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Chapter 5. Industrial Welfare Commission
Group 2. Industry and Occupation Orders

Article 17. Miscellaneous Employees.

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§11170. Miscellaneous Employees.

1. APPLICABILITY OF ORDER

This wage order implements changes in the law as a result of the Legislature's enactment of the "Eight-Hour-Day Restoration and Workplace Flexibility Act," Stats. 1999, ch. 134 (commonly referred to as AB 60).

(A) Any industry or occupation not previously covered by, and all employees not specifically exempted in, the Commission's wage orders in effect in 1997, or otherwise exempted by law, are covered by this order.

(B) Except as provided in subsection (C), an employee in the computer software field who is paid on an hourly basis shall be exempt from the daily overtime pay provisions of California Labor Code Section 510, if all of the following apply:

(1) The employee is primarily engaged in work that is intellectual or creative and requires the exercise of discretion and independent judgment, and the employee is primarily engaged in duties that consist of one or more of the following:

(a) The application of systems analysis techniques and procedures, including consulting with users, to determine hardware, software, or system functional specifications.

(b) The design, development, documentation, analysis, creation, testing, or modification of computer systems or programs, including prototypes, based on and related to user or system design specifications.

(c) The documentation, testing, creation, or modification of computer programs related to the design of software or hardware for computer operating systems.

(2) The employee is highly skilled and is proficient in the theoretical and practical application of highly specialized information to computer systems analysis, programming, and software engineering. A job title shall not be determinative of the applicability of this exemption.

(3) The employee's hourly rate of pay is not less than forty-two dollars and sixty four cents ($42.64). The Division of Labor Statistics and Research shall adjust this pay rate on October 1 of each year to be effective on January 1 of the following year by an amount equal to the percentage increase in the California Consumer Price Index for Urban Wage Earners and Clerical Workers.

(C) The exemption provided in subsection (B) does not apply to an employee if any of the following apply:

(1) The employee is a trainee or employee in an entry-level position who is learning to become proficient in the theoretical and practical application of highly specialized information to computer systems analysis, programming, and software engineering.

(2) The employee is in a computer-related occupation but has not attained the level of skill and expertise necessary to work independently and without close supervision.

(3) The employee is engaged in the operation of computers or in the manufacture, repair, or maintenance of computer hardware and related equipment.

(4) The employee is an engineer, drafter, machinist, or other professional whose work is highly dependent upon or facilitated by the use of computers and computer software programs and who is skilled in computer-aided design software, including CAD/CAM, but who is not in a computer systems analysis or programming occupation.

(5) The employee is a writer engaged in writing material, including box labels, product descriptions, documentation, promotional material, setup and installation instructions, and other similar written information, either for print or for on screen media or who writes or provides content material intended to be read by customers, subscribers, or visitors to computer-related media such as the World Wide Web or CD-ROMs.

(6) The employee is engaged in any of the activities set forth in subsection (B) for the purpose of creating imagery for effects used in the motion picture, television, or theatrical industry.

(D) The provisions of this order shall not apply to any individual participating in a national service program, such as AmeriCorps, carried out using assistance provided under Section 12571 of Title 42 of the United States Code. (See Stats. 2000, ch. 365, amending Labor Code Section 1171.)

2. DEFINITIONS

(A) An "alternative workweek schedule" means any regularly scheduled workweek requiring an employee to work more than eight (8) hours in a 24-hour period.

(B) "Shift" means designated hours of work by an employee, with a designated beginning time and quitting time.

(C) "Workday" and "day" mean any consecutive 24-hour period beginning at the same time each calendar day.

(D) "Workweek" and "week" mean any seven (7) consecutive days, starting with the same calendar day each week. "Workweek" is a fixed and regularly recurring period of 168 hours, seven (7) consecutive 24-hour periods.

3. ADMINISTRATIVE, EXECUTIVE, AND PROFESSIONAL EMPLOYEES

The following provisions shall not apply to persons employed in administrative, executive, or professional capacities. No person shall be considered to be employed in an administrative, executive, or professional capacity unless the person is primarily engaged in the duties which meet the test of the exemption and earns a monthly salary equivalent to no less than two (2) times the state minimum wage for full-time employment. The duties that meet the tests of the exemption are one of the following set of conditions:

(A) The employee is engaged in work which is primarily intellectual, managerial, or creative, and which requires exercise of discretion and independent judgment; or

(B) The employee is licensed or certified by the State of California and is engaged in the practice of one of the following recognized professions: law, medicine, dentistry, optometry, architecture, engineering, teaching, or accounting, or is engaged in an occupation commonly recognized as a learned or artistic profession; provided, however, that pharmacists employed to engage in the practice of pharmacy, and registered nurses employed to engage in the practice of nursing, shall not be considered exempt professional employees, nor shall they be considered exempt from coverage for the purposes of this subsection unless they individually meet the criteria established for exemption as executive or administrative employees.

(C) For the purposes of this section, "full-time employment" means employment in which an employee is employed for 40 hours per week.

(D) For the purposes of this section, "primarily" means more than one-half of the employee's work time.

4. DAILY OVERTIMEGENERAL PROVISIONS

The following overtime provisions are applicable to employees 18 years of age or over and to employees 16 or 17 years of age who are not required by law to attend school and are not otherwise prohibited by law from engaging in the subject work. Such employees shall not be employed more than eight (8) hours in any workday or more than 40 hours in any workweek unless the employee receives one and one-half (1 ) times such employee's regular rate of pay for all hours worked over 40 hours in the workweek. Eight (8) hours of labor constitutes a day's work. Employment beyond eight (8) hours in any workday or more than six (6) days in any workweek is permissible provided the employee is compensated for such overtime at not less than:

(A) One and one-half (1 ) times the employee's regular rate of pay for all hours worked in excess of eight (8) hours up to and including 12 hours in any workday, and for the first eight (8) hours worked on the seventh (7th) consecutive day of work in a workweek; and

(B) Double the employee's regular rate of pay for all hours worked in excess of 12 hours in any workday and for all hours worked in excess of eight (8) hours on the seventh (7th) consecutive day of work in a workweek.

(C) The overtime rate of compensation required to be paid to a nonexempt full-time salaried employee shall be computed by using the employee's regular hourly salary as one-fortieth (1/40) of the employee's weekly salary.

5. ALTERNATIVE WORKWEEK

(A) No employer shall be deemed to have violated the daily overtime provisions by instituting, pursuant to the election procedures set forth in this wage order, a regularly scheduled alternative workweek schedule of not more than ten (10) hours per day within a 40 hour workweek without the payment of an overtime rate of compensation. All work performed in any workday beyond the schedule established by the agreement up to 12 hours a day or beyond 40 hours per week shall be paid at one and one-half (1) times the employee's regular rate of pay. All work performed in excess of 12 hours per day and any work in excess of eight (8) hours on those days worked beyond the regularly scheduled number of workdays established by the alternative workweek agreement shall be paid at double the employee's regular rate of pay. Any alternative workweek agreement adopted pursuant to this section shall provide for not less than four (4) hours of work in any shift. Nothing in this section shall prohibit an employer, at the request of the employee, to substitute one (1) day of work for another day of the same length in the shift provided by the alternative workweek agreement on an occasional basis to meet the personal needs of the employee without the payment of overtime. No hours paid at either one and one-half (1) or double the regular rate of pay shall be included in determining when 40 hours have been worked for the purpose of computing overtime compensation.

(B) If an employer whose employees have adopted an alternative workweek agreement permitted by this order requires an employee to work fewer hours than those that are regularly scheduled by the agreement, the employer shall pay the employee overtime compensation at a rate of one and one-half (1) times the employee's regular rate of pay for all hours worked in excess of eight (8) hours, and double the employee's regular rate of pay for all hours worked in excess of 12 hours for the day the employee is required to work the reduced hours.

(C) An employer shall not reduce an employee's regular rate of hourly pay as a result of the adoption, repeal or nullification of an alternative workweek schedule.

(D) An employer shall explore any available reasonable alternative means of accommodating the religious belief or observance of an affected employee that conflicts with an adopted alternative workweek schedule, in the manner provided by subdivision (j) of Section 12940 of the Government Code.

(E) An employer shall make a reasonable effort to find a work schedule not to exceed eight (8) hours in a workday, in order to accommodate any affected employee who was eligible to vote in an election authorized by this section and who is unable to work the alternative workweek schedule established as the result of that election.

(F) An employer shall be permitted, but not required, to provide a work schedule not to exceed eight (8) hours in a workday to accommodate any employee who is hired after the date of the election and who is unable to work the alternative workweek schedule established by the election.

(G) The provisions of Labor Code Sections 551 and 552 regarding one (1) day's rest in seven (7) shall not be construed to prevent an accumulation of days of rest when the nature of the employment reasonably requires the employee to work seven (7) or more consecutive days; provided, however, that in each calendar month, the employee shall receive the equivalent of one (1) day's rest in seven (7).

(H) Arrangements adopted in a secret ballot election held pursuant to this order prior to 1998, or under the rules in effect prior to 1998, and before the performance of the work, shall remain valid after July 1, 2000 provided that the results of the election are reported by the employer to the Division of Labor Statistics and Research by January 1, 2001, in accordance with the requirements of Election Procedures subsection F. New arrangements can only be entered into pursuant to the provisions of this section.

Election Procedures

(A) Each proposal for an alternative workweek schedule shall be in the form of a written agreement proposed by the employer. The proposed agreement must designate a regularly scheduled alternative workweek in which the specified number of work days and work hours are regularly recurring. The actual days worked within that alternative workweek schedule need not be specified. The employer may propose a single work schedule that would become the standard schedule for workers in the work unit, or a menu of work schedule options, from which each employee in the unit would be entitled to choose. If the employer proposes a menu of work schedule options, the employee may, with the approval of the employer, move from one menu option to another.

(B) In order to be valid, the proposed alternative workweek schedule must be adopted in a secret ballot election, before the performance of work, by at least a two-thirds (2/3) vote of the affected employees in the work unit. The election shall be held during regular working hours at the employees' work site. For purposes of this subsection, "affected employees in the work unit" may include all employees in a readily identifiable work unit, such as a division, a department, a job classification, a shift, a separate physical location, or a recognized subdivision of any such work unit. A work unit may consist of an individual employee as long as the criteria for an identifiable work unit in this subsection are met.

(C) Prior to the secret ballot vote, any employer who proposed to institute an alternative workweek schedule shall have made a disclosure in writing to the affected employees, including the effects of the proposed arrangement on the employees' wages, hours, and benefits. Such a disclosure shall include meeting(s), duly noticed, held at least 14 days prior to voting, for the specific purpose of discussing the effects of the alternative workweek schedule. An employer shall provide that disclosure in a non-English language, as well as in English, if at least five (5) percent of the affected employees primarily speak that non-English language. The employer shall mail the written disclosure to employees who do not attend the meeting. Failure to comply with this section shall make the election null and void.

(D) Any election to establish or repeal an alternative workweek schedule shall be held during regular working hours at the work site of the affected employees. The employer shall bear the costs of conducting any election held pursuant to this section. Upon a complaint by an affected employee, and after an investigation by the labor commissioner, the labor commissioner may require the employer to select a neutral third party to conduct the election.

(E) Any type of alternative workweek schedule that is authorized by the Labor Code may be repealed by the affected employees. Upon a petition of one-third (1/3) of the affected employees, a new secret ballot election shall be held and a two-thirds (2/3) vote of the affected employees shall be required to reverse the alternative workweek schedule. The election to repeal the alternative workweek schedule shall be held not more than 30 days after the petition is submitted to the employer, except that the election shall be held not less that 12 months after the date that the same group of employees voted in an election held to adopt or repeal an alternative workweek schedule. The election shall take place during regular working hours at the employees' work site. If the alternative workweek schedule is revoked, the employer shall comply within 60 days. Upon proper showing of undue hardship, the Division of Labor Standards Enforcement may grant an extension of time for compliance.

(F) Only secret ballots may be cast by affected employees in the work unit at any election held pursuant to this section. The results of any election conducted pursuant to this section shall be reported by the employer to the Division of Labor Statistics and Research within 30 days after the results are final, and the report of election results shall be a public document. The report shall include the final tally of the vote, the size of the unit, and the nature of the business of the employer.

(G) Employees affected by a change in the work hours resulting from the adoption of an alternative workweek schedule may not be required to work those new work hours for at least 30 days after the announcement of the final results of the election.

(H) Employers shall not intimidate or coerce employees to vote either in support of or in opposition to a proposed alternative workweek. No employees shall be discharged or discriminated against for expressing opinions concerning the alternative workweek election or for opposing or supporting its adoption or repeal. However, nothing in this section shall prohibit an employer from expressing his/her position concerning that alternative workweek to the affected employees. A violation of this subsection shall be subject to Labor Code Section 98 et seq.

6. MINORS

VIOLATIONS OF CHILD LABOR LAWS are subject to civil penalties of from $500 to $10,000 as well as to criminal penalties. Refer to California Labor Code Sections 1285 to 1312 and 1390 to 1399 for additional restrictions on the employment of minors and for descriptions of criminal and civil penalties for violation of the child labor laws. Employers should ask school districts about any required work permits.

7. COLLECTIVE BARGAINING AGREEMENTS

(A) Sections 4 and 5 of this order shall not apply to any employee covered by a valid collective bargaining agreement if the agreement expressly provides for the wages, hours of work, and working conditions of the employees, and if the agreement provides premium wage rates for all overtime hours worked and a regular hourly rate of pay for those employees of not less than 30 percent more than the state minimum wage.

(B) Notwithstanding Section 7(A), where the employer and a labor organization representing employees of the employer have entered into a valid collective bargaining agreement pertaining to the hours of work of the employees, the requirement regarding the equivalent of one (1) day's rest in seven (7) (see Section 5(G) above) shall apply, unless the agreement expressly provides otherwise.

8. MAKEUP TIME

If an employer approves a written request of an employee to make up work time that is or would be lost as a result of a personal obligation of the employee, the hours of that makeup work time, if performed in the same workweek in which the work time was lost, may not be counted toward computing the total number of hours worked in a day for purposes of the overtime requirements, except for hours in excess of 11 hours of work in one (1) day or 40 hours of work in one workweek. If an employee knows in advance that he/she will be requesting makeup time for a personal obligation that will recur at a fixed time over a succession of weeks, the employee may request to make up work time for up to four (4) weeks in advance; provided, however, that the makeup work must be performed in the same week that the work time was lost. An employee shall provide a signed written request for each occasion that the employee makes a request to make up work time pursuant to this section. While an employer may inform an employee of this makeup time option, the employer is prohibited from encouraging or otherwise soliciting an employee to request the employer's approval to take personal time off and make up the work hours within the same workweek pursuant to this section.

9. MEAL PERIODS

(A) No employer shall employ any person for a work period of more than five (5) hours without a meal period of not less than 30 minutes, except that when a work period of not more than six (6) hours will complete the day's work the meal period may be waived by mutual consent of the employer and the employee.

(B) An employer may not employ an employee for a work period of more than ten (10) hours per day without providing the employee with a second meal period of not less than 30 minutes, except that if the total hours worked is no more than 12 hours, the second meal period may be waived by mutual consent of the employer and the employee only if the first meal period was not waived.

(C) If an employer fails to provide an employee a meal period in accordance with the applicable provisions of this order, the employer shall pay the employee one (1) hour of pay at the employee’s regular rate of compensation for each workday that the meal period is not provided.

10. PENALTIES

In addition to any other civil or criminal penalty provided by law, any employer or any other person acting on behalf of the employer who violates, or causes to be violated, the provisions of this order, shall be subject to the civil penalty of:

(A) Initial Violation - $50.00 for each underpaid employee for each pay period during which the employee was underpaid in addition to the amount which is sufficient to recover unpaid wages.

(B) Subsequent Violations - $100.00 for each underpaid employee for each pay period during which the employee was underpaid in addition to an amount which is sufficient to recover unpaid wages.

(C) The affected employee shall receive payment of all wages recovered.

(D) The labor commissioner may also issue citations pursuant to California Labor Code Section 1197.1 for non-payment of wages for overtime work in violation of this order.

11. SEPARABILITY

If the application of any provision of this order, or any section, subsection, subdivision, sentence, clause, phrase, word, or portion of this order should be held invalid or unconstitutional or unauthorized or prohibited by statute, the remaining provisions thereof shall not be affected thereby, but shall continue to be given full force and effect as if the part so held invalid or unconstitutional had not been included herein.

12. POSTING OF ORDER

Every employer shall keep a copy of this order posted in an area frequented by employees where it may be easily read during the workday. Where the location of work or other conditions make this impractical, every employer shall keep a copy of this order and make it available to every employee upon request.

NOTE

Authority cited: Section 1173, Labor Code; and California Constitution Article XIV, Section 1. Reference: Sections 1182 and 1184, Labor Code

HISTORY

1. New article 17 (section 11170) and section filed 1-4-2002; operative 1-1-2001. Submitted to OAL for printing only pursuant to Labor Code section 517 (Register 2002, No. 1).


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