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Subchapter 4. Construction Safety Orders
Article 10. Haulage and Earth Moving
§1591. Haulage Vehicles, Equipment-Construction and Maintenance.
(a) Windshields complying with the applicable provisions of the Vehicle Code shall be provided and maintained on haulage vehicles and scrapers.
(b) Equipment and accessories installed on haulage vehicles shall be arranged so as to avoid impairing the driver's operational vision to the front or sides.
(c) Brakes, General. Service brake systems for self-propelled, rubber-tired, off-highway equipment manufactured before January 1, 1972 (for scrapers January 1, 1971) shall meet minimum performance criteria for service brake systems as set forth in the Society of Automotive Engineers Recommended Practices listed below. Service, emergency and parking brake systems for self-propelled, rubber-tired, off-highway equipment manufactured after January 1, 1972 (for scrapers January 1, 1971) shall meet the applicable minimum performance criteria for each system as set forth in the same Society of Automotive Engineers Recommended Practices:
Trucks and Wagons
Front-End Loaders & Dozers
Note: Equipment that meets the performance criteria of SAE Recommended Practice J1152-APR 1980, Braking Performance - Rubber-Tired Construction Machines, satisfies the requirements of this Section.
(d) Air Tank Service. Liquids should be drained automatically from vehicle's compressed air tanks, but if such automatic equipment is not provided, the tanks shall be drained manually at least once each operating shift.
(e) Cab Shield. Haulage vehicles, whose pay load is loaded by means of cranes, power shovels, loaders, or similar equipment, shall have a cab shield and/or canopy adequate to protect the operator from shifting or falling materials.
(f) Fenders. Fenders complying with the following standards from SAE Recommended Practice J321, November, 1967 or J321b April, 1978, shall be provided on new scrapers, carryalls, related power units, and trailed hauling units manufactured and placed into service after January 1, 1971.
(g) Lights. Whenever visibility conditions warrant additional light, all vehicles, or combinations of vehicles, in use shall be equipped with at least two headlights and two taillights in operable condition.
(h) Canopy. Crawler tractors, bulldozers, carryalls and similar equipment manufactured and used prior to April 1, 1971, except for scrapers, front-end loaders and new equipment covered by 1596, shall have canopy protection and seat belts for the operator when used where there is exposure to falling or rolling objects.
(i) Operating Levers. Operating levers controlling hoisting or dumping devices on haulage bodies shall be equipped with a latch or other device which will prevent accidental starting or tripping of the mechanism.
(j) Trip Handles. Trip handles for tailgates of dump trucks shall be so arranged that in dumping, the operator will not be exposed either to the hazard of being struck by falling material or any part of the truck.
(k) Dump Bodies. Haulage vehicles equipped with dump bodies that tilt to release their load by gravity through an opening at the rear or side shall be provided with a device that gives the operator a clearly audible or visible warning when sufficient force is applied by the elevating mechanism to cause or sustain dump body elevation.
(l) Hazard Signals. Tractor-scrapers (self-propelled) pushed by other equipment during loading operations shall be provided with a clearly audible or visible warning device that can be activated by the operator of the tractor-scraper to communicate an “ALL STOP” warning to the pushing equipment in event of an emergency.
(m) Exhaust retrofits. If an exhaust retrofit is installed on a vehicle, it shall be installed and maintained in accordance with the following:
(1) An exhaust retrofit shall not reduce the capacity, structural integrity, or safe performance of a vehicle.
(2) An exhaust retrofit shall not reduce an employee's ability to access or egress a vehicle safely.
(3) An exhaust retrofit shall be located or effectively shielded such that it does not increase the risk of a fire due to accidental contact with hydraulic fluid or fuel spilled during transfer or sprayed from a broken hose, pipe, or container.
(4) An exhaust retrofit shall be located or effectively shielded such that it does not increase the risk of an employee contacting exhaust system surfaces having a temperature of 140 degrees F (60 degrees C) or higher. Heat shielding is not required on an exhaust retrofit located under the hood of a vehicle if space limitations make shielding impracticable.
(5) An exhaust retrofit, excluding exhaust stacks which are the subject of subsection (6), shall not obstruct the driver's view of an area or object located 40 inches outside of the smallest rectangle that encompasses the perimeter of a vehicle, as determined in accordance with the following:
(A) A modification or addition made to a vehicle to install a retrofit, such as an expanded engine compartment hood or added heat shield, shall be considered part of the exhaust retrofit,
(B) If a bucket or blade is attached to a vehicle, it shall be placed in the traveling position and shall be considered a part of the vehicle for the purpose of establishing the perimeter of the vehicle to the front and rear, but not to the sides,
(C) The driver's view shall be determined without the use of mirrors or cameras, and
(D) The driver's view shall represent the view that a driver would have under the following conditions:
1. The driver weighs at least 195 pounds and is less than 70 inches tall,
2. The driver is sitting upright in the driver's seat and is looking towards the exhaust retrofit, and
3. The driver's seat is positioned in the middle of its adjustable range.
Note: The Visibility Test Procedures in Non-Mandatory Appendix A constitute one method that may be used to demonstrate compliance with this subsection.
(6) Exhaust stacks on exhaust retrofits, when compared to exhaust stacks on the vehicle as originally manufactured, shall comply with the following conditions:
(A) Retrofit exhaust stacks shall be located or effectively shielded such that the stacks do not increase the risk of an employee contacting stack surfaces having a temperature of 140 degrees F (60 degrees C) or higher;
(B) Retrofit exhaust stacks shall not reduce the driver's view of the outside edge of the blade or bucket on earthmoving equipment, as determined without the use of mirrors or cameras; and
(C) Retrofit exhaust stacks shall not reduce the driver's view to the front, sides, or rear of the vehicle, as determined without the use of mirrors or cameras. A retrofit exhaust stack reduces the driver's view if the area it obstructs from the driver's view is wider than the area obstructed by the original exhaust stack. Exhaust stack modifications that shall be considered to reduce the driver's view include, but are not limited to, the following:
(i) Increasing the diameter of an exhaust stack,
(ii) Moving an exhaust stack closer to the driver,
(iii) Moving an exhaust stack from a location where it is hidden from the driver's view by a part of the vehicle, such as the cab frame, to a location where it obstructs the driver's view, or
(iv) Moving an exhaust stack from a location in the driver's peripheral view to a location in the driver's operational view.
1. Repealer of subsection (d), renumbering of subsections (e)-(k) to subsections (d)-(j), and new subsections (k) and (l) filed 3-19-79; effective thirtieth day thereafter (Register 79, No. 12). For prior history, see Register 75, No. 21.
2. Amendment of subsection (k) EXCEPTION filed 4-27-79; effective thirtieth day thereafter (Register 79, No. 17).
3. Editorial correction of subsection (k) (Register 79, No. 24).
4. Repealer and new subsections (k) and (l) filed 5-6-81; effective thirtieth day thereafter (Register 81, No. 19).
5. Amendment of subsections (a)-(g) filed 2-7-86; effective thirtieth day thereafter (Register 86, No. 6).
6. New subsections (m)-(m)(6)(C)(iv) and new appendix A filed 2-1-2012; operative 3-2-2012 (Register 2012, No. 5).