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Subchapter 7. General Industry Safety Orders
Group 1. General Physical Conditions and Structures Orders
Article 5. Window Cleaning

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§3281. Definitions.

(a) For the purpose of Articles 5 and 6, certain terms are defined as follows, except for Appendix D:

Anchor. The fitting, fastened to the window frame or wall, to which the belt terminal is attached.

Anchor, double head. An anchor having two heads.

Anchor, single head. An anchor having one head.

Anchorage. A secure point of attachment for safety lines, lanyards or deceleration devices, and which is independent of the means of supporting or suspending the employee.

Anemometer. An instrument for measuring wind velocity.

Angulated Roping. A suspension method where the upper point of suspension is inboard from the attachments on the suspended unit, thus causing the suspended unit to bear against the face of the building.

Belt Terminal. That part of the window cleaner's safety belt which is fastened to the terminal strap to be attached to the anchor during the operation of window cleaning.

Belts, Window Cleaner's. The equipment meeting the requirements of Section 3284, attached to the body of the window cleaner while cleaning windows and shall include the terminal straps.

Buckle. Any device for holding the body belt and body harness closed around the wearer's body.

Buckle, Friction. Single Pass, Fixed Bar. A buckle which maintains its position on the webbing by means of a single pass of the webbing over the fixed center bar.

Buckle, Friction. Single Pass, Sliding Bar. A buckle which maintains its position on the webbing by means of a single looping of the webbing over the sliding center bar.

Buckle, Friction. Double Pass. A buckle which maintains its position on the webbing by friction and requires a double pass of the webbing over the center bar.

Buckle, Tongue. A buckle which depends upon a tongue passed through holes in the webbing or strength member of the belt to maintain its position.

Building. Any building or structure more than one story in height or having window sills more than 12 feet above grade, which is a place of employment.

Building Engineer of Record. A civil or structural engineer that designed the building or structure or the referenced portion of the building or structure.

Building Face Roller. A rotating cylindrical member designed to ride on the face of the building wall to prevent the platform from abrading the face of the building and to assist in stabilizing the platform.

Building Maintenance. Operations such as window cleaning, caulking, metal polishing, reglazing, and general maintenance on building surfaces.

Building Official. Any state, county, city or local building inspector.

Cable. A conductor, or group of conductors, enclosed in a weatherproof sheath, that may be used to supply electrical power and/or control current for equipment or to provide voice communication circuits.

Carriage. A wheeled vehicle used for the horizontal movement and support of other equipment.

Certification. A written, signed and dated statement confirming the performance of a requirement of this orders.

Combination Cable. A cable having both steel structural members capable of supporting the platform, and copper or other electrical conductors insulated from each other and the structural members by nonconductive barriers.

Competent Person. One who is capable of identifying existing and predictable hazards in the surroundings or working conditions which are unsanitary, hazardous, or dangerous to employees, and who has authorization to take prompt corrective measures to eliminate them.

Connector. A device which is used to couple (connect) parts of the system together. It may be an independent component of the system (such as a carabineer), or an integral component of part of system (such as a buckle or dee-ring sewn into a body belt or body harness, or a snap-hook spliced or sewn to a lanyard or self-retracting lanyard).

Continuous Pressure. The need for constant manual actuation for a control to function.

Control. A mechanism used to regulate or guide the operation of the equipment.

Controlled Descent Apparatus (CDA). A CDA is a device used by window cleaners to achieve a controlled descent during window cleaning operations. The descent control capability of the CDA is derived by frictional forces developed when a line(s) passes over and/or around and/or through fixed members of the friction device designed to be readily controlled by the window cleaner.

Danger Zone. The “Danger Zone” is the area within six feet of the edge of a building's roof or protruding ledge. This area is only considered a “Danger Zone” if the roof or protruding ledge is not provided with a guardrail that stands 42 inches in height, a 42 inch high parapet, or a combination thereof.

Davit. A device, used singularly or in pairs, for suspending a powered platform from work, storage and rigging locations on the building being serviced. Unlike outriggers, a davit reacts its operating load into a single roof socket or carriage attachment.

Davit, Fixed. A davit designed to remain at a fixed location.

Davit, Ground Rigged. A davit which cannot be used to raise a suspended working platform above the building face being serviced.

Davit, Mobile. A davit designed to be used in association with a roof car.

Davit, Portable. A davit designed and dedicated for a specific building or roof area, capable of being moved manually from work location to work location within the dedicated area.

Davit, Roof Rigged. A davit used to raise the suspended working platform above the building face being serviced. This type of davit can also be used to raise a suspended working platform which has been ground-rigged.

Davit Socket, Pivoted. An anchoring device that pivots inboard from the building face and transfers loads imposed by the davit to the roof structure or parapet.

Davit, Transportable. A davit designed to be structurally compatible with and capable of being moved from building to building or worksite (geographical area) to worksite.

Deceleration Device. A mechanism, such as a rope grab, ripstitch lanyard, specially woven lanyard, tearing or deforming lanyard, or automatic self retracting-safety line/lanyard, which serves to dissipate a substantial amount of energy during a fall arrest, or otherwise limits the energy imposed on an employee during fall arrest.

Deceleration Distance. The additional vertical distance a falling employee travels, excluding safety line elongation and free fall distance, before stopping, from the point at which the deceleration device begins to operate. It is measured as the distance between the location of an employee's body belt or body harness attachment point at the moment of activation (at the onset of fall arrest forces) of the deceleration device during a fall, and the location of that attachment point after the employee comes to a full stop.

Equivalent. Alternative design, material or method that is acceptable to the Division and which the employer can demonstrate will provide an equal or greater degree of safety for employees than the method, material or design specified in the standard.

Extension Device. A hand tool used to perform window cleaning on surfaces beyond the normal reach of the window cleaner.

Free Fall. The act of falling before the personal fall arrest system begins to apply force to arrest the fall.

Free Fall Distance. The vertical displacement of the fall arrest attachment point on the employee's body belt or body harness between onset of the fall and just before the system begins to apply force to arrest the fall. This distance excludes deceleration distance, safety line and lanyard elongation but includes any deceleration device slide distance or self-retracting safety line/lanyard extension before they operate and fall arrest forces occur.

From the Inside. From a position in which all of the window cleaner's body except one arm and shoulder shall be on the interior side of the line of the window frame and with both feet on the floor.

From the Outside. From a position in which more of the window cleaner's body than one arm and shoulder is outside of the line of the window frame.

Grade. The ground, floor, sidewalk, roof, or any other approximately level solid surface of sufficient area and having sufficient structural strength to be considered as a safe place to work.

Ground Rigging. A method of suspending a working platform starting from grade to a point of suspension above grade.

Guide Button. A building face anchor designed to engage a guide track mounted on a platform.

Guide Roller. A rotating cylindrical member, operating separately or as part of a guide assembly, designed to provide continuous engagement between the platform and the building guides or guideways.

Guide Shoe. A device attached to the platform designed to provide a sliding contact between the platform and the building guides.

Height of Suspension. Where the term height of suspension is used in Articles 5 and 6 of these Orders, it refers to the specific suspension height on buildings or structures to the level below. To determine the suspension height, the distance is measured from the highest point of suspension for the building maintenance equipment (outrigger beam, davit, or roof carriage) to the level below. If the building maintenance equipment is suspended from roof tie-backs, the highest point is measured from the top of the parapet or roof's edge. The lowest measurement point at the level or ground below includes, but is not limited to, roofs, sidewalks, streets, parking garages, and driveways.

Hoisting Machine. A device intended to raise and lower a suspended or supported unit.

Hoist Rated Load. The hoist manufacturer's maximum allowable operating load.

Installation. All the equipment and affected parts of a building which are associated with the performance of building maintenance using powered platforms.

Interlock. A device designed to ensure that operations or motions occur in proper sequence.

Intermittent Stabilization. A method of platform stabilization in which the angulated suspension wire rope(s) are secured to regularly spaced building anchors to assure that the platform continuously bears against the building within predetermined limits.

Lanyard. A flexible length of rope, wire rope, or strap which is used to secure the body belt or body harness to a deceleration device, lifeline, or anchorage.

Lifeline. A flexible line for connection to an anchorage at one end to hang vertically (vertical lifeline), or for connection to anchorage at both ends to stretch horizontally (horizontal lifeline), and which serves as a means for connecting other components to a personal fall arrest system to the anchorage.

Live Load. The total static weight of workers, tools, parts, and supplies that the equipment is designed to support.

Machine Screw or Bolt. A screw or bolt used to install anchors on metal window frames or sections.

Manual Boatswain's Chair. A seat for one person, suspended by a single line or tackle, which is designed to be raised and lowered by the user.

Obstruction Detector. A control that will stop the suspended or supported unit in the direction of travel if an obstruction is encountered, and will allow the unit to move only in a direction away from the obstruction.

Operating Control. A mechanism regulating or guiding the operation of equipment that ensures a specific operating mode.

Operating Device. A device actuated manually to activate a control.

Outrigger Beam. A device, used singularly or in pairs, for suspending a working platform from work, storage, and rigging locations on the building being serviced. Unlike davits, an outrigger reacts its operating moment load as at least two opposing vertical components acting into two or more distinct roof points and/or attachments.

Outrigger Beam, Fixed. An outrigger beam designed to remain at a fixed location.

Outrigger Beam, Mobile. An outrigger beam designed to be used in association with a roof car.

Outrigger Beam, Portable. An outrigger beam designed and dedicated to a specific building or roof area, which is capable of being moved from work location to work location within the dedicated area.

Outrigger Beam, Transportable. An outrigger beam designed to be moved manually from building to building or worksite (geographical area) to worksite.

Personal Fall Arrest System. A system used to arrest an employee in a fall from a working level. It consists of: an anchorage, connectors, a body harness and may include a lanyard, deceleration device, safety line, or suitable combinations of these.

Platform Rated Load. The combined weight of workers, tools, equipment and other material which is permitted to be carried by the working platform at the installation, as stated on the load rating plate.

Poured Socket. The method of providing wire rope terminations in which the ends of the rope are held in a tapered socket by means of poured spelter or resins.

Primary Brake. A brake designed to be applied automatically whenever power to the prime mover is interrupted or discontinued.

Prime Mover. The source of mechanical power for as machine.

Rated Load. The manufacturer's recommended maximum load.

Rated Strength. The strength of wire rope, as designated by its manufacturer or vendor, based on standard testing procedures or acceptable engineering design practices.

Rated Working Load. The combined static weight of workers, materials, and suspended or supported equipment.

Roof Powered Platform. A working platform where the hoist(s) used to raise or lower the platform is located on the roof.

Rope. The equipment used to suspend a component of an equipment installation, i.e., wire rope.

Rope Grab. A deceleration device which travels on a safety line and automatically frictionally engages the safety line and locks so as to arrest the fall of an employee. A rope grab usually employs the principle of inertial locking, cam/lever locking, or both.

Safe Manner. The term means the use of any of the following methods of window cleaning in which the window cleaner is protected in accordance with these orders when:

Standing on the sill.

Working from a ladder.

Working from a scaffold work platform.

Working from a boatswain's chair.

Working from a safe surface.

Safe Surface. A horizontal surface intended to be occupied by employees, which is so protected by a fall protection system that it can be reasonably assured that said occupants will be protected against falls.

Safety Belt or Harness. A device used specifically for securing a worker from the hazard of falls from elevated work areas and include:

Body Belt. A strap with means both for securing it about the waist and for attaching it to a lanyard, safety line, or deceleration device.

Body Harness. A design of simple or compound straps which may be secured about the wearer in a manner to distribute the fall arrest forces over at least the thighs, pelvis, waist, chest and shoulders with means for attaching it to other components of a personal fall arrest system.

Safety Device. (Approved). (See Section 3206 of the General Industry Safety Orders.)

Safety Factor. The ratio of the nominal strength to the nominal design load.

Safety Line. A component consisting of a flexible line for connection to an anchorage at one end to hang vertically (vertical safety line), or for connection to anchorages at both ends to stretch horizontally (horizontal safety line) and which serves as a means for connecting other components of a personal fall arrest system to the anchorage.

Scaffold. The complete scaffold structure including the work platform and all supporting members.

Scaffold, Rolling. A fixed-height or extensible self-supporting scaffold that can be manually moved into place.

Scaffold, Suspended, Manually Operated (Swinging Stage). A scaffold suspended from above by wire or fiber ropes and rigged with manually operated pulley blocks or hoists or equivalent means so that the work platform elevation is easily adjustable. Such scaffold is not designed for use on a specific structure or group of structures.

Scaffold, Suspended, Permanent. A scaffold that is designed for a specific building and is used on that building only.

Scaffold, Suspended, Power Driven. Permanent or transportable suspended scaffolds equipped with one or more power units (not manually powered) for raising or lowering the scaffold platform.

Scaffold, Suspended, Transportable. A powered or manually operated work platform that is brought to a work site for the purpose of performing maintenance or other work that by nature is of short duration.

Secondary Brake. A brake designed to arrest the descent of the suspended or supported equipment in the event of an overspeed condition.

Self-Powered Platform. A working platform where the hoist(s) used to raise or lower the platform is mounted on the platform.

Self-Retracting Safety Line/Lanyard. A deceleration device which contains a drum-wound line which may be slowly extracted from, or retracted onto, the drum under slight tension during normal employee movement, and which, after onset of a fall, automatically locks the drum and arrests the fall.

Sill. A surface that is part of the building or structure, immediately below the window, and of sufficient width and design to safely support window cleaners and their equipment.

Snap-Hook. A connector comprised of a hookshaped member with a normally closed keeper, or similar arrangement, which may be opened to permit the hook to receive an object and, when released, automatically closes to retain the object. Snap-hooks are generally one of two types:

1. The locking type (double-acting) with a self-closing, self-locking keeper which remains closed and locked until unlocked and pressed open for connection or disconnection, or

2. The non-locking type with a self-closing keeper which remains closed until pressed open for connection or disconnection.

Speed Reducer. A positive type speed reducing machine.

Stability Factor. The ratio of the stabilizing moment to the overturning moment.

Stabilizer Tie. A flexible line connecting the building anchor and the suspension wire rope supporting the platform.

Supported Equipment. Building maintenance equipment that is held or moved to its working position by means of attachment directly to the building or extensions of the building being maintained.

Suspended Equipment. Building maintenance equipment that is suspended and raised or lowered to its working position by means of ropes or combination cables attached to some anchorage above the equipment.

Tail Line. The nonsupporting end of the wire rope used to suspend the platform.

Terminal Strap (Runner). The portion of a window cleaner's belt that attaches the terminals to the belt's waist band.

Tie-in Guides. The portion of a building that provides continuous positive engagement between the building and a suspended or supported unit during its travel on the face of the building.

Tie-off (Tieing-off). The act of an employee, wearing personal fall protection equipment, connecting directly or indirectly to an anchorage. It also means the condition of an employee being connected to an anchorage.

Traction Hoist. A type of hoisting machine that does not accumulate the suspension wire rope on the hoisting drum or sheave, and is designed to raise and lower a suspended load by the application of friction forces between the suspension wire rope and the drum or sheave.

Trolley Carriage. A carriage suspended from an overhead track structure.

Verified. Accepted by design, evaluation, or inspection by a professional engineer currently registered in the State of California.

Waist Band. That part of the window cleaner's belt which is attached to the body of the window cleaner. (Title 24, Part 2, Section 2-8501.)

Weatherproof. So constructed that exposure to adverse weather conditions will not affect or interfere with the proper use or functions of the equipment or component.

Winding Drum Hoist. A type of hoisting machine that accumulates the suspension wire rope on the hoisting drum.

Working Platform. Suspended or supported equipment intended to provide access to the face of a building and occupied by persons engaged in building maintenance.

Wrap. One complete turn of the suspension wire rope around the surface of a hoist drum. (Title 24, Part 2, Section 2-8501.)

NOTE

Authority cited: Section 142.3, Labor Code. Reference: Section 142.3, Labor Code.

HISTORY

1. New Article 5 (Sections 3281-3292) filed 6-20-75; effective thirtieth day thereafter (Register 75, No. 25). Window Cleaning Safety Orders formerly in Subchapter 21 (Sections 8700-8722). See Registers 26, No. 6 and 55, No. 13.

2. Amendment filed 7-16-76; effective thirtieth day thereafter (Register 76, No. 29).

3. Amendment of subsections (a)(19) and (a)(22) filed 10-29-80; effective thirtieth day thereafter (Register 80, No. 44).

4. Editorial correction filed 10-7-83; effective thirtieth day thereafter (Register 83, No. 41).

5. Amendment filed 9-12-85; effective thirtieth day thereafter (Register 85, No. 37).

6. Amendment filed 3-9-93; operative 4-8-93 (Register 93, No. 11).

7. Amendment of definition of “Lanyard” and new definition of “Lifeline” filed 4-4-96; operative 5-4-96 (Register 96, No. 14).

8. New definitions of “Controlled Descent Apparatus (CDA),” “Danger Zone” and “Height of Suspension,” and amendment of former definition of “Boatswain's Chair” to new definition of “Manual Boatswain's Chair” filed 7-23-98; operative 8-22-98 (Register 98, No. 30).

9. New definitions of ``Competent Person” and ``Terminal Strap (Runner)” and amendment of definition of ``Personal Fall Arrest System” filed 3-31-2000; operative 4-30-2000 (Register 2000, No. 13).

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