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Subchapter 7. General Industry Safety Orders
Group 13. Cranes and Other Hoisting Equipment
Article 101. Slings
§5045. Wire Rope Slings.
(a) Sling Use. Wire rope slings shall not be used with loads in excess of the rated capacities shown in Tables S-3 through S-14.
Slings not included in these Orders shall be used only in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations.
(b) Minimum Sling Lengths.
(1) Cable laid and 6 x 19 and 6 x 37 slings shall have a minimum clear length of wire rope 10 times the component rope diameter between splices, sleeves or end fittings.
(2) Braided slings shall have a minimum clear length of wire rope 40 times the component rope diameter between the loops or end fittings.
(3) Cable laid grommets, strand laid grommets and endless slings shall have a minimum circumferential length of 96 times their body diameter.
(c) Safe Operating Temperatures. Fiber core wire rope slings of all grades shall be permanently removed from service if they are exposed to temperatures in excess of 200o F. When nonfiber core wire rope slings of any grade are used at temperatures above 400o F, or below minus 60o F, the sling manufacturer's recommendations shall be followed.
(d) End Attachments.
(1) Welding of end attachments, except covers to thimbles, shall be performed prior to the assembly of the sling.
(2) A prototype of each welded end attachment shall be proof tested by the manufacturer or equivalent entity to check the design and welding method at twice the rated capacity before production is started. Subsequent tests of random samples shall be made. The manufacturer or equivalent entity shall provide a certificate of such tests which the employer shall retain and make available for examination by the Division upon request.
(3) Where rope clip attachments are used, they shall be made with U-bolts on the dead or short end of the rope and the saddle on the live end. The minimum number of clips for end attachments shall be not less than indicated in manufacturer's tables, but in no case shall be less than three for any permanent installation. Clips shall be drop-forged steel. The clips shall be spaced at a distance equal to at least six times the diameter of the rope. All clip or clamp bolts shall be kept tight after tightening while rope is under tension.
(e) Removal from Service.
Wire rope slings shall be immediately removed from service if any of the following conditions are present:
(1) Six randomly distributed broken wires in one rope lay, or 3 broken wires in one strand in one rope lay.
(2) Wear or scraping of one-third the original diameter of outside individual wires.
(3) Kinking, crushing, bird caging or any other damage resulting in distortion of the wire rope structure.
(4) Evidence of heat damage.
(5) End attachments that are cracked, deformed or worn to the point where the rated capacity is reduced.
(6) Hooks that have been opened more than 15 percent of the normal throat opening measured at the narrowest point or twisted more than 10 degrees from the plane of the unbent hook.
(7) Corrosion that is of such severity or extent as to reduce the rated load capacity of the rope or end attachment.
(8) One or more broken wires within one rope lay of the end attachments.
(f) Knots. Eyes in wire rope slings shall not be formed by using knots.
(g) Employers must ensure that wire rope and wire-rope slings:
(1) Have permanently affixed and legible identification markings as prescribed by the manufacturer, and that indicate the recommended safe working load for the type(s) of hitch(es) used, the angle upon which it is based, and the number of legs if more than one; and
(2) Not be used without affixed and legible identification markings as required by subsection (g)(1) of this section.
Note: Authority cited: Section 142.3, Labor Code. Reference: Section 142.3, Labor Code.
1. Amendment of subsections (a), (c), (d)(2) and new subsection (e)(8) filed 5-1-87; operative 5-31-87 (Register 87, No. 19).
2. New subsections (g)-(g)(2) filed 1-18-2012; operative 1-18-2012 pursuant to Labor Code section 142.3(a)(4)(C). Submitted to OAL for printing only pursuant to Labor Code section 142.3(a)(3) (Register 2012, No. 3)
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