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Subchapter 7. General Industry Safety Orders
Group 20. Flammable Liquids, Gases and Vapors
Article 147. Bulk Plants
(a) The term wharf shall mean any wharf, pier, bulkhead or other structure over or contiguous to navigable water, the primary function of which is the transfer of flammable or combustible liquid cargo in bulk between shore installations and any tank vessel, ship, barge, lighter boat or other mobile floating craft; and this article shall apply to all such installations except Marine Service Stations as covered in Article 144.
(1) When flammable or combustible liquids are handled in bulk quantities across piers and wharves, piers and wharves shall be designed and constructed in an approved manner.
NOTE: For information on pier and wharf design and construction, consult the National Fire Protection Association's Standard for the “Construction and Fire Protection of Marine Terminals, Piers and Wharves”, NFPA 307, 2011 edition and/or your local jurisdiction fire department.
(b) Substructure and deck shall be substantially designed for the use intended. Deck may employ any material which will afford the desired combination of flexibility, resistance to shock, durability, strength and fire resistance. Heavy timber construction is acceptable.
(c) Loading pumps capable of building up pressures in excess of the safe working pressure of cargo hose or loading arms shall be provided with by-passes, relief valves, or other arrangement to protect the loading facilities against excessive pressure. Relief devices shall be tested at not more than yearly intervals to determine that they function satisfactorily at the pressure at which they are set.
(1) All pressure hoses and couplings shall be inspected at intervals appropriate to the service. With the hose extended, test the hose and couplings using the “in service maximum operating pressures.” Any hose showing material deteriorations, signs of leakage, or weakness in its carcass or at the couplings shall be withdrawn from service and repaired or discarded.
(d) Piping, valves and fittings shall be in accordance with Article 146, with the following exceptions and additions:
(1) Flexibility of piping shall be assured by appropriate layout and arrangement of piping supports so that motion of the wharf structure resulting from wave action, currents, tides or the mooring of vessels will not subject the pipe to repeated strain beyond the elastic limit.
(2) Pipe joints depending upon the friction characteristics of combustible materials or grooving of pipe ends for mechanical continuity of piping shall not be used.
(3) Swivel joints may be used in piping to which hoses are connected, and for articulated swivel-joint transfer systems, provided that the design
is such that the mechanical strength of the joint will not be impaired if the packing material should fail, as by exposure to fire.
(4) Piping systems shall contain a sufficient number of valves to operate the system properly and to control the flow of liquid in normal operation and in the event of physical damage.
(5) In addition to the requirements of (4), each line conveying Category 1, 2 or 3 flammable liquids leading to a wharf shall be provided with a readily accessible block valve located on shore near the approach to the wharf and outside of any diked area. Where more than one line is involved, the valves shall be grouped in one location.
(6) Means of easy access shall be provided for cargo line valves located below the wharf deck.
(7) Pipe lines on wharves shall be adequately bonded and grounded if Category 1, 2 or 3 flammable liquids are handled.
(8) Hose or articulated swivel-joint pipe connections used for cargo transfer shall be capable of accommodating the combined effects of change in draft and maximum tidal range, and mooring lines shall be kept adjusted to prevent surge of the vessel from placing stress on the cargo transfer system.
(9) Hose shall be supported so as to avoid kinking and damage from chafing.
(e) Suitable portable fire extinguishers with a rating of not less than 20-B shall be located within 75 feet of those portions of the facility where fires are likely to occur, such as hose connections, pumps and separator tanks.
(1) Where piped water is available, ready-connected fire hose in size appropriate for the water supply shall be provided so that manifolds where connections are made and broken can be reached by at least one hose stream.
(2) Material shall not be placed on wharves in such a manner as to obstruct access to fire fighting equipment or important pipe line control valves.
(3) Where the wharf is accessible to vehicle traffic, an unobstructed roadway to the shore end of the wharf shall be maintained for access of fire fighting apparatus. (Title 24, T8-5620(a), (b), (c))