituted for the above where acceptable to the Division.
(4) Monthly. The following additional items shall be included:
(A) Tower (mast) bolts and other structural bolts (for loose or dislodged condition) from the base of the tower crane up or, if the crane is tied to or braced by the structure, those above the upper-most brace support.
(B) The upper-most tie-in, braces, floor supports and floor wedges where the tower crane is supported by the structure, for loose or dislodged components.
(5) Annual. In addition to the items that shall be inspected under Section 1613.6, all turntable and tower bolts shall be inspected for proper condition and torque.