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Subchapter 4. Construction Safety Orders
Article 29. Erection and Construction

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§1710. Erection of Structures.

(a) Scope and application.

  (1) This section sets forth requirements to protect employees from the hazards associated with steel erection activities involved in the construction, alteration, and/or repair of single and multi-story buildings, bridges, and other structures where steel erection occurs. The requirements of this section apply to employers engaged in steel erection unless otherwise specified.  


  Exception: This section does not cover electrical transmission towers, communication and broadcast towers, or tanks.  


  NOTE: Additional requirements for work on steel framed structures are contained in Article 20, Section 1635(b) of these orders.  


  (2) Steel erection activities include hoisting, connecting, welding, bolting, and rigging structural steel, steel joists and metal buildings; installing metal deck, siding systems, miscellaneous metals, ornamental iron and similar materials; and moving from point-to-point to perform these activities.  


  (3) The duties of controlling contractors under this section include the duties specified in (c)(1) & (3), (f)(2)(B), (j)(2) and (o) of this section.  


  (4) Effective date for the design component requirements of this section. This section contains a number of provisions that address the safety of certain structural components referred to as "component requirements." The design component requirements contained in subsections, (e)(1)(A), (f)(1), (g)(4), (g)(5), (g)(6), (h)(1)(A)1., (h)(1)(G)1., (i)(2), and (i)(5) will not apply to the project if the project was permitted, or steel erection commenced prior to the effective date of May 1, 2002.  


(b) Definitions.

"Anchored bridging" means that the steel joist bridging is connected to a bridging terminus point.

"Bolted diagonal bridging" means diagonal bridging that is bolted to a steel joist or joists.

"Bridging clip" means a device that is attached to the steel joist to allow the bolting of the bridging to the steel joist.

"Bridging terminus point" means a wall, a beam, tandem joists (with all bridging installed and a horizontal truss in the plane of the top chord) or other element at an end or intermediate point(s) of a line of bridging that provides an anchor point for the steel joist bridging.

"Cold forming" means the process of using press brakes, rolls, or other methods to shape steel into desired cross sections at room temperature.

"Column" means a load-carrying vertical member that is part of the primary skeletal framing system. Columns do not include posts.

"Connector" means an employee who, working with hoisting equipment, is placing and connecting beams or other structural members.

"Constructibility" means the ability to erect structural steel members in accordance with Section 1710 without having to alter the over-all structural design.

"Construction load" (for joist erection) means any load other than the weight of the employee(s), the joists and the bridging bundle.

"Controlled Decking Zone (CDZ)" means an area established specifically for the initial placement and securing of metal decking where access to the area is restricted and work may take place without the use of a personal fall protection system when the provisions of Section 1710(n) are met.

"Controlled load lowering" means lowering a load by means of a mechanical hoist drum device that allows a hoisted load to be lowered with maximum control using the gear train or hydraulic components of the hoist mechanism. Controlled load lowering requires the use of the hoist drive motor, rather than the load hoist brake, to lower the load.

"Controlling contractor" means a prime contractor, general contractor, construction manager or any other legal entity which has the overall responsibility for the construction of the project - its planning, quality and completion.

"Critical lift" (used in Appendix C to Section 1710) means a lift that exceeds 75 percent of the rated capacity of the crane or derrick, or requires the use of more than one crane or derrick.

"Derrick floor" (working floor) means an elevated floor of a building or structure that has been designated to receive hoisted pieces of steel prior to final placement.

"Double connection" means an attachment method where the connection point is intended for two pieces of steel which share common bolts on either side of a central piece.

"Double connection seat" means a structural attachment that, during the installation of a double connection, supports the first member while the second member is connected.

"Erection bridging" means the bolted diagonal bridging that is required to be installed prior to releasing the hoisting cables from the steel joists.

"Girt" (in systems-engineered metal buildings) means a "Z" or "C" shaped member formed from sheet steel spanning between primary framing and supporting wall material.

"Metal decking" means a commercially manufactured, structural grade, cold rolled metal panel formed into a series of parallel ribs; for this section, this includes metal floor and roof decks, standing seam metal roofs, other metal roof systems and other products such as bar gratings, checker plate, expanded metal panels, and similar products. After installation and proper fastening, these decking materials serve a combination of functions including, but not limited to: a structural element designed in combination with the structure to resist, distribute and transfer loads, stiffen the structure and provide a diaphragm action; a walking/working surface; a form for concrete slabs; a support for roofing systems; and a finished floor or roof.

"Multiple lift rigging" means rigging manufactured by rigging suppliers that facilitates the attachment of up to five independent loads to the hoist rigging of a crane.

"Permanent floor" means a structurally completed floor at any level or elevation (including slab on grade).

"Post" means a structural member with a longitudinal axis that is essentially vertical, that weighs 300 pounds or less and is axially loaded (a load presses down on the top end), or is not axially loaded, but is laterally restrained by the above member. Posts typically support stair landings, wall framing, mezzanines and other substructures.

"Project structural engineer of record" means the registered, California licensed engineer responsible for the design of structural steel framing and whose seal appears on the structural contract documents.

"Purlin" (in systems-engineered metal buildings) means a "Z" or "C" shaped member formed from sheet steel spanning between primary framing and supporting roof material.

"Safety deck attachment" means an initial attachment that is used to secure an initially placed sheet of decking to keep proper alignment and bearing with structural support members.

"Shear connector" means headed steel studs, steel bars, steel lugs, and similar devices which are attached to a structural member for the purpose of achieving composite action with concrete.

"Steel erection" means the construction, alteration or repair of steel buildings, bridges and other structures, including the installation of metal decking and all planking used during the process of erection.

"Steel joist" means an open web, secondary load-carrying member of 144 feet (43.9 m) or less, designed by the manufacturer, used for the support of floors and roofs. This does not include structural steel trusses or cold-formed joists.

"Steel joist girder" means an open web, primary load-carrying member, designed by the manufacturer, used for the support of floors and roofs. This does not include structural steel trusses.

"Steel truss" means an open web member designed of structural steel components by the project structural engineer of record. For the purposes of this section, a steel truss is considered equivalent to a solid web structural member.

"Structural steel" means a steel member, or a member made of a substitute material. These members include, but are not limited to, steel joists, joist girders, purlins, columns, beams, trusses, splices, seats, metal decking, girts, and all bridging, and cold formed metal framing which is integrated with the structural steel framing of a building.

"Systems-engineered metal building" means a metal, field-assembled building system consisting of framing, roof and wall coverings. Typically, many of these components are cold-formed shapes. These individual parts are fabricated in one or more manufacturing facilities and shipped to the job site for assembly into the final structure. The engineering design of the system is normally the responsibility of the systems-engineered metal building manufacturer.

"Tank" means a container for holding gases, liquids or solids.

(c) Site layout and construction sequence.

  (1) Approval to begin steel erection. Before authorizing the commencement of steel erection, the controlling contractor shall ensure that the steel erector is provided with the following written notifications:  


  (A) The concrete in the footings, piers and walls and the mortar in the masonry piers and walls has attained, on the basis of an approved test method of field-cured samples (i.e. appropriate ASTM standard test method), either 75 percent of the intended minimum compressive design strength or sufficient strength to support the loads imposed during steel erection.  


  (B) Any repairs, replacements and modifications to the anchor bolts were conducted in accordance with Section 1710(f)(2).  


  (2) Commencement of steel erection. A steel erection contractor shall not erect steel unless it has received written notification that the concrete in the footings, piers and walls or the mortar in the masonry piers and walls has attained, on the basis of an approved test method of field-cured samples (i.e., appropriate ASTM standard test method), either 75 percent of the intended minimum compressive design strength or sufficient strength to support the loads imposed during steel erection.  


  (3) Site layout. The controlling contractor shall ensure that the following is provided and maintained:  


  (A) Adequate access roads into and through the site for the safe delivery and movement of derricks, cranes, trucks, other necessary equipment, and the material to be erected and means and methods for pedestrian and vehicular control.  


  Exception: This requirement does not apply to roads outside of the construction site.  


  (B) A firm, properly graded, drained area, adequately compacted to support the intended loads, readily accessible to the work with adequate space for the safe storage of materials and the safe operation of the erector's equipment.  


  (4) Pre-planning of overhead hoisting operations. All hoisting operations in steel erection shall be pre-planned to ensure that the requirements of Section 1710(d)(1) are met.  


  (5) Site-specific erection plan. Where employers elect, due to conditions specific to the site, to develop alternate means and methods that provide employee protection in accordance with Sections 1710(d)(9), 1710(h)(1)(C) or 1710(h)(5)(D), a site-specific erection plan shall be developed by a qualified person and be available at the work site. Guidelines for establishing a site-specific erection plan are contained in Appendix C of this section.  


(d) Hoisting and rigging.

  (1) Working under loads.  


  (A) Routes for suspended loads shall be pre-planned to ensure that no employee is working below a suspended load except as necessary for:  


  1. Connectors making the initial connection of the steel; or  


  2. Riggers when hooking or unhooking of the load.  


  (B) When working under suspended loads, the following criteria shall be met:  


  1. Materials being hoisted shall be rigged to prevent unintentional displacement;  


  2. Hooks with self-closing safety latches or their equivalent shall be used to prevent components from slipping out of the hook; and  


  3. All loads shall be rigged by a qualified rigger.  


  (2) Multiple Lift Rigging Procedure.  


  (A) A multiple lift shall only be performed if the following criteria are met:  


  1. A multiple lift rigging assembly is used;  


  2. A maximum of five members are hoisted per lift;  


  3. Rigging procedures shall prevent hazardous contact between the structural steel members being hoisted and adjacent structures or workers;  


  4. Only beams and similar structural members are lifted;  


  5. All employees engaged in the multiple lift have been trained in these procedures in accordance with Section 1710(q)(3)(A); and  


  6. No crane is permitted to be used for a multiple lift where such use is contrary to the manufacturer's specifications and limitations.  


  (B) Components of the multiple lift rigging assembly shall be specifically designed and assembled to support the maximum capacity for the total assembly and for each individual attachment point. This capacity, certified by the manufacturer, shall be based on the manufacturer's specifications with a 5 to 1 safety factor for all components.  


  (C) The total load shall not exceed:  


  1. 75 percent of the rated capacity of the hoisting equipment specified in the hoisting equipment load charts;  


  2. The rigging capacity specified by the manufacturer.  


  (D) The multiple lift rigging assembly shall be rigged with members:  


  1. Attached at their center of gravity and maintained reasonably level;  


  2. Rigged from top down; and  


  3. Rigged at least 7 feet (2.1 m) apart.  


  (E) The members on the multiple lift rigging assembly shall be set from the bottom up.  


  (F) Controlled load lowering shall be used whenever the load is over the connectors.  


  (3) Whenever there is any doubt as to safety, the crane or derrick operator shall have the authority to stop and refuse to handle loads until safety has been assured.  


  (4) Metal decking bundles shall be landed on framing members so that enough support is provided to allow the bundles to be unbanded without dislodging the bundles from the supports.  


  (5) Temporary loads placed on a derrick floor shall be distributed over the underlying support members so as to prevent local overloading of the deck material.  


  (6) Bundle packaging and strapping shall not be used for hoisting unless specifically designed for that purpose.  


  (7) If loose items such as dunnage, flashing, or other materials are placed on the top of metal decking bundles to be hoisted, such items shall be secured to the bundles.  


  (8) Cranes or derricks may be used to hoist employees on a personnel platform when work under this section is being conducted, provided the provisions of General Industry Safety Orders, Section 5004 [except for subsection (c)] are met.  


  (9) Safety latches on hooks shall not be deactivated or made inoperable except:  


  (A) When a qualified rigger has determined that the hoisting and placing of purlins and single joists can be performed more safely by doing so; and  


  (B) When the steel erector develops and implements a site-specific erection plan that ensures the load will not travel over or expose employees in other trades to the hazards of suspended loads.  


  NOTE: Other applicable regulations pertaining to hoisting and rigging operations for the use of cranes and derricks in steel erection construction are contained in the General Industry Safety Orders, Group 13, Cranes and Other Hoisting Equipment.  


(e) Walking/working surfaces.

  (1) Shear connectors and other similar devices.  


  (A) Tripping hazards. Shear connectors (such as headed steel studs, steel bars or steel lugs), reinforcing bars, deformed anchors or threaded studs shall not be attached to the top flanges of beams, joists or beam attachments so that they project vertically from or horizontally across the top flange of the member until after the metal decking, or other walking/working surface, has been installed.  


  (B) Installation of shear connectors on composite floors, roofs and bridge decks. When shear connectors are used in construction of composite floors, roofs and bridge decks, employees shall lay out and install the shear connectors after the metal decking has been installed, using the metal decking as a working platform.  


  NOTE: Section 1710(n)(8) prohibits the installation of shear connectors within a controlled decking zone.  


(f) Column anchorage.

  (1) General requirements for erection stability.  


  (A) All columns shall be anchored by a minimum of 4 anchor rods (anchor bolts).  


  Exception: When columns are braced or guyed to provide the stability to support an eccentric load as specified in subsection (f)(1)(B) of this section.  


  (B) Each column anchor rod (anchor bolt) assembly, including the column-to-base plate weld and the column foundation, shall be designed to resist a minimum eccentric gravity load of 300 pounds (136.2 kg) located 18 inches (.46m) from the extreme outer face of the column in each direction at the top of the column shaft.  


  (C) Columns shall be set on level finished floors, pre-grouted leveling plates, leveling nuts, or shim packs which are adequate to transfer the construction loads.  


  (D) All columns shall be evaluated by a competent person to determine whether guying or bracing is needed; if guying or bracing is needed, it shall be installed.  


  (2) Repair, replacement or field modification of anchor rods (anchor bolts).  


  (A) Anchor rods (anchor bolts) shall not be repaired, replaced or field-modified without the approval of the project structural engineer of record.  


  NOTE: Minor adjustment of anchor rods (anchor bolts) that do not affect the structural integrity of anchor rods (anchor bolts) are not considered "repairs" for the purposes of this subsection.  


  (B) Prior to the erection of a column, the controlling contractor shall provide written notification to the steel erector if there has been any repair, replacement or modification of the anchor rods (anchor bolts) of that column.  


(g) Beams and columns.

  (1) During the final placing of solid web structural members, the load shall not be released from the hoisting line until the members are secured with at least two bolts per connection, of the same size and strength as shown in the erection drawings, drawn up wrench-tight or the equivalent as specified by the project structural engineer of record, except as specified in subsection (g)(3) of this section.  


  (2) A competent person shall determine if more than two bolts are necessary to ensure the stability of cantilevered members; if additional bolts are needed, they shall be installed.  


  (3) Diagonal bracing. Solid web structural members used as diagonal bracing shall be secured by at least one bolt per connection drawn up wrench-tight or the equivalent as specified by the project structural engineer of record.  


  (4) Double connections at columns and/or at beam webs over a column.  


  (A) When two structural members on opposite sides of a column web, or a beam web over a column, are connected sharing common connection holes, at least one bolt with its wrench-tight nut shall remain connected to the first member unless a shop-attached or field-attached seat or equivalent connection device is supplied with the member to secure the first member and prevent the column from being displaced (See Appendix B of this section for examples of equivalent connection devices).  


  (B) If a seat or equivalent device is used, the seat (or device) shall be designed to support the load during the double connection process. It shall be adequately bolted or welded to both a supporting member and the first member before the nuts on the shared bolts are removed to make the double connection.  


  (5) Column splices. Each column splice shall be designed to resist a minimum eccentric gravity load of 300 pounds (136.2 kg) located 18 inches (.46 m) from the extreme outer face of the column in each direction at the top of the column shaft.  


  (6) Perimeter columns. Perimeter columns shall not be erected unless:  


  (A) The perimeter columns extend a minimum of 48 inches (1.2 m) above the finished floor to permit installation of perimeter safety cables prior to erection of the next tier, except where constructibility does not allow.  


  (B) The perimeter columns have holes or other devices in or attached to perimeter columns at 42-45 inches (107-114 cm) above the finished floor and the midpoint between the finished floor and the top cable to permit installation of perimeter safety cables (wire rope) required by subsection (l)(3) of this section, except where constructibility does not allow.  


(h) Open web steel joists.

  (1) General.  


  (A) Except as provided in subsection (h)(1)(B) of this section, where steel joists are used and columns are not framed in at least two directions with solid web structural steel members, a steel joist shall be field-bolted at the column to provide lateral stability to the column during erection. For the installation of this joist:  


  1. A vertical stabilizer plate shall be provided on each column for steel joists. The plate shall be a minimum of 6 inch by 6 inch (152 mm by 152 mm) and shall extend at least 3 inches (76 mm) below the bottom chord of the joist with a 13/16 inch (21 mm) hole to provide an attachment point for guying or plumbing cables.  


  2. The bottom chords of steel joists at columns shall be stabilized to prevent rotation during erection.  


  3. Hoisting cables shall not be released until the seat at each end of the steel joist is field-bolted, and each end of the bottom chord is restrained by the column stabilizer plate.  


  (B) Where constructibility does not allow a steel joist to be installed at the column:  


  1. An alternate means of stabilizing joists shall be installed on both sides near the column and shall:  


  a. Provide stability equivalent to subsection (h)(1)(A) of this section;  


  b. be designed by a qualified person;  


  c. be shop installed; and  


  d. be included in the erection drawings.  


  2. Hoisting cables shall not be released until the seat at each end of the steel joist is field-bolted and the joist is stabilized.  


  (C) Where steel joists at or near columns span more than 60 feet (18.3 m), the joists shall be set in tandem with all bridging installed unless an alternative method of erection, which provides equivalent stability to the steel joist, is designed by a qualified person and is included in the site-specific erection plan.  


  (D) A steel joist or steel joist girder shall not be placed on any support structure unless such structure is stabilized.  


  (E) When steel joist(s) are landed on a structure, they shall be secured to prevent unintentional displacement prior to installation.  


  (F) No modification that affects the strength of a steel joist or steel joist girder shall be made without the approval of the project structural engineer of record.  


  (G) Field-bolted joists.  


  1. Except for steel joists that have been pre-assembled into panels, connections of individual steel joists to steel structures in bays of 40 feet (12.2 m) or more shall be fabricated to allow for field bolting during erection.  


  2. These connections shall be field-bolted unless constructibility does not allow.  


  (H) Steel joists and steel joist girders shall not be used as anchorage points for a fall arrest system unless written approval to do so is obtained from a qualified person.  


  (I) A bridging terminus point shall be established before bridging is installed. (See Appendix A of this section.)  


  (2) Attachment of steel joists and steel joist girders.  


  (A) Each end of "K" series steel joists shall be attached to the support structure with a minimum of two 1/8-inch (3 mm) fillet welds 1 inch (25 mm) long or with two 1/2-inch (13 mm) bolts, or the equivalent.  


  (B) Each end of "LH" and "DLH" series steel joists and steel joist girders shall be attached to the support structure with a minimum of two 1/4-inch (6 mm) fillet welds 2 inches (51 mm) long, or with two 3/4-inch (19 mm) bolts, or the equivalent.  


  (C) Except as provided in subsection (h)(2)(D) of this section, each steel joist shall be attached to the support structure, at least at one end on both sides of the seat, immediately upon placement in the final erection position and before additional joists are placed.  


  (D) Panels that have been pre-assembled from steel joists with bridging shall be attached to the structure at each corner before the hoisting cables are released.  


  (3) Erection of steel joists.  


  (A) Both sides of the seat of one end of each steel joist that requires bridging under Tables A and B shall be attached to the support structure before hoisting cables are released.  


  (B) For joists over 60 feet, both ends of the joist shall be attached as specified in subsection (h)(2) of this section and the provisions of subsection (h)(4) of this section met before the hoisting cables are released.  


  (C) On steel joists that do not require erection bridging under Tables A and B, only one employee shall be allowed on the joist until all bridging is installed and anchored.  


  (D) Employees shall not be allowed on steel joists where the span of the steel joist is equal to or greater than the span shown in Tables A and B except in accordance with subsection (h)(4) of this section.  


  (E) When permanent bridging terminus points cannot be used during erection, additional temporary bridging terminus points are required to provide stability. (See Appendix A of this section.)  


Table A. Erection Bridging for Short Span Joists

 
Joist ....................................... Span - Feet  
8K1.......................................... NM           
10K1......................................... NM           
12K1......................................... 23-0         
12K3......................................... NM           
12K5......................................... NM           
14K1......................................... 27-0         
14K3......................................... NM           
14K4......................................... NM           
14K6......................................... NM           
16K2......................................... 29-0         
16K3......................................... 30-0         
16K4......................................... 32-0         
16K5......................................... 32-0         
16K6......................................... NM           
16K7......................................... NM           
16K9......................................... NM           
18K3......................................... 31-0         
18K4......................................... 32-0         
18K5......................................... 33-0         
18K6......................................... 35-0         
18K7......................................... NM           
18K9......................................... NM           
18K10........................................ NM           
20K3......................................... 32-0         
20K4......................................... 34-0         
20K5......................................... 34-0         
20K6......................................... 36-0         
20K7......................................... 39-0         
20K9......................................... 39-0         
20K10........................................ NM           
22K4......................................... 34-0         
22K5......................................... 35-0         
22K6......................................... 36-0         
22K7......................................... 40-0         
22K9......................................... 40-0         
22K10........................................ NM           
22K11........................................ NM           
24K4......................................... 36-0         
24K5......................................... 38-0         
24K6......................................... 39-0         
24K7......................................... 43-0         
24K8......................................... 43-0         
24K9......................................... 44-0         
24K10........................................ NM           
24K12........................................ NM           
26K5......................................... 38-0         
26K6......................................... 39-0         
26K7......................................... 43-0         
26K8......................................... 44-0         
26K9......................................... 44-0         
26K10........................................ 49-0         
26K12........................................ NM           
28K6......................................... 40-0         
28K7......................................... 43-0         
28K8......................................... 44-0         
28K9......................................... 45-0         
28K10........................................ 49-0         
28K12........................................ 53-0         
30K7......................................... 44-0         
30K8......................................... 45-0         
30K9......................................... 45-0         
30K10........................................ 50-0         
30K11........................................ 52-0         
30K12........................................ 54-0         
10KCS1....................................... NM           
10KCS2....................................... NM           
10KCS3....................................... NM           
12KCS1....................................... NM           
12KCS2....................................... NM           
12KCS3....................................... NM           
14KCS1....................................... NM           
14KCS2....................................... NM           
14KCS3....................................... NM           
16KCS2....................................... NM           
16KCS3....................................... NM           
16KCS4....................................... NM           
16KCS5....................................... NM           
18KCS2....................................... 35-0         
18KCS3....................................... NM           
18KCS4....................................... NM           
18KCS5....................................... NM           
20KCS2....................................... 36-0         
20KCS3....................................... 39-0         
20KCS4....................................... NM           
20KCS5....................................... NM           
22KCS2....................................... 36-0         
22KCS3....................................... 40-0         
22KCS4....................................... NM           
22KCS5....................................... NM           
24KCS2....................................... 39-0         
24KCS3....................................... 44-0         
24KCS4....................................... NM           
24KCS5....................................... NM           
26KCS2....................................... 39-0         
26KCS3....................................... 44-0         
26KCS4....................................... NM           
26KCS5....................................... NM           
28KCS2....................................... 40-0         
28KCS3....................................... 45-0         
28KCS4....................................... 53-0         
28KCS5....................................... 53-0         
30KCS3....................................... 45-0         
30KCS4....................................... 54-0         
30KCS5....................................... 54-0         
NM=diagonal bolted bridging not mandatory.                 
 
 
Table B. Erection Bridging for Long Span Joists

 
Joist ......................................... Span - Feet         
18LH02......................................... 33-0.               
18LH03......................................... NM.                 
18LH04......................................... NM.                 
18LH05......................................... NM.                 
18LH06......................................... NM.                 
18LH07......................................... NM.                 
18LH08......................................... NM.                 
18LH09......................................... NM.                 
20LH02......................................... 33-0.               
20LH03......................................... 38-0.               
20LH04......................................... NM.                 
20LH05......................................... NM.                 
20LH06......................................... NM.                 
20LH07......................................... NM.                 
20LH08......................................... NM.                 
20LH09......................................... NM.                 
20LH10......................................... NM.                 
24LH03......................................... 35-0.               
24LH04......................................... 39-0.               
24LH05......................................... 40-0.               
24LH06......................................... 45-0.               
24LH07......................................... NM.                 
24LH08......................................... NM.                 
24LH09......................................... NM.                 
24LH10......................................... NM.                 
24LH11......................................... NM.                 
28LH05......................................... 42-0.               
28LH06......................................... 46-0.               
28LH07......................................... 54-0                
28LH08......................................... 54-0                
28LH09......................................... NM.                 
28LH10......................................... NM.                 
28LH11......................................... NM.                 
28LH12......................................... NM.                 
28LH13......................................... NM.                 
32LH06......................................... 47-0 through 60-0.  
32LH07......................................... 47-0 through 60-0.  
32LH08......................................... 55-0 through 60-0.  
32LH09......................................... NM through 60-0.    
32LH10......................................... NM through 60-0.    
32LH11......................................... NM through 60-0.    
32LH12......................................... NM through 60-0.    
32LH13......................................... NM through 60-0.    
32LH14......................................... NM through 60-0.    
32LH15......................................... NM through 60-0.    
36LH07......................................... 47-0 through 60-0.  
36LH08......................................... 47-0 through 60-0.  
36LH09......................................... 57-0 through 60-0.  
36LH10......................................... NM through 60-0.    
36LH11......................................... NM through 60-0.    
36LH12......................................... NM through 60-0.    
36LH13......................................... NM through 60-0.    
36LH14......................................... NM through 60-0.    
36LH15......................................... NM through 60-0.    
NM = diagonal bolted bridging not mandatory.                        
 
 
  (4) Erection bridging.  


  (A) Where the span of the steel joist is equal to or greater than the span shown in Tables A and B, the following shall apply:  


  1. A row of bolted diagonal erection bridging shall be installed near the midspan of the steel joist;  


  2. Hoisting cables shall not be released until this bolted diagonal erection bridging is installed and anchored; and  


  3. No more than one employee shall be allowed on these spans until all other bridging is installed and anchored.  


  (B) Where the span of the steel joist is over 60 feet (18.3 m) through 100 feet (30.5 m), the following shall apply:  


  1. All rows of bridging shall be bolted diagonal bridging;  


  2. Two rows of bolted diagonal erection bridging shall be installed near the third points of the steel joist;  


  3. Hoisting cables shall not be released until this bolted diagonal erection bridging is installed and anchored; and  


  4. No more than two employees shall be allowed on these spans until all other bridging is installed and anchored.  


  (C) Where the span of the steel joist is over 100 feet (30.5 m) through 144 feet (43.9 m), the following shall apply:  


  1. All rows of bridging shall be bolted diagonal bridging;  


  2. Hoisting cables shall not be released until all bridging is installed and anchored; and  


  3. No more than two employees shall be allowed on these spans until all bridging is installed and anchored.  


  (D) For steel members spanning over 144 feet (43.9 m), the erection methods used shall be in accordance with subsection (g) of this section.  


  (E) Where any steel joist specified in subsections (h)(3)(B) and (h)(4)(A), (h)(4)(B), and (h)(4)(C) of this section is a bottom chord bearing joist, a row of bolted diagonal bridging shall be provided near the support(s). This bridging shall be installed and anchored before the hoisting cable(s) is released.  


  (F) When bolted diagonal erection bridging is required by this section, the following shall apply:  


  1. The bridging shall be indicated on the erection drawing;  


  2. The erection drawing shall be the exclusive indicator of the proper placement of this bridging;  


  3. Shop-installed bridging clips, or functional equivalents, shall be used where the bridging bolts to the steel joists;  


  4. When two pieces of bridging are attached to the steel joist by a common bolt, the nut that secures the first piece of bridging shall not be removed from the bolt for the attachment of the second; and  


  5. Bridging attachments shall not protrude above the top chord of the steel joist.  


  (5) Landing and placing loads.  


  (A) During the construction period, the employer placing a load on steel joists shall ensure that the load is distributed so as not to exceed the carrying capacity of any steel joist.  


  (B) Except for subsection (h)(5)(D) of this section, no construction loads are allowed on the steel joists until all bridging is installed and anchored and all joist-bearing ends are attached.  


  (C) The weight of a bundle of joist bridging shall not exceed a total of 1,000 pounds (454 kg). A bundle of joist bridging shall be placed on a minimum of three steel joists that are secured at one end. The edge of the bridging bundle shall be positioned within 1 foot (.30 m) of the secured end.  


  (D) No bundle of decking may be placed on steel joists until all bridging has been installed and anchored and all joist bearing ends attached, unless all of the following conditions are met:  


  1. The employer has first determined from a qualified person and documented in a site-specific erection plan that the structure or portion of the structure is capable of supporting the load;  


  2. The bundle of decking is placed on a minimum of three steel joists;  


  3. The joists supporting the bundle of decking are attached at both ends;  


  4. At least one row of bridging is installed and anchored;  


  5. The total weight of the bundle of decking does not exceed 4,000 pounds (1816 kg); and  


  6. The edge of the construction load shall be placed within 1 foot (.30 m) of the bearing surface of the joist end.  


(i) Systems-engineered metal buildings.

  (1) All of the requirements of this section apply to the erection of systems-engineered metal buildings except subsection (f) (column anchorage) and subsection (h) (open web steel joists).  


  (2) Each structural column shall be anchored by a minimum of four anchor rods (anchor bolts).  


  (3) Rigid frames shall have 50 percent of their bolts or the number of bolts specified by the manufacturer (whichever is greater) installed and tightened on both sides of the web adjacent to each flange before the hoisting equipment is released.  


  (4) Construction loads shall not be placed on any structural steel framework unless such framework is safely bolted, welded or otherwise adequately secured.  


  (5) In girt and eave strut-to-frame connections, when girts or eave struts share common connection holes, at least one bolt with its wrench-tight nut shall remain connected to the first member unless a manufacturer-supplied, field-attached seat or similar connection device is present to secure the first member so that the girt or eave strut is always secured against displacement.  


  (6) Both ends of all steel joists or cold-formed joists shall be fully bolted and/or welded to the support structure before:  


  (A) Releasing the hoisting cables;  


  (B) Allowing an employee on the joists; or  


  (C) Allowing any construction loads on the joists.  


  (7) Purlins may only be used as a walking/working surface when installing safety systems, after all permanent bridging has been installed and fall protection is provided.  


  (8) Construction loads may be placed only within a zone that is within 8 feet (2.5 m) of the center-line of the primary support member.  


(j) Falling object protection.

  (1) Securing loose items aloft. All materials, equipment, and tools, which are not in use while aloft, shall be secured against accidental displacement.  


  (2) Protection from falling objects other than materials being hoisted. The controlling contractor shall bar other construction processes below steel erection unless overhead protection for the employees below is provided.  


(k) Permanent Flooring -Skeleton Steel Construction in Tiered Buildings.

  (1) The permanent floors shall be installed as the erection of structural members progresses, and there shall be not more than eight stories between the erection floor and the uppermost permanent floor, except where the structural integrity is maintained as a result of the design.  


  (2) At no time shall there be more than four floors or 48 feet, whichever is less, of unfinished bolting or welding above the foundation or uppermost permanently secured floor, except where structural integrity is maintained as a result of the design.  


(l) Temporary Flooring -Skeleton Steel Construction in Multistory Buildings.

  (1) The derrick or erection floor shall be solidly planked or decked except for access openings. Planking or decking of equivalent strength, shall be of proper thickness to carry the working load. Planking shall be not less than 2 inches thick full size undressed, and shall be laid tight. Both planking and decking shall be secured.  


  (2) On buildings or structures not adaptable to temporary floors, and where scaffolds or approved fall protection is not used, safety nets shall be installed and maintained whenever the potential fall distance exceeds two stories or 30 feet, whichever is less.  


  (3) The exposed edges of all temporary planked and metal decked floors at the periphery of the building, or at interior openings, such as stairways and elevator shafts shall be protected by a single 3/8-inch minimum diameter wire rope of 13,500 pounds minimum breaking strength located between 42 and 45 inches above design finish floor height. Other guardrail protection may be used if equal fall protection is provided.  


  Note: If the periphery fall protection is intended to be used as a catenary line, it shall meet the provisions of Section 1710(m)(4).  


  (4) Midrail protection.  


  (A) Midrail protection shall be installed as soon as the metal decking has been installed; and  


  (B) Shall be installed prior to the decked area being used by trades other than the steel erector or decking crew.  


  (5) Framed metal deck openings shall have structural members turned down to allow continuous deck installation except where not allowed by structural design constraints or constructibility.  


  (6) Metal decking holes and openings shall not be cut until immediately prior to being permanently filled with the equipment or structure needed or intended to fulfill its specific use and which meets the strength requirements of Section 1632(b) of these orders, or shall be immediately covered.  


  (7) Where skeleton steel is being erected, a tightly planked and substantial floor shall be maintained within two stories or 30 feet, whichever is less, below and directly under that portion of each tier of beams on which any work is being performed.  


  Note: Where a planked floor is not practical, subsection (l)(2) of this section applies.  


  (A) When gathering and stacking temporary floor planks, the planks shall be removed successively, working toward the last panel of the temporary floor so that the work is always done from the planked floor.  


  (B) When gathering and stacking temporary floor planks from the last panel, the employees assigned to such work shall be protected by an approved personal fall protection system attached to a catenary line or other substantial anchorage.  


(m) Working and Traveling on the Skeleton Steel of Multistory Buildings or Structures.

  (1) Connecting.  


  (A) When connecting beams or other structural members at the periphery or interior of a building or structure where the fall distance is greater than two stories or 30 feet, whichever is less, iron workers shall be provided with and use a personal fall protection system as described in Article 24 tied-off to either columns, pendant lines secured at the tops of columns, catenary lines, or other secure anchorage points.  


  (B) At heights over 15 and up to 30 feet above a lower level, connectors shall be provided with a personal fall arrest system, positioning device system or fall restraint system and wear the equipment necessary to be able to be tied off; or be provided with other means of protection from fall hazards in accordance with subsection (m).  


  NOTE: For fall protection requirements associated with work above reinforcing steel and similar projections, see Section 1712 of the Construction Safety Orders.  


  (C) Shinning of Columns.  


  1. When connecting beams or other structural members at columns the practice of shinning (vertically climbing up or down) columns to access workpoints shall be permitted where the fall distance does not exceed two stories or 30 feet, whichever is less.  


  2. Where the fall distance exceeds two stories or 30 feet, whichever is less, iron workers shall be provided with and use a personal fall protection system as described in Article 24 tied-off to either columns, pendant lines secured at the tops of columns, catenary lines, or other secure anchorage points.  


  (2) Work Other Than Connecting.  


  When performing any other work at a work point, iron workers shall be provided with and use personal fall protection as described in Article 24 where the fall distance is greater than 15 feet.  


  (3) Traveling at Periphery or Interior of Building.  


  (A) When moving from work point to work point or releasing slings, and the fall distance is greater than 30 feet or two stories, whichever is less, connectors:  


  1. Shall coon or walk the bottom flange (inside flange of peripheral beams);  


  2. May walk the top surface of securely landed decking bundles; or  


  3. May walk the top flange if they are tied-off to catenary lines or use other fall protection in accordance with Article 24.  


  (B) When moving from work point to work point or releasing slings, and the fall distance is greater than 15 feet for other than connecting, iron workers:  


  1. Shall coon or walk the bottom flange (inside flange of peripheral beams);  


  2. May walk the top surface of securely landed decking bundles; or  


  3. May walk the top flange if they are tied-off to catenary lines or use other fall protection in accordance with Article 24.  


  (4) Pendant lines, catenary lines and other lines used to secure workers shall be used in accordance with the Construction Safety Orders, Section 1670.  


  (5) If the procedure specified in subsection (m)(1) above is impractical, perimeter safety nets shall be installed at a distance of no more than 25 feet below the work surface and extend at least 8 feet beyond the perimeter of the building or structure. Nets shall meet the requirements set forth in accordance with Section 1671.  


(n) Controlled Decking Zone (CDZ). A CDZ is an area established specifically for the initial placement and securing of metal decking where access to the area is restricted and work may take place without the use of a personal fall protection system.

  (1) A controlled decking zone is permitted only in that area of the structure over 15 feet and up to 30 feet above a lower level when it can be shown that the use of a personal fall protection system is impractical or creates a greater hazard.  


  (2) The CDZ shall be limited to that area where metal decking is initially being installed and forms the leading edge work.  


  (3) The implementation of a CDZ shall be under the supervision of a competent person.  


  (4) The employer shall document the reasons why the use of conventional fall protection systems (guardrails, personal fall arrest systems, positioning device systems, fall restraint systems or safety nets) are infeasible or why their use would create a greater hazard.  


  (A) The name or other method of identification for each employee (e.g., job title) who is designated to work in the CDZ must be documented.  


  (B) The documentation required by this subsection shall be in writing and shall be available at the job site.  


  (5) Where a CDZ is being used, the employer shall assure that a safety monitoring system is provided and shall designate a competent person to monitor the safety of employees within the CDZ. The safety monitor shall comply with the following requirements:  


  (A) The safety monitor shall be competent to recognize fall hazards;  


  (B) The safety monitor shall warn the employee when it appears that the employee is unaware of a fall hazard or is acting in an unsafe manner;  


  (C) The safety monitor shall be within visual sighting distance of the employee;  


  (D) The safety monitor shall be close enough to communicate orally with the employee;  


  (E) The safety monitor shall not have other responsibilities which could take the monitor's attention from the monitoring function; and  


  (F) The safety monitor shall not be located within the CDZ.  


  (6) In each CDZ, the following shall apply:  


  (A) Each employee working within a CDZ shall be protected from fall hazards greater than two stories or 30 feet, whichever is less, by the use of a personal fall protection system.  


  (B) Access to a CDZ shall be limited to only those employees engaged in leading edge work.  


  (C) The boundaries of a CDZ shall be designated and clearly marked. The CDZ shall be defined by a control line or by any equivalent means that restrict access.  


  1. Control lines shall meet the requirements of Section 1671.2(a)(4) through (a)(6).  


  2. When control lines or equivalent means are used, they shall be erected not less than 6 feet from the unprotected leading edge.  


  3. The CDZ shall not be more than 90 feet wide and 90 feet deep from any leading edge.  


  4. Signs meeting the requirements of the General Industry Safety Orders, Section 3340 shall be posted to warn unauthorized persons to stay out of the CDZ.  


  (7) Safety deck attachments shall be performed in the CDZ from the leading edge back to the control line and shall have at least two attachments for each metal decking panel. The area of decking without completed safety deck attachments shall not exceed 3000 square feet.  


  (8) Final deck attachments, installation of shear connectors, and flashing shall not be performed in the CDZ.  


  (9) Where a CDZ is being used, the employer shall assure that each affected employee has been provided training in accordance with subsection (q)(3)(C) of this section.  


(o) Custody of guardrail systems. Wire rope or other guardrail protection provided by the steel erector shall remain in the area where steel erection activity has been completed, to be used by other trades, only if the controlling contractor or its authorized representative:

  (1) Has directed the steel erector to leave the wire rope or other guardrail protection in place; and  


  (2) Has inspected and accepted control and responsibility of the wire rope or other guardrail protection prior to authorizing persons other than steel erectors to work in the area.  


(p) Smoke dome or skylight fixtures that have been installed, are not considered covers for the purpose of this section unless they meet the strength requirements of Section 1632(b) of these orders.

(q) Training.

The following provisions supplement the requirements of Section 1509 "Injury and Illness Prevention Program" regarding the hazards associated with structural steel erection.

  (1) Training personnel. Training required by this section shall be provided by a qualified person(s).  


  (2) Fall hazard training. The employer shall provide a training program for all employees exposed to fall hazards. The program shall include training and instruction in the following areas:  


  (A) The recognition and identification of fall hazards in the work area;  


  (B) The use and operation of guardrail systems (including perimeter safety cable systems), personal fall arrest systems, positioning device systems, fall restraint systems, safety net systems, and other protection to be used;  


  (C) The correct procedures for erecting, maintaining, disassembling, and inspecting the fall protection systems to be used;  


  (D) The procedures to be followed to prevent falls to lower levels and through or into holes and openings in walking/working surfaces and walls; and  


  (E) The fall protection requirements for structural steel erection.  


  (3) Special training programs. In addition to the training required in subsections (q)(1) and (q)(2) of this section, the employer shall provide special training to employees engaged in the following activities.  


  (A) Multiple lift rigging procedure. The employer shall ensure that each employee who performs multiple lift rigging has been provided training in the hazards associated with multiple lifts including the following areas:  


  1. The proper inspection and removal of hoisting slings, eye-hooks and other rigging components used in multiple lift rigging.  


  2. Procedures for determining the proper sling length for structural members.  


  3. The use of rated load charts and capacities for manufactured rigging equipment.  


  4. The design and use of manufactured rigging assemblies.  


  5. Proper rigging techniques to maintain a distance of 7 feet between structural members being hoisted.  


  6. Instruction that no more than 5 structural members can be hoisted per lift.  


  7. Proper techniques for rigging structural members from the top down and setting structural members from the bottom up.  


  8. Procedures and techniques for rigging structural members at the center of gravity.  


  9. Procedures to ensure that no crane is used for multiple lifts that violates the crane manufacturer's specifications.  


  10. Procedures to ensure that no load exceeds 75 percent of the rated capacity for the hoisting equipment as specified in the hoisting equipment load charts.  


  11. The use of controlled load lowering on hoisting equipment used for multiple lifts.  


  12. Procedures for performing multiple lifts that are site-specific.  


  13. Procedures for preplanning overhead routes of suspended loads.  


  (B) Connector procedures. The employer shall ensure that each connector has been provided training in the following areas:  


  1. The nature of the hazards associated with connecting; and  


  2. Shinning of columns, access, proper connecting techniques and work practices required by subsections (g)(4) and (m) of this section.  


  (C) Controlled Decking Zone Procedures. Where CDZs are being used, the employer shall assure that each employee has been provided training in the following areas:  


  1. The nature of the hazards associated with work within a controlled decking zone; and  


  2. The establishment of CDZs, access, proper installation techniques and work practices required by subsection (n) of this section.  


<General Materials (GM) - References, Annotations, or Tables>


     Note: Authority cited: Section 142.3, Labor Code. Reference: Sections 142.3, 7252, 7253, 7254, 7258, 7261, 7262 and 7266, Labor Code.  


 HISTORY 
   
1. Amendment of subsection (b) filed 5-3-78; effective thirtieth day thereafter (Register 78, No. 18). For prior history, see Register 76, No. 41.

2. Amendment of subsection (e)(1)(C) filed 5-12-83; effective thirtieth day thereafter (Register 83, No. 20).

3. Amendment filed 6-21-85; effective thirtieth day thereafter (Register 85, No. 25).

4. New subsections (i)-(i)(2) filed 12-15-93; operative 1-14-94 (Register 93, No. 51).

5. Amendment of subsections (g)(1), (g)(2), (g)(3)(A)-(B) and (g)(5) filed 4-23-98; operative 5-23-98 (Register 98, No. 17).

6. Amendment of subsections (g)(1)-(2) filed 7-2-98; operative 8-1-98 (Register 98, No. 27).

7. New subsection (a)(4) filed 7-25-2001; operative 8-24-2001 (Register 2001, 
No. 30).

8. Amendment of section heading, section and Note and new Appendices A and B filed 5-1-2002; operative 5-1 2002. Submitted to OAL for printing only pursuant to Labor Code section 142.3(a)(3) (Register 2002, No. 18).

9. Amendment of section and Appendix A heading and new Appendix C filed 7-3-2003; operative 8-2-2003 (Register 2003, No. 27).

10. Amendment of subsection (f)(1)(A) filed 3-15-2006; operative 4-14-2006 (Register 2006, No. 11).

11. Change without regulatory effect amending appendices A and B filed 5-19-2008 pursuant to section 100, title 1, California Code of Regulations 
(Register 2008, No. 21).

12. Amendment of subsection (k)(2) filed 6-6-2008; operative 7-6-2008. Submitted to OAL for printing only pursuant to Labor Code section142.3(a)(3) (Register 2008, No. 23).


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