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Subchapter 7. General Industry Safety Orders
Group 16. Control of Hazardous Substances
Article 109. Hazardous Substances and Processes

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§5194. Hazard Communication

(a) (Reserved)
(b) Scope and Application.
(1) This section requires manufacturers or importers to classify the hazards of chemicals which they produce or import, and all employers to provide information to their employees about the hazardous chemicals to which they may be exposed, by means of a hazard communication program, labels and other forms of warning, safety data sheets, and information and training. In addition, this section requires distributors to transmit the required information to employers.
(2) This section applies to any hazardous chemical which is known to be present in the work place in such a manner that employees may be exposed under normal conditions of use or in a reasonably foreseeable emergency resulting from work place operations.
(3) This section applies to laboratories that primarily provide quality control analyses for manufacturing processes or that produce hazardous chemicals for commercial purposes, and to all other laboratories except those under the direct supervision and regular observation of an individual who has knowledge of the physical hazards, health hazards, and emergency procedures associated with the use of the particular hazardous chemicals involved, and who conveys this knowledge to employees in terms of safe work practices. Such excepted laboratories must also ensure that labels of incoming containers of hazardous chemicals are not removed or defaced pursuant to section 5194(f)(9), and must maintain any safety data sheets that are received with incoming shipments of hazardous chemicals and ensure that they are readily available to laboratory employees pursuant to section 5194(g).
(4) This section does not require labeling of the following chemicals:
(A) Any pesticide as such term is defined in the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (7 U.S.C. 136 et seq.), when subject to the labeling requirements of that Act and labeling regulations issued under that Act by the Environmental Protection Agency;
(B) Any food, food additive, color additive, drug, cosmetic, or medical or veterinary device, including materials intended for use as ingredients in such products (e.g., flavors and fragrances), as such terms are defined in the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 301 et seq.) and regulations issued under that Act, when they are subject to the labeling requirements of that Act and labeling regulations issued under that Act by the Food and Drug Administration;
(C) Any distilled spirits (beverage alcohols), wine, or malt beverage intended for nonindustrial use, as such terms are defined in the Federal Alcohol Administration Act (27 U.S.C. 201 et seq.) and regulations issued under that Act, when subject to the labeling requirements of that Act and labeling regulations issued under that Act by the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives; and;
(D) Any consumer product or hazardous substance as those terms are defined in the Consumer Product Safety Act (15 U.S.C. 2051 et seq.) and Federal Hazardous Substances Act (15 U.S.C. 1261 et seq.) respectively, when subject to a consumer product safety standard or labeling requirement of those Acts, or regulations issued under those Acts by the Consumer Product Safety Commission.
(5) This section does not apply to:
(A) Any hazardous waste as such term is defined by the Solid Waste Disposal Act, as amended by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976, as amended (42U.S.C. 6901 et seq.), when subject to regulations issued under that Act by the Environmental Protection Agency;
(B) Tobacco or tobacco products;
(C) Wood or wood products including lumber which will not be processed, where the manufacturer or importer can establish that the only hazard they pose to employees is the potential for flammability or combustibility (non-excluded hazardous chemicals which are used in conjunction with wood or wood products, or are known to be present as impurities in those materials, and wood which may be subsequently sawed or cut, generating dust, are covered by this section);
(D) Articles (hazardous chemicals used in the manufacture or use of an article are covered by this section unless otherwise excluded);
(E) Foods, drugs, or cosmetics intended for personal consumption by employees while in the workplace;
(F) Retail food sale establishments and all other retail trade establishments, exclusive of processing and repair work areas;
(G) Consumer products packaged for distribution to, and use by, the general public, provided that employee exposure to the product is not significantly greater than the consumer exposure occurring during the principal consumer use of the product;
(H) The use of a chemical in compliance with regulations of the Director of the Department of Pesticide Regulation issued pursuant to section 12981 of the Food and Agricultural Code.
(I) Work operations where employees only handle chemicals in sealed containers which are not opened under normal conditions of use (such as are found in marine cargo handling, warehousing, or transportation); however, this section does apply to these operations as follows:
1. Employers shall ensure that labels on incoming containers of hazardous chemicals are not removed or defaced;
2. Employers shall maintain copies of any safety data sheets that are received with incoming shipments of the sealed containers of hazardous chemicals, shall obtain a safety data sheet for sealed containers of hazardous chemicals received without a safety data sheet if an employee requests the safety data sheet, and shall ensure that the safety data sheets are readily accessible during each work shift to employees when they are in their work area(s); and,
3. Employers shall ensure that employees are provided with information and training in accordance with subsection (h) except for the location and availability of the written hazard communication program under subsection (h)(2)(C), to the extent necessary to protect them in the event of a spill or leak of a hazardous chemical from a sealed container.
(6) Proposition 65 Warnings.
(A) Notwithstanding any other provision of law including the preceding subsections, an employer which is a person in the course of doing business within the meaning of Health and Safety Code Section 25249.11(a) and (b), is subject to the Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act of 1986 (Proposition 65 or the “Act”) (Health and Safety Code § 25249.5 et seq.), and shall comply with the Act in the manner set forth in subsections (B) and (C) below. The following employers are not subject to the Act:
1. an employer employing fewer than ten employees;
2. any city, county, or district or any department or agency thereof or the state or any department or agency thereof or the federal government or any department or agency thereof;
3. any entity in its operation of a public water system as defined in Health and Safety Code Section 4010.1.
(B) Exposures Subject to Proposition 65 and Hazard Communication. Before exposing any employee to any hazardous substance that otherwise falls within the scope of this section and which requires a warning under this Act (see 22 CCR Section 12000, Chemicals Known to the State to Cause Cancer or Reproductive Toxicity) except as provided in subsection (D) below, any employer subject to the Act shall comply with the requirements set forth in subsections (d) through (k). Such compliance shall be deemed compliance with the Act.
(C) Exposures Subject to Proposition 65 Only. Before knowingly and intentionally exposing any employee to any hazardous substance that does not otherwise fall within the scope of the section, but which requires a warning under the Act (see 22 CCR Section 12000, Chemicals Known to the State to Cause Cancer or Reproductive Toxicity) except as provided in subsection (D) below, any employer subject to the Act shall either provide a warning to employees in compliance with California Code of Regulations Title 22 (22 CCR) Section 12601(c) in effect on May 9, 1991 or shall comply with the requirements set forth in subsections (d) through (k).
(D) Exposures Not Subject to Proposition 65. A warning required by subsection (B) and (C) above shall not apply to any of the following:
1. An exposure for which federal law governs warning in a manner that preempts state authority.
2. An exposure that takes place less than twelve months subsequent to the listing of the chemical in 22 CCR Section 12000.
3. An exposure for which the employer responsible can show that the exposure poses no significant risk assuming lifetime exposure at the level in question for the chemicals known to the State to cause cancer, and that the exposure will have no observable effect assuming exposure at one thousand (1,000) times the level in question for chemicals known to the State to cause reproductive toxicity, based on evidence and standards of comparable scientific validity to the evidence and standards which form the scientific basis for the listing of such chemical in 22 CCR Section 12000. In any enforcement action the burden of showing that an exposure meets the criteria of this subsection shall be on the employer.
(E) Additional Enforcement of Proposition 65. In addition to any other applicable enforcement provision, violations or threatened violations of the Act may be enforced in the manner set forth in Health and Safety Code Section 25249.7 for violations and threatened violations of Health and Safety Code Section 25249.6. Compliance with 22 CCR Section 12601(c) in effect on May 9, 1991 shall be deemed a defense to an enforcement action under Health and Safety Code Section 25249.7.
(F) All terms and provisions of subsection (b)(6) shall have the same meaning as the following 22 CCR Sections in effect on May 9, 1991: 12201(a), 12201(b), 12201(c), 12201(d), 12201(f), 12201(k), 12502, 12601, 12701(a), 12701(b), 12701(d), 12703, 12705, 12707, 12709, 12711, 12721, 12801, 12803, 12805, 12821 and 12901. The above listed 22 CCR Sections in effect on May 9, 1991 are printed in Appendix G to this section. Additionally, all terms and provisions of subsection (b)(6) shall have the same meaning as in the Act and in 22 CCR Section 12000.
(c) Definitions.
Article.
A manufactured item: (1) Which is formed to a specific shape or design during manufacture; (2) which has end use function(s) dependent in whole or in part upon it shape or design during end use; and (3) which does not release, or otherwise result in exposure to, a hazardous chemical under normal conditions of use or in a reasonably foreseeable emergency resulting from workplace operations.
CAS number.
The unique identification number assigned by the Chemical Abstracts Service to specific chemical substances.
Chemical.
Any substance, or mixture of substances.
Chemical name.
The scientific designation of a chemical in accordance with the nomenclature system developed by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) or the Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) rules of nomenclature, or a name which will clearly identify the chemical for the purpose of conducting a hazard classification.
Chief.
The Chief of the Division of Occupational Safety and Health, P.O. Box 420603, San Francisco, CA 94142, or designee.
Classification.
Identification of relevant data regarding the hazards of a chemical; review of those data to ascertain the hazards associated with the chemical; and decision regarding whether the chemical will be classified as hazardous according to the definition of hazardous chemical in this section. In addition, classification for health and physical hazards includes the determination of the degree of hazard, where appropriate, by comparing the data with the criteria for health and physical hazards.
Combustible liquid.
Any liquid having a flashpoint greater than 199.4oF (93oC) (formerly designated Class IIIB Combustible liquids).
Common name.
Any designation or identification such as code name, code number, trade name, brand name or generic name used to identify a chemical other than by its chemical name.
Container.
Any bag, barrel, bottle, box, can, cylinder, drum, reaction vessel, storage tank, tank truck, or the like that contains a hazardous chemical. For purposes of this section, pipes or piping systems are not considered to be containers.
Department.
The Department of Industrial Relations, P.O. Box 420603, San Francisco, CA 94142, or designee.
Designated representative.
Any individual or organization to whom an employee gives written authorization to exercise such employee's rights under this section. A recognized or certified collective bargaining agent shall be treated automatically as a designated representative without regard to written employee authorization.
Director.
The Director of Industrial Relations, P.O. Box 420603, San Francisco, CA 94142, or designee.
Distributor.
A business, other than a manufacturer or importer, which supplies hazardous chemicals to other distributors or to employers.
Division.
The Division of Occupational Safety and Health (Cal/OSHA), California Department of Industrial Relations, or designee.
Emergency.
Any potential occurrence such as, but not limited to, equipment failure, rupture of containers, or failure of control equipment, which may or does result in a release of a hazardous chemical into the workplace.
Employee.
Every person who is required or directed by any employer, to engage in any employment, or to go to work or be at any time in any place of employment.
Employer.
Employer means:
(A) The State and every State agency.
(B) Each county, city, district, and all public and quasi-public corporations and public agencies therein.
(C) Every person including any public service corporation, which has any natural person in service.
(D) The legal representative of any deceased employer.
Exposure or Exposed.
Any situation arising from work operation where an employee may ingest, inhale, absorb through the skin or eyes, or otherwise come into contact with a hazardous chemical.
Hazard category.
The division of criteria within each hazard class, e.g., oral acute toxicity and flammable liquids include four hazard categories. These categories compare hazard severity within a hazard class and should not be taken as a comparison of hazard categories more generally.
Hazard class.
The nature of the physical or health hazards, e.g., flammable solid, carcinogen, oral acute toxicity.
Hazard not otherwise classified (HNOC).
An adverse physical or health effect identified through evaluation of scientific evidence during the classification process that does not meet the specified criteria for the physical and health hazard classes addressed in this section. This does not extend coverage to adverse physical and health effects for which there is a hazard class addressed in this section, but the effect either falls below the cut-off value/concentration limit of the hazard class or is under a GHS hazard category that has not been adopted by OSHA (e.g., acute toxicity Category 5).
Hazard statement.
A statement assigned to a hazard class and category that describes the nature of the hazard(s) of a chemical, including, where appropriate, the degree of hazard.
Hazardous chemical.
Any chemical which is classified as a physical hazard or a health hazard, a simple asphyxiant, combustible dust, pyrophoric gas, a hazard not otherwise classified, or is included in the List of Hazardous Substances prepared by the Director pursuant to Labor Code section 6382.
Health hazard.
A chemical which is classified as posing one of the following hazardous effects: acute toxicity (any route of exposure); skin corrosion or irritation; serious eye damage or eye irritation; respiratory or skin sensitization; germ cell mutagenicity; carcinogenicity; reproductive toxicity; specific target organ toxicity (single or repeated exposure); or aspiration hazard. The criteria for determining whether a chemical is classified as a health hazard are detailed in subsection (d) and Appendix A to this section - Health Hazard Criteria.
Immediate use.
The hazardous chemical will be under the control of and used only by the person who transfers it from a labeled container and only within the work shift in which it is transferred.
Importer.
The first business with employees within the Customs Territory of the United States which receives hazardous chemicals produced in other countries for the purpose of supplying them to distributors or purchasers within the United States.
Label.
An appropriate group of written, printed or graphic information elements concerning a hazardous chemical that is affixed to, printed on, or attached to the immediate container of a hazardous chemical, or to the outside packaging.
Label elements.
The specified pictogram, hazard statement, signal word and precautionary statement for each hazard class and category.
Manufacturer.
A person who produces, synthesizes, extracts, or otherwise makes a hazardous chemical.
Mixture.
A combination or a solution composed of two or more substances in which they do not react.
NIOSH. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
Physical hazard.
A chemical that is classified as posing one of the following hazardous effects: explosive; flammable (gases, aerosols, liquids, or solids); oxidizer (liquid, solid or gas); self-reactive; pyrophoric (liquid or solid); self-heating; organic peroxide; corrosive to metal; gas under pressure; combustible liquid; water-reactive; or in contact with water emits flammable gas. See Appendix B to section 5194 - Physical Hazard Criteria.
Pictogram.
A composition that may include a symbol plus other graphic elements, such as a border, background pattern, or color, that is intended to convey specific information about the hazards of a chemical. Eight pictograms are designated under this standard for application to a hazard category.
Precautionary statement.
A phrase that describes recommended measures that should be taken to minimize or prevent adverse effects resulting from exposure to a hazardous chemical, or improper storage or handling.
Produce.
To manufacture, process, formulate, repackage, or relabel.
Product identifier.
The name or number used for a hazardous chemical on a label or in the SDS. It provides a unique means by which the user can identify the chemical. The product identifier used shall permit cross-references to be made among the list of hazardous chemicals required in the written hazard communication program, the label and the SDS.
Pyrophoric gas.
A chemical in a gaseous state that will ignite spontaneously in air at a temperature of 130 degrees F (54.4 degrees C) or below.
Responsible party.
Someone who can provide additional information on the hazardous chemical and appropriate emergency procedures, if necessary.
Safety data sheet (SDS).
Written or printed material concerning a hazardous chemical that is prepared in accordance with section 5914(g).
Signal word.
A word used to indicate the relative level of severity of hazard and alert the reader to a potential hazard on the label. The signal words used in this section are “danger” and “warning.” “Danger” is used for the more severe hazards, while “warning” is used for the less severe.
Simple asphyxiant.
A substance or mixture that displaces oxygen in the ambient atmosphere, and can thus cause oxygen deprivation in those who are exposed, leading to unconsciousness and death.
Specific chemical identity.
The chemical name, Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Number, or any other information that reveals the precise chemical designation of the substance.
Substance.
Chemical elements and their compounds in the natural state or obtained by any production process, including any additive necessary to preserve the stability of the product and any impurities deriving from the process used, but excluding any solvent which may be separated without affecting the stability of the substance or changing its composition.
Trade secret.
Any confidential formula, pattern, process, device, information, or compilation of information which gives its user an opportunity to obtain a business advantage over competitors who do not know or use it. A trade secret shall not include chemical identity information which is readily discoverable through qualitative analysis. Appendix E to section 5194-Definition of Trade Secret sets out the criteria to be used in evaluating trade secrets.
Use.
To package, handle, react, or transfer.
Work area.
A room or defined space in a workplace where hazardous chemicals are produced or used, and where employees are present.
Workplace.
Any place, and the premises appurtenant thereto, where employment is carried on, except a place the health and safety jurisdiction over which is vested by law in, and actively exercised by, any state or federal agency other than the Division.
(d) Hazard Classification.
(1) Manufacturers and importers shall evaluate chemicals produced in their workplaces or imported by them to determine if they are hazardous and classify the chemicals in accordance with this section. For each chemical, the manufacturer or importer shall determine the hazard classes, and where appropriate, the category of each class that apply to the chemical being classified. Employers are not required to classify chemicals unless they choose not to rely on the classification performed by the manufacturer or importer for the chemical to satisfy this requirement.
(2) Manufacturers, importers, or employers classifying chemicals shall identify and consider the full range of available scientific literature and other evidence concerning the potential hazards. This section does not require manufacturers, importers, or employers to conduct toxicological testing or epidemiological studies of the chemical(s) to determine how to classify the hazards. Appendix A to section 5194 shall be consulted for classification of health hazards and Appendix B to section 5194 shall be consulted for the classification of physical hazards. In addition, the manufacturer, importer, or employer classifying chemicals shall ensure that the identity and health effect of every chemical that they determine does not meet criteria in Appendix A for classification is noted on the safety data sheet if:
(A) There is statistically significant evidence of a hazardous effect; and,
(B) The evidence is based on at least one positive study conducted in accordance with established scientific principles.
(3) Manufacturers, importers, or employers classifying chemicals shall treat any chemical listed on the following sources as a hazardous chemical and shall be required to classify the listed chemical using the criteria as described in Appendix A.
(A) The list of hazardous substances prepared by the Director pursuant to Labor Code section 6382 and as promulgated in title 8, California Code of Regulations, section 339.
(B) 29 CFR part 1910, subpart Z, Toxic and Hazardous Substances, Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA).
(C) Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances in the Work Environment, American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) (latest edition).
(D) Chemicals specifically identified and regulated under Title 8, Article 107, Dusts, Fumes, Mists, Vapors and Gases, and Article 109, Hazardous Substances and Processes.
The manufacturer, importer, or employer is still responsible for classifying and categorizing the hazards associated with the chemicals in these source lists in accordance with the requirements of this standard and its appendices.
EXCEPTION to subsection (d)(3): A manufacturer, importer, or employer classifying the hazards associated with the chemicals listed above who determines, based on thorough review of all available evidence, that the chemical does not meet the criteria in Appendix A for classification, is not required to classify that chemical provided that the classifier does all of the following:
1. Documents the basis for that determination including the studies or evidence relied upon, and maintains and makes that documentation available to employees, employers and the Division upon request, in accordance with this Section and Section 3204.
2. Discloses the identity of the chemical and the listing upon which the chemical appears on the SDS.
(4) Manufacturers, importers, and employers classifying chemicals shall treat any of the following sources as establishing that a chemical listed has met the total weight of evidence criteria as described in Appendix A for classification as a known or presumed human carcinogen, or a suspected human carcinogen for purposes of this section:
(A) National Toxicology Program (NTP), Annual Report on Carcinogens, (latest edition).
(B) International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Monographs (latest editions) .
(C) Substances subject to regulation under the Occupational Carcinogen Control Act or which are regulated in Title 8, Article 110, Regulated Carcinogens.
(D) Substances that meet the definition of “select carcinogen” in Title 8, Section 5191.
EXCEPTION to subsection (d)(4): A manufacturer, importer, or employer classifying the hazards associated with the chemicals listed above who determines, based on thorough review of all available evidence, that the chemical does not cause cancer, need not classify that chemical as a carcinogen, provided that the classifier does all of the following:
1. Documents the basis for that determination including the studies or evidence relied upon, and maintains and makes that documentation available to employees, employers and the Division upon request, in accordance with this Section and Section 3204.
2. Discloses the identity of the chemical, and the listing upon which the chemical appears on the SDS. In addition, a notation shall appear on the SDS, in accordance with Appendix D, for all substances listed by NTP or IARC as carcinogens.
(5) Mixtures.
(A) Manufacturers, importers, or employers evaluating chemicals shall follow the procedures described in Appendices A and B to section 5194 to classify the hazards of the chemicals, including determinations regarding when mixtures of the classified chemicals are covered by this section.
(B) Manufacturers, importers or employers are also required to list any hazardous chemical on the SDS known to be present in a mixture, where the chemical is:
1. either a. One percent or more of the mixture or product or b. Two percent of the mixture or product if the hazardous chemical exists as an impurity in the mixture; and
2. the concentration of the chemical in the mixture is below the cut-off concentration specified in Appendix A.
(C) When classifying mixtures they produce or import, manufacturers and importers of mixtures may rely on the information provided on the current SDS of the individual ingredients except where the manufacturer or importer knows, or in the exercise of reasonable diligence should know, that the SDS misstates or omits information required by this section.
(D) If the manufacturer, importer, or employer classifying a mixture has evidence to indicate that a component present in the mixture presents a health risk below the cut-off/concentration limits in Appendix A, this information shall be included on the SDS in accordance with Appendix D.
(6) Manufacturers, importers, or employers classifying chemicals shall describe in writing the procedures they use to determine the hazards of the chemicals they evaluate. The written procedures are to be made available, upon request, to employees, their designated representatives, the Director, and NIOSH. The written description may be incorporated into the written hazard communication program required under section 5194(e).
(e) Written Hazard Communication Program.
(1) Employers shall develop, implement, and maintain at the workplace a written hazard communication program for their employees which at least describes how the criteria specified in sections 5194(f), (g), and (h) for labels and other forms of warning, safety data sheets, and employee information and training will be met, and which also includes the following:
(A) A list of the hazardous chemicals known to be present using a product identifier that is referenced on the appropriate safety data sheet (the list may be compiled for the workplace as a whole or for individual work areas); and
(B) The methods the employer will use to inform employees of the hazards of non-routine tasks (for example, the cleaning of reactor vessels), and the hazards associated with chemicals contained in unlabeled pipes in their work areas.
(2) In multi-employer workplaces, the written hazard communication program shall include the methods employers will use to inform any employers sharing the same work area of the hazardous chemicals to which their employees may be exposed while performing their work, and any suggestions for appropriate protective measures, including the following:
(A) The methods the employer will use to provide the other employer(s) with access to the safety data sheet, or to make it available at a central location in the workplace, for each hazardous chemical the other employer(s)' employees may be exposed to while working;
(B) The methods the employer will use to inform the other employer(s) of any precautionary measures that need to be taken to protect employees during the workplace's normal operating conditions and in foreseeable emergencies; and,
(C) The methods the employer will use to inform the other employer(s) of the labeling system used in the workplace.
(3) The employer shall make the written hazard communication program available, upon request, to employees, their designated representatives, the Chief, and NIOSH, in accordance with the requirements of section 3204(e).
(f) Labels and Other Forms of Warning.
(1) Labels on shipped containers. The manufacturer, importer, or distributor shall ensure that each container of hazardous chemicals leaving the workplace is labeled, tagged or marked. Hazards not otherwise classified do not have to be addressed on the container. Where the manufacturer or importer is required to label, tag or mark the following information shall be provided:
(A) Product identifier;
(B) Signal word;
(C) Hazard statement(s);
(D) Pictogram(s);
(E) Precautionary statement(s); and,
(F) Name, address, and telephone number of the manufacturer, importer, or other responsible party.
(2) The manufacturer, importer, or distributor shall ensure that the information provided under section 5194 (f)(1)(A) through (E) is in accordance with Appendix C to section 5194, for each hazard class and associated hazard category for the hazardous chemical, prominently displayed, and in English (other languages may also be included if appropriate).
(3) The manufacturer, importer, or distributor shall ensure that the information provided under section 5194 (f)(1)(B) through (D) is located together on the tag, label or mark.
(4) Solid materials.
(A) For solid metal (such as a steel beam or a metal casting) that is not exempted as an article due to its downstream use, or shipments of whole grain, the required label may be transmitted to the customer at the time of the initial shipment, and need not be included with subsequent shipments to the same employer unless the information on the label changes;
(B) The label may be transmitted with the initial shipment itself, or with the safety data sheet that is to be provided prior to or at the time of the first shipment; and,
(C) This exception to requiring labels on every container of hazardous chemicals is only for the solid material itself, and does not apply to hazardous chemicals used in conjunction with, or known to be present with, the material and to which employees handling the items in transit may be exposed (for example, cutting fluids, pesticides in grains or lubricants).
(5) Manufacturers, importers, or distributors shall ensure that each container of hazardous chemicals leaving the workplace is labeled, tagged, or marked in accordance with this section in a manner which does not conflict with the requirements of the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (18 U.S.C. 1801 et seq.) and regulations issued under that Act by the Department of Transportation.
(6) Workplace labeling. Except as provided in sections 5194(f)(7) and (f)(8) the employer shall ensure that each container of hazardous chemicals in the workplace is labeled, tagged, or marked with either:
(A) The information specified under section 5194 (f)(1)(A) through (E) for labels on shipped containers; or,
(B) Product identifier and words, pictures, symbols, or combination thereof, which provide at least general information regarding the hazards of the chemicals, and which, in conjunction with the other information immediately available to employees under the hazard communication program, will provide employees with the specific information regarding the physical and health hazards of the hazardous chemical.
(7) The employer may use signs, placards, process sheets, batch tickets, operating procedures, or other such written materials in lieu of affixing labels to individual stationary process containers, as long as the alternative method identifies the containers to which it is applicable and conveys the information required by section 5194(f)(6) to be on a label. The written materials shall be readily accessible to the employees in their work area throughout each work shift. In construction, the employer may use such written materials in lieu of affixing labels to individual containers as long as the alternative method identifies and accompanies the containers to which it is applicable and conveys the information required to be on a label.
(8) The employer is not required to label portable containers into which hazardous chemicals are transferred from labeled containers, and which are intended only for the immediate use of the employee who performs the transfer.
(9) The employer shall not remove or intentionally deface existing labels on incoming containers of hazardous chemicals, unless the container is immediately marked with the required information.
(10) The employer shall ensure that workplace labels or other forms of warning are legible, in English, and prominently displayed on the container, or readily available in the work area throughout each work shift. Employers having employees who speak other languages may add the information in their language to the material presented, as long as the information is presented in English as well.
(11) Manufacturers, importers, distributors, or employers who become newly aware of any significant information regarding the hazards of a chemical shall revise the labels for the chemical within six months of becoming aware of the new information. Labels on containers of hazardous chemicals shipped after that time shall contain the new information. If the chemical is not currently produced or imported, the manufacturer, importer, distributor, or employer shall add the information to the label before the chemical is shipped or introduced into the workplace again.
(g) Safety Data Sheets.
(1) Manufacturers and importers shall obtain or develop a safety data sheet for each hazardous chemical they produce or import. Employers shall have a safety data sheet for each hazardous chemical which they use.
Note to (g)(1): Employers should also refer to section 3204 concerning information to be retained after a particular chemical is no longer in use.
(2) The manufacturer or importer preparing the safety data sheet shall ensure that it is in English (although the employer may maintain copies in other languages as well) and includes at least the following section numbers and headings, and associated information under each heading, in the order listed (See Appendix D to section 5194--Safety Data Sheets, for the specific content of each section of the safety data sheet):
(A) Section 1, Identification;
(B) Section 2, Hazard(s) identification;
(C) Section 3, Composition/information on ingredients;
(D) Section 4, First-aid measures;
(E) Section 5, Fire-fighting measures;
(F) Section 6, Accidental release measures;
(G) Section 7, Handling and storage;
(H) Section 8, Exposure controls/personal protection;
(I) Section 9, Physical and chemical properties;
(J) Section 10, Stability and reactivity;
(K) Section 11, Toxicological information;
(L) Section 12, Ecological information;
(M) Section 13, Disposal considerations;
(N) Section 14, Transport information;
(O) Section 15, Regulatory information; and
(P) Section 16, Other information, including date of preparation or last revision.
(Q) A description in lay terms, if not otherwise provided, on either a separate sheet or with the body of the information specified in this section, of the specific potential health risks posed by the hazardous chemical intended to alert any person reading the information.
NOTE TO SECTION 5194 (g)(2): To be consistent with the GHS, an SDS must also include the headings in section 5194 (g)(2)(L) through (G)(2)(P) in order.
(3) If no relevant information is found for any sub-heading within a section on the safety data sheet, the manufacturer, importer, or employer preparing the safety data sheet shall mark it to indicate that no information was found. If the category is not applicable to the hazardous chemical involved, the space shall be marked to indicate that.
(4) Where complex mixtures have similar hazards and contents (i.e. the chemical ingredients are essentially the same, but the specific composition varies from mixture to mixture), the manufacturer, importer or employer may prepare one safety data sheet to apply to all of these similar mixtures.
(5) The manufacturer, importer or employer preparing the safety data sheet shall ensure that the information provided accurately reflects the scientific evidence used in making the hazard classification. If the manufacturer, importer, or employer become aware of any significant information regarding the hazards of a chemical, or ways to protect against the hazards, this new information shall be added to the safety data sheet within three months. If the chemical is not currently being produced or imported, the manufacturer or importer shall add the information to the safety data sheet before the chemical is introduced into the workplace again.
(6) Manufacturers or importers shall ensure that distributors and purchasers of hazardous chemicals are provided an appropriate safety data sheet with their initial shipment, and with the first shipment after a safety data sheet is updated. The manufacturer or importer shall either provide safety data sheets with the shipped containers or send them to the purchaser prior to or at the time of the shipment. If the safety data sheet is not provided with the shipment, the purchaser shall obtain one from the manufacturer, importer, or distributor as soon as possible. The manufacturer or importer shall also provide distributors or employers with a safety data sheet upon request.
(7) Distributors shall ensure that safety data sheets, and updated information, are provided to other distributors and purchasers of hazardous chemicals.
(8) The employer shall maintain copies of the required safety data sheets for each hazardous chemical in the workplace, and shall ensure that they are readily accessible during each work shift to employees when they are in their work area(s). (Electronic access and other alternatives to maintaining paper copies of the safety data sheets are permitted as long as no barriers to immediate employee access in each workplace are created by such options.)
(9) Where employees must travel between workplaces during a workshift, i.e., their work is carried out at more than one geographical location, the safety data sheets may be kept at a central location at the primary workplace facility. In this situation, the employer shall ensure that employees can immediately obtain the required information in an emergency.
(10) Safety data sheets may be kept in any form, including operating procedures, and may be designed to cover groups of hazardous chemicals in a work area where it may be more appropriate to address the hazards of a process rather than individual hazardous chemicals. However, the employer shall ensure that in all cases the required information is provided for each hazardous chemical and is readily accessible during each work shift to employees when they are in their work area(s).
(11) Safety data sheets shall also be made readily available, upon request, to designated representatives, and to the Chief, in accordance with the requirements of section 3204(e). NIOSH and the employee's physician shall also be given access to safety data sheets in the same manner.
(12) If the safety data sheet, or any item of information required by section 5194(g)(2), is not provided by the manufacturer or importer, the employer shall:
(A) Within 7 working days of noting this missing information, either from a request or in attempting to comply with section 5194(g)(1), make written inquiry to the manufacturer or importer of a hazardous chemical responsible for the safety data sheet, asking that the complete safety data sheet be sent to the employer. If the employer has made written inquiry in the preceding 12 months as to whether the chemical or product is subject to the requirements of the Act or the employer has made written inquiry within the last 6 months requesting new, revised or later information on the safety data sheet for the hazardous chemical, the employer need not make additional written inquiry.
(B) Notify the requester in writing of the date that the inquiry was made, to whom it was made, and the response, if any, received. Providing the requestor with a copy of the inquiry sent to the manufacturer, producer or seller and a copy of the response will satisfy this requirement.
(C) Notify the requestor of the availability of the safety data sheet within 15 days of the receipt of the safety data sheet from the manufacturer, producer or seller or provide a copy of the safety data sheet to the requestor within 15 days of the receipt of the safety data sheet from the manufacturer, producer or seller.
(D) Send the Director a copy of the written inquiry if a response has not been received within 25 working days.
(13) The preparer of a safety data sheet shall provide the Director with a copy of the safety data sheet. Where a trade secret claim is made, the preparer shall submit the information specified in section 5194(i)(15).
(h) Employee Information and Training.
(1) Employers shall provide employees with effective information and training on hazardous chemicals in their work area at the time of their initial assignment, and whenever a new chemical hazard is introduced into their work area. Information and training may relate to general classes of hazardous chemicals to the extent appropriate and related to reasonably foreseeable exposures of the job. Chemical-specific information must always be available through labels and safety data sheets.
(2) Information and training shall consist of at least the following topics:
(A) Employees shall be informed of the requirements of this section.
(B) Employees shall be informed of any operations in their work area where hazardous chemicals are present.
(C) Employees shall be informed of the location and availability of the written hazard communication program, including the list(s) of hazardous chemicals and safety data sheets required by this section.
(D) Employees shall be trained in the methods and observations that may be used to detect the presence or release of a hazardous chemical in the work area (such as monitoring conducted by the employer, continuous monitoring devices, visual appearance or odor of hazardous chemicals when being released, etc.).
(E) Employees shall be trained in the physical, health, simple asphyxiation, combustible dust and pyrophoric gas hazards, as well as hazards not otherwise classified, of the chemicals in the work area, and the measures they can take to protect themselves from these hazards, including specific procedures the employer has implemented to protect employees from exposure to hazardous chemicals, such as appropriate work practices, emergency procedures, and personal protective equipment to be used.
(F) Employees shall be trained in the details of the hazard communication program developed by the employer, including an explanation of the labels received on shipped containers and the workplace labeling system used by their employer and the safety data sheet, and how employees can obtain and use the appropriate hazard information.
(G) Employers shall inform employees of the right:
1. To personally receive information regarding hazardous chemicals to which they may be exposed, according to the provisions of this section;
2. For their physician or collective bargaining agent to receive information regarding hazardous chemicals to which the employee may be exposed according to provisions of this section;
3. Against discharge or other discrimination due to the employee's exercise of the rights afforded pursuant to the provisions of the Hazardous Substances Information and Training Act.
(3) Whenever the employer receives a new or revised safety data sheet, such information shall be provided to employees on a timely basis not to exceed 30 days after receipt, if the new information indicates significantly increased risks to, or measures necessary to protect, employee health as compared to those stated on a safety data sheet previously provided.
(i) Trade Secrets.
(1) The manufacturer, importer or employer may withhold the specific chemical identity of a hazardous chemical, or the exact percentage (concentration) of the substance in a mixture, from the safety data sheet, provided that:
(A) The claim that the information withheld is a trade secret can be supported;
(B) Information contained in the safety data sheet concerning the properties and effects of the hazardous chemical is disclosed;
(C) The safety data sheet indicates that the specific chemical identity and/or percentage of composition is being withheld as a trade secret; and,
(D) The specific chemical identity and percentage is made available to health or safety professionals, employees, and designated representatives in accordance with the applicable provisions of this subsection.
(2) Where a treating physician or nurse determines that a medical emergency exists and the specific chemical identity and/or specific percentage of composition of a hazardous chemical is necessary for emergency or first-aid treatment, the manufacturer, importer, or employer shall immediately disclose the specific chemical identity or percentage composition of a trade secret chemical to that treating physician or nurse, regardless of the existence of a written statement of need or a confidentiality agreement. The manufacturer, importer, or employer may require a written statement of need and confidentiality agreement, in accordance with the provisions of sections 5194(i)(3) and (4), as soon as circumstances permit.
(3) In non-emergency situations, a manufacturer, importer, or employer shall, upon request, disclose a specific chemical identity or percentage composition, otherwise permitted to be withheld under section 5194(i)(1), to a health or safety professional (i.e., physician, nurse, industrial hygienist, safety professional, toxicologist, or epidemiologist) providing medical or other occupational health services to exposed employee(s), and to employees and designated representatives, if:
(A) The request is in writing;
(B) The request describes with reasonable detail one or more of the following occupational health needs for the information:
1. To assess the hazards of the chemicals to which employees will be exposed;
2. To conduct or assess sampling of the workplace atmosphere to determine employee exposure levels;
3. To conduct pre-assignment or periodic medical surveillance of exposed employees;
4. To provide medical treatment to exposed employees;
5. To select or assess appropriate personal protective equipment for exposed employees;
6. To design or assess engineering controls or other protective measures for exposed employees; and,
7. To conduct studies to determine the health effects of exposure.
(C) The request explains in detail why the disclosure of the specific chemical identity or percentage composition is essential and that, in lieu thereof, the disclosure of the following information would not enable the health or safety professional, employee or designated representative to provide the occupational health services described in section 5194(i)(3)(B):
1. The properties and effects of the chemical;
2. Measures for controlling workers' exposure to the chemical;
3. Methods of monitoring and analyzing worker exposure to the chemical; and,
4. Methods of diagnosing and treating harmful exposures to the chemical;
(D) The request includes a description of the procedures to be used to maintain the confidentiality of the disclosed information; and,
(E) The health or safety professional,employee, or designated representative and the employer or contractor of the health or safety professional's services (i.e., downstream employer, labor organization, or individual employee), agree in a written confidentiality agreement that the health or safety professional, employee, or designated representative will not use the trade secret information for any purpose other than the health need(s) asserted and agree not to release the information under any circumstances other than to the Director, as provided in section 5194(i)(6), except as authorized by the terms of the agreement or by the manufacturer, importer, or employer.
(4) The confidentiality agreement authorized by section 5194(i)(3)(D) shall not include requirements for the posting of a penalty bond.
(5) Nothing in this standard is meant to preclude the parties from pursuing non-contractual remedies to the extent permitted by law.
(6) If the health or safety professional, employee, or designated representative receiving the trade secret information decides that there is a need to disclose it to the Director, then the manufacturer, importer, or employer who provided the information shall be informed by the health or safety professional, employee, or designated representative prior to, or at the same time as, such disclosure.
(7) If the manufacturer, importer, or employer denies a written request for disclosure of a specific chemical identity or percentage composition, the denial must:
(A) Be provided to the health or safety professional, employee, or designated representative within thirty days of the request;
(B) Be in writing;
(C) Include evidence to support the claim that the specific chemical identity or percent of composition is a trade secret;
(D) State the specific reasons why the request is being denied; and,
(E) Explain in detail how alternative information may satisfy the specific medical or occupational health need without revealing the trade secret.
(8) The health or safety professional, employee, or designated representative whose request for information is denied under section 5194(i)(3) may refer the request and the written denial of the request to the Director for consideration.
(9) When a health or safety professional, employee, or designated representative refers the denial to the Director under section 5194(i)(8), or upon the Director's own initiative when receiving information pursuant to section 5194(g)(13) which is claimed to be a trade secret, the Director shall consider the evidence to determine if:
(A) The manufacturer, importer, or employer has supported the claim that the specific chemical identity or percentage composition is a trade secret;
(B) The health or safety professional,employee, or designated representatives has supported the claim that there is a medical or occupational health need for the information; and,
(C) The health or safety professional,employee, or designated representative has demonstrated adequate means to protect the confidentiality.
(10) If the Director determines that the specific chemical identity or percentage composition requested under section 5194(i)(3) is not a bona fide trade secret, or that it is a trade secret but the requesting health or safety professional, employee, or designated representative has a legitimate medical or occupational health need for the information, has executed a written confidentiality agreement, and has shown adequate means to protect the confidentiality of the information, the manufacturer, importer, or employer will be subject to citation by the Director. The Director shall so notify the manufacturer, importer, or employer by certified mail.
(11) The manufacturer, importer, or employer shall have 15 days after receipt of notification under section 5194(i)(10) to provide the Director with a complete justification and statement of the grounds on which the trade secret privilege is claimed. This justification and statement shall be submitted by certified mail.
(12) The Director shall determine whether such information is protected as a trade secret within 15 days after receipt of the justification and statement required by section 5194(i)(11), or if no justification and statement is filed, within 30 days of the original notice, and shall notify the employer or manufacturer and any party who has requested the information pursuant to the California Public Records Act of that determination by certified mail. If the Director determines that the information is not protected as a trade secret, the final notice shall also specify a date, not sooner than 15 days after the date of mailing of the final notice, when the information shall be available to the public.
(13) Prior to the date specified in the final notice provided pursuant to section 5194(i)(12), a manufacturer, importer, or employer may institute an action in an appropriate superior court for a declaratory judgment as to whether such information is subject to protection from disclosure.
(14) If a manufacturer, importer, or employer demonstrates to the Director that the execution of a confidentiality agreement as provided for by section 5194(i)(10) would not provide sufficient protection against the potential harm from the unauthorized disclosure of a trade secret specific chemical identity, the Director may issue such orders to impose such additional limitations or conditions upon the disclosure of the requested information as may be appropriate to assure that the occupational health services are provided without an undue risk of harm to the manufacturer, importer, or employer.
(15) Notwithstanding the existence of a trade secret claim, a manufacturer, importer, or employer shall disclose to the Director the specific chemical identity or percentage composition of any hazardous chemical in a product for which trade secrecy is claimed. Where there is a trade secret claim, such claim shall be made no later than at the time the information is provided to the Director so that suitable determinations of trade secret status can be made and the necessary protections can be implemented.
(16) Nothing in section 5194(i) shall be construed as requiring the disclosure under any circumstances of process or percentage of mixture information which is a trade secret.
(j) Effective dates.
(1) Employers shall train employees regarding the new label elements and safety data sheets format by December 1, 2013.
(2) Manufacturers, importers, distributors, and employers shall be in compliance with all modified provisions of this section no later than June 1, 2015, except:
(A) After December 1, 2015, the distributor shall not ship containers labeled by the manufacturer or importer unless the label has been modified to comply with section 5194(f)(1).
(B) All employers shall, as necessary, update any alternative workplace labeling used under section 5194 (f)(6), update the hazard communication program required by section 5194(h)(1), and provide any additional employee training in accordance with section 5194(h)(3) for newly identified physical or health hazards no later than June 1, 2016.
(3) Manufacturers, importers, distributors, and employers may comply with either section 5194 revised as of July 6, 2004, or the current version of this standard, or both during the transition period.
(k) Appendices.
(1) Appendices A to E of this section are incorporated as part of this section and the provisions are mandatory.
(2) Appendix F contains information which is not intended to create any additional obligations not otherwise imposed or to detract from any existing obligation.
(3) Appendix G contains the following 22 CCR Sections: 12201(a), 12201(b), 12201(c), 12201(d), 12201(f), 12201(k), 12502, 12601, 12701(a), 12701(b), 12701(d), 12703, 12705, 12707, 12709, 12711, 12721, 12801, 12803, 12805, 12821, and 12901 in effect on May 9, 1991 that are referred to in subsection (b)(6).
Note: Authority cited: Sections 50.7, 142.3 and 6398, Labor Code. Reference: Sections 50.7, 142.3 and 6361-6399.7, Labor Code; Sections 25249.6, 25249.7, 25249.8, 25249.10, 25249.11, 25249.12 and 25249.13, Health and Safety Code; California Lab. Federation v. Occupational Safety and Health Stds. Bd. (1990) 221 Cal.App.3d 1547 [271 Cal. Rptr. 310]; and United Steelworkers of America v. Auchter (3d Cir. 1985) 763 F.2d 728.

Appendix A
Appendix B
Appendix C
Appendix D
Appendix E
Appendix F
Appendix G

HISTORY
1. New section filed 12-9-81; designated effective 180 days following adoption of a list of hazardous substances pursuant to the Act by the Director, Department of Industrial Relations (Register 81, No. 50).
2. Repealer and new section (including appendices A-C) filed 11-22-85; designated effective 11-25-85 pursuant to Government Code section 11346.2(d) (Register 85, No. 47).
3. Order of Repeal of subsection (a) pursuant to Government Code section 11342(b), amendment, and new appendix D filed 5-26-87; operative 6-25-87 (Register 87, No. 23).
4. Change without regulatory effect removing chapter heading filed 3-6-91; operative 4-4-91 (Register 91, No. 15).
5. Change without regulatory effect repealing Article 110 heading “Special Hazardous Substances and Processes” filed 3-6-91 pursuant to section 100, title 1, California Code of Regulations (Register 91, No. 15).
6. New subsections (b)(6)(A)-(E) and (k)(3) filed 5-31-91 as an emergency; operative 5-31-91 (Register 91, No. 33). A Certificate of Compliance must be transmitted to OAL by 9-30-91 or emergency language will be repealed by operation of law on the following day.
7. Amendment of section filed 9-30-91 as an emergency; operative 9-30-91 (Register 92, No. 2). A Certificate of Compliance must be transmitted to OAL 1-28-92 or emergency language will be repealed by operation of law on the following day.
8. Repealed by operation of Government Code section 11346.1(g) (Register 92, No. 12).
9. New subsections (b)(6)(A)-(F) and (k)(3) refiled 12-17-91; operative 12-17-91. Certificate of Compliance included (Register 92, No. 12).
10. Change without regulatory effect amending definitions of Chief, Department, and Director in subsection (c) filed 3-4-92 pursuant to section 100, title 1, California Code of Regulations (Register 92, No. 19).
11. New subsections (b)(5)(I)-(b)(5)(I)3. and (e)(2)(A)-(C), new subsection (g)(2)(a)3.b. and subsection relettering, new subsection (g)(9) and subsection renumbering, and amendment of subsections (b)(4)(B), (b)(5)(H), (d)(3)(A), (d)(3)(C), (d)(4)-(d)(4)(B), (d)(5)(D), (e)(1), (e)(2), (f), (f)(1), (g)(1), (g)(2)(G), (g)(8), (h)(2)(C), (i)(9), (i)(16) and newly designated subsections (g)(10) and (g)(12)(D) filed 4-26-93; operative 5-26-93 (Register 93, No. 18).
12. Editorial correction of History 9 (Register 94, No. 13).
13. Change without regulatory effect amending subsection (g)(12)(A) filed 12-14-94 pursuant to section 100, title 1, California Code of Regulations (Register 94, No. 50).
14. Repealer of note to subsection (f) filed 9-4-97; operative 10-4-97 (Register 97, No. 36).
15. Change without regulatory effect changing subsection (k) designator to subsection (j) designator filed 3-15-99 pursuant to section 100, title 1, California Code of Regulations (Register 99, No. 12).
16. Amendment of subsections (b)(5)(C), (d)(3)(C) and (d)(4)(A)-(B), new subsection (f)(10) and amendment of subsections (g)(2), (g)(2)(G), (g)(6), (g)(8) and (h)(1) filed 7-6-2004; operative 7-6-2004. Submitted to OAL for printing only pursuant to Labor Code section 142.3(a)(3) (Register 2004, No. 28).
17. Amendment filed 5-6-2013; operative 5-6-2013 pursuant to Labor Code section 142.3(a)(4)(C). Submitted to OAL for printing only pursuant to Labor Code section 142.3(a)(4) (Register 2013, No. 19).
18. Change without regulatory effect amending subsection (g)(2)(Q) filed 9-17-2013 pursuant to section 100, title 1, California Code of Regulations (Register 2013, No. 38).
19. Amendment refiled 11-6-2013; operative 11-6-2013 pursuant to Labor Code section 142.3(a)(4)(C). Submitted to OAL for printing only pursuant to Labor Code section 142.3(a)(4) (Register 2013, No. 45).
20. Repealer of 11-6-2013 order by operation of law 5-6-2014 pursuant to Labor Code 142.3 (Register 2014, No. 19).
21. Amendment of definition of “Combustible Liquid,” and repealer of definitions of “Flammable” and “Flashpoint” within subsection (c) filed 5-5-2014; operative 5-6-2014 pursuant to Government Code section 11343.4(b)(3) (Register 2014, No. 19).
22. Amendment filed 5-5-2014; operative 5-6-2014 pursuant to Government Code section 11343.4(b)(3) (Register 2014, No. 19).

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