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Subchapter 4. Construction Safety Orders
Article 15. Cranes and Derricks in Construction

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§1616.6. Hoisting Personnel.

The requirements of this section are supplemental to the other requirements in this Article and apply when one or more employees are hoisted.

(a) The use of equipment to hoist employees is prohibited except where the employer demonstrates that the erection, use, and dismantling of conventional means of reaching the work area, such as a personnel hoist, ladder, stairway, aerial lift, elevating work platform, or scaffold, would be more hazardous, or is not possible because of the project's structural design or worksite conditions. This subsection does not apply to work covered by CSO Section 1710, Steel Erection.

(b) Use of personnel platform.

(1) When using equipment to hoist employees, the employees shall be in a personnel platform that meets the requirements of subsection (e).

(2) Exceptions: A personnel platform is not required for hoisting employees:

(A) Into and out of drill shafts that are up to and including 8 feet in diameter [see subsection (o) for requirements for hoisting these employees].

(B) In pile driving operations (see subsection (p) for requirements for hoisting these employees).

(C) Solely for transfer to or from a marine worksite in a marine-hoisted personnel transfer device [see subsection (r) for requirements for hoisting these employees].

(D) In storage-tank (steel or concrete), shaft and chimney operations [see subsection (s) for requirements for hoisting these employees].

(c) Equipment set-up.

(1) The equipment shall be uniformly level, within one percent of level grade, and located on footing that a qualified person has determined to be sufficiently firm and stable.

(2) Equipment with outriggers or stabilizers shall have them all extended and locked. The amount of extension shall be the same for all outriggers and stabilizers and in accordance with manufacturer procedures and load charts.

(d) Equipment criteria.

(1) Capacity: Use of suspended personnel platforms. The total load (with the platform loaded, including the hook, load line and rigging) shall not exceed 50 percent of the rated capacity for the radius and configuration of the equipment, except during proof testing.

(2) Capacity: Use of boom-attached personnel platforms. The total weight of the loaded personnel platform shall not exceed 50 percent of the rated capacity for the radius and configuration of the equipment (except during proof testing).

(3) Capacity: Hoisting personnel without a personnel platform. When hoisting personnel without a personnel platform pursuant to subsection (b)(2) of this section, the total load (including the hook, load line, rigging and any other equipment that imposes a load) shall not exceed 50 percent of the rated capacity for the radius and configuration of the equipment, except during proof testing.

(4) When the occupied personnel platform is in a stationary working position, the load and boom hoist brakes, swing brakes, and operator actuated secondary braking and locking features (such as pawls or dogs) or automatic secondary brakes shall be engaged.

(5) Devices.

(A) Equipment (except for derricks and articulating cranes) with a variable angle boom shall be equipped with all of the following:

1. A boom angle indicator, readily visible to the operator, and

2. A boom hoist limiting device.

(B) Articulating cranes shall be equipped with a properly functioning automatic overload protection device.

(C) Equipment with a luffing jib shall be equipped with:

1. A jib angle indicator, readily visible to the operator, and.

2. A jib hoist limiting device.

(D) Equipment with telescoping booms shall be equipped with a device to indicate the boom's extended length clearly to the operator, or shall have measuring marks on the boom.

(E) Anti two-block. A device which automatically prevents damage and load failure from contact between the load block, overhaul ball, or similar component, and the boom tip (or fixed upper block or similar component) shall be used. The device(s) shall prevent such damage/failure at all points where two-blocking could occur.

Exception: This device is not required when hoisting personnel in pile driving operations. Instead, subsection (p)(2) of this section specifies how to prevent two-blocking during such operations.

(F) Controlled load lowering. The load line hoist drum shall have a system, other than the load line hoist brake, which regulates the lowering rate of speed of the hoist mechanism. This system or device shall be used when hoisting personnel. NOTE: Free fall of the load line hoist is prohibited (see Section 1616.5(d); the use of equipment in which the boom hoist mechanism can free fall is also prohibited (see Section 1616.5(a)(1).

(G) Proper operation required.

Personnel hoisting operations shall not begin unless the devices listed in this section are in proper working order. If a device stops working properly during such operations, the operator shall safely stop operations. Personnel hoisting operations shall not resume until the device is again working properly. Alternative measures are not permitted. (See Section 1616.1 for tag-out and related requirements.)

(6) Direct attachment of a personnel platform to a luffing jib is prohibited.

(e) Personnel platform criteria.

(1) A qualified person familiar with structural design shall design the personnel platform and attachment/suspension system used for hoisting personnel.

(2) The system used to connect the personnel platform to the equipment shall allow the platform to remain within 10 degrees of level, regardless of boom angle.

(3) The suspension system shall be designed to minimize tipping of the platform due to movement of employees occupying the platform.

(4) The personnel platform itself (excluding the guardrail system and personal fall arrest system anchorages), shall be capable of supporting, without failure, its own weight and at least five times the maximum intended load.

(5) All welding of the personnel platform and its components shall be performed by a certified welder familiar with the weld grades, types and material specified in the platform design.

(6) The personnel platform shall be equipped with a guardrail system which meets the requirements of Article 16 of these Orders, and shall be enclosed at least from the toeboard to mid-rail with either solid construction material or expanded metal having openings no greater than 1/2 inch (1.27 cm). Points to which personal fall arrest systems are attached shall meet the anchorage requirements in Article 24 of these Orders.

(7) A grab rail shall be installed inside the entire perimeter of the personnel platform except for access gates/doors.

(8) Access gates/doors. If installed, access gates/doors of all types (including swinging, sliding, folding, or other types) shall:

(A) Not swing outward. If due to the size of the personnel platform, such as a 1-person platform, it is infeasible for the door to swing inward and allow safe entry for the platform occupant, then the access gate/door may swing outward.

(B) Be equipped with a device that prevents accidental opening.

(9) Headroom shall be sufficient to allow employees to stand upright in the platform.

(10) In addition to the use of hard hats, employees shall be protected by overhead protection on the personnel platform when employees are exposed to falling objects. The platform overhead protection shall not obscure the view of the operator or platform occupants (such as wire mesh that has up to 1/2 inch openings), unless full protection is necessary.

(11) All edges exposed to employee contact shall be smooth enough to prevent injury.

(12) The weight of the platform and its rated capacity shall be conspicuously posted on the platform with a plate or other permanent marking.

(f) Personnel platform loading.

(1) The personnel platform shall not be loaded in excess of its rated capacity.

(2) Use.

(A) Personnel platforms shall be used only for employees, their tools, and the materials necessary to do their work. Platforms shall not be used to hoist materials or tools when not hoisting personnel.

(B) Exception: Materials and tools to be used during the lift, if secured and distributed in accordance with subsection (f)(3) of this section may be in the platform for trial lifts.

(3) Materials and tools shall be:

(A) Secured to prevent displacement.

(B) Evenly distributed within the confines of the platform while it is suspended.

(4) The number of employees occupying the personnel platform shall not exceed the maximum number the platform was designed to hold or the number required to perform the work, whichever is less.

(g) Attachment and rigging.

(1) Hooks and other detachable devices.

(A) Hooks used in the connection between the hoist line and the personnel platform (including hooks on overhaul ball assemblies, lower load blocks, bridle legs, or other attachment assemblies or components) shall be:

1. Of a type that can be closed and locked, eliminating the throat opening.

2. Closed and locked when attached.

(B) Shackles used in place of hooks shall be of the alloy anchor type, with either:

1. A bolt, nut and retaining pin, in place; or

2. Of the screw type, with the screw pin secured from accidental removal.

(C) Where other detachable devices are used, they shall be of the type that can be closed and locked to the same extent as the devices addressed in subsections (g)(1)(A) and (B) of this section. Such devices shall be closed and locked when attached.

(2) Rope bridle. When a rope bridle is used to suspend the personnel platform, each bridle leg shall be connected to a master link or shackle (see subsection (g)(1) of this section) in a manner that ensures that the load is evenly divided among the bridle legs.

(3) Rigging hardware (including wire rope, shackles, rings, master links, and other rigging hardware) and hooks shall be capable of supporting, without failure, at least five times the maximum intended load applied or transmitted to that component. Where rotation resistant rope is used, the slings shall be capable of supporting without failure at least ten times the maximum intended load.

(4) Eyes in wire rope slings shall be fabricated with thimbles.

(5) Bridles and associated rigging for suspending the personnel platform shall be used only for the platform and the necessary employees, their tools and materials necessary to do their work. The bridles and associated rigging shall not have been used for any purpose other than hoisting personnel.

(h) Trial lift and inspection.

(1) A trial lift with the unoccupied personnel platform loaded at least to the anticipated lift weight shall be made from ground level, or any other location where employees will enter the platform, to each location at which the platform is to be hoisted and positioned. Where there is more than one location to be reached from a single set-up position, either individual trial lifts for each location, or a single trial lift, in which the platform is moved sequentially to each location, shall be performed; the method selected shall be the same as the method that will be used to hoist the personnel.

(2) The trial lift shall be performed immediately prior to each shift in which personnel will be hoisted. In addition, the trial lift shall be repeated prior to hoisting employees in each of the following circumstances:

(A) The equipment is moved and set up in a new location or returned to a previously used location.

(B) The lift route is changed, unless the competent person determines that the new route presents no new factors affecting safety.

(3) The competent person shall determine that:

(A) Safety devices and operational aids required by this section are activated and functioning properly. Other safety devices and operational aids shall meet the requirements of Sections 1615.1 and 1615.2.

(B) Nothing interferes with the equipment or the personnel platform in the course of the trial lift.

(C) The lift will not exceed 50 percent of the equipment's rated capacity at any time during the lift.

(D) The load radius to be used during the lift has been accurately determined.

(4) Immediately after the trial lift, the competent person shall:

(A) Conduct a visual inspection of the equipment, base support or ground, and personnel platform, to determine whether the trial lift has exposed any defect or problem or produced any adverse effect.

(B) Confirm that, upon the completion of the trial lift process, the test weight has been removed.

(5) Immediately prior to each lift:

(A) The platform shall be hoisted a few inches with the personnel and materials/tools on board and inspected by a competent person to ensure that it is secure and properly balanced.

(B) The following conditions shall be determined by a competent person to exist before the lift of personnel proceeds:

1. Hoist ropes shall be free of deficiencies in accordance with Section 1613.10(a).

2. Multiple part lines shall not be twisted around each other.

3. The primary attachment shall be centered over the platform.

4. If the load rope is slack, the hoisting system shall be inspected to ensure that all ropes are properly seated on drums and in sheaves.

(6) Any condition found during the trial lift and subsequent inspection(s) that fails to meet a requirement of this standard or otherwise creates a safety hazard shall be corrected before hoisting personnel. (See Section 1616.1 for tag-out and related requirements.)

(i) [Reserved.]

(j) Proof testing.

(1) At each jobsite, prior to hoisting employees on the personnel platform, and after any repair or modification, the platform and rigging shall be proof tested to 125 percent of the platform's rated capacity. The proof test may be done concurrently with the trial lift.

(2) The platform shall be lowered by controlled load lowering, braked, and held in a suspended position for a minimum of five minutes with the test load evenly distributed on the platform.

(3) After proof testing, a competent person shall inspect the platform and rigging to determine if the test has been passed. If any deficiencies are found that pose a safety hazard, the platform and rigging shall not be used to hoist personnel unless the deficiencies are corrected, the test is repeated, and a competent person determines that the test has been passed. (See Section 1616.1 for tag-out and related requirements.)

(4) Personnel hoisting shall not be conducted until the competent person determines that the platform and rigging have successfully passed the proof test.

(k) Work practices.

(1) Hoisting of the personnel platform shall be performed in a slow, controlled, cautious manner, with no sudden movements of the equipment or the platform.

(2) Platform occupants must:

(A) Keep all parts of the body inside the platform during raising, lowering, and horizontal movement. This provision does not apply to an occupant of the platform when necessary to position the platform or while performing the duties of a signal person.

(B) Not stand, sit on, or work from the top or intermediate rail or toeboard, or use any other means/device to raise their working height.

(C) Not pull the platform out of plumb in relation to the hoisting equipment.

(3) Before employees exit or enter a hoisted personnel platform that is not landed, the platform shall be secured to the structure where the work is to be performed, unless the employer can demonstrate that securing to the structure would create a greater hazard.

(4) If the platform is tied to the structure, the operator shall not move the platform until the operator receives confirmation that it is freely suspended.

(5) Tag lines shall be used when necessary to control the platform.

(6) Platforms without controls. Where the platform is not equipped with controls, the equipment operator shall remain at the equipment controls, on site, and in view of the equipment, at all times while the platform is occupied.

(7) Platforms with controls. Where the platform is equipped with controls, all of the following shall be met at all times while the platform is occupied:

(A) The occupant using the controls in the platform shall be a qualified person with respect to their use, including the safe limitations of the equipment and hazards associated with its operation.

(B) The equipment operator shall be at a set of equipment controls that include boom and swing functions of the equipment, and must be on site and in view of the equipment.

(C) The platform operating manual shall be in the platform or on the equipment.

(8) Environmental conditions.

(A) Wind. When wind speed (sustained or gusts) exceeds 20 mph at the personnel platform, a qualified person shall determine if, in light of the wind conditions, it is not safe to lift personnel. If it is not, the lifting operation shall not begin (or, if already in progress, shall be terminated).

(B) Other weather and environmental conditions. A qualified person shall determine if, in light of indications of dangerous weather conditions, or other impending or existing danger, it is not safe to lift personnel. If it is not, the lifting operation shall not begin (or, if already in progress, shall be terminated).

(9) Employees being hoisted shall remain in direct communication with the signal person (where used), or the operator.

(10) Fall protection.

(A) Except over water, employees occupying the personnel platform shall be provided with and shall use a personal fall arrest system. The system shall be attached to a structural member within the personnel platform. When working over or near water, the requirements of Section 1602 apply.

(B) The fall arrest system, including the attachment point (anchorage) used to comply with subsection (k)(10)(A) of this section, shall meet the requirements in Article 24 of these Orders.

(11) Other load lines.

(A) No lifts shall be made on any other of the equipment's load lines while personnel are being hoisted, except in pile driving operations.

(B) Factory-produced boom-mounted personnel platforms that incorporate a winch as original equipment. Loads are permitted to be hoisted by such a winch while employees occupy the personnel platform only where the load on the winch line does not exceed 500 pounds and does not exceed the rated capacity of the winch and platform.

(12) Traveling - equipment other than derricks.

(A) Hoisting of employees while the equipment is traveling is prohibited, except for:

1. Equipment that travels on fixed rails; or

2. Where the employer demonstrates that there is no less hazardous way to perform the work.

3. This exception does not apply to rubber-tired equipment.

(B) Where employees are hoisted while the equipment is traveling, all of the following criteria shall be met:

1. Equipment travel shall be restricted to a fixed track or runway.

2. Where a runway is used, it shall be a firm, level surface designed, prepared and designated as a path of travel for the weight and configuration of the equipment being used to lift and travel with the personnel platform. An existing surface may be used as long as it meets these criteria.

3. Equipment travel shall be limited to boom length.

4. The boom shall be parallel to the direction of travel, except where it is safer to do otherwise.

5. A complete trial run shall be performed to test the route of travel before employees are allowed to occupy the platform. This trial run can be performed at the same time as the trial lift required by subsection (h) of this section which tests the lift route.

(13) Traveling - derricks. Derricks are prohibited from traveling while personnel are hoisted.

(l) [Reserved.]

(m) Pre-lift meeting. A pre-lift meeting shall be:

(1) Held to review the applicable requirements of this section and the procedures that will be followed.

(2) Attended by the equipment operator, signal person (if used for the lift), employees to be hoisted, and the person responsible for the task to be performed.

(3) Held prior to the trial lift at each new work location, and shall be repeated for any employees newly assigned to the operation.

(n) Hoisting personnel near power lines. Hoisting personnel within 20 feet of a power line that is up to 350 kV, and hoisting personnel within 50 feet of a power line that is over 350 kV, is prohibited, except for work covered by the High Voltage Electrical Safety Orders.

(o) Hoisting personnel in drill shafts.

When hoisting employees into and out of drill shafts that are up to and including 8 feet in diameter, all of the following requirements shall be met:

(1) The employee shall be in either a personnel platform or on a boatswain's chair.

(2) If using a personnel platform, subsections (a) through (n) of this section apply.

(3) If using a boatswain's chair:

(A) The following subsections of this section apply: (a), (c), (d)(1), (d)(3), (d)(4), (e)(1), (e)(2), (e)(3), (f)(1), (f)(2)(A), (f)(3)(A), (g), (h), (k)(1), (k)(6), (k)(8), (k)(9), (k)(11)(A), (m), (n). Where the terms “personnel platform” or “platform” are used in these subsections, substitute them with “boatswain's chair.”

(B) A signal person shall be stationed at the shaft opening.

(C) The employee shall be hoisted in a slow, controlled descent and ascent.

(D) The employee shall use personal fall protection equipment, including a full body harness, attached independent of the crane/derrick.

(E) The fall protection equipment shall meet the applicable requirements in Articles 16 and 24 of these Orders.

(F) The boatswain's chair itself (excluding the personal fall arrest system anchorages), shall be capable of supporting, without failure, its own weight and at least five times the maximum intended load.

(G) No more than one person shall be hoisted at a time.

(p) Hoisting personnel for pile driving operations. When hoisting an employee in pile driving operations, the following requirements shall be met:

(1) The employee shall be in a personnel platform or boatswain's chair.

(2) For lattice boom cranes: Clearly mark the cable (so that it can easily be seen by the operator) at a point that will give the operator sufficient time to stop the hoist to prevent two-blocking, or use a spotter who is in direct communication with the operator to inform the operator when this point is reached.

For telescopic boom cranes: Clearly mark the cable (so that it can be easily seen by the operator) at a point that will give the operator sufficient time to stop the hoist to prevent two-blocking, and use a spotter who is in direct communication with the operator to inform the operator when this point is reached.

(3) If using a personnel platform, subsections (b) through (n) of this section apply.

(4) If using a boatswain's chair:

(A) The following subsections of this section apply: (a), (c), (d)(1), (d)(3), (d)(4), (e)(1), (e)(2), (e)(3), (f)(1), (f)(2)(A), (f)(3)(A), (g), (h), (j), (k)(1), (k)(6), (k)(8), (k)(9), (k)(11)(A), (m), and (n). Where the terms “personnel platform” or “platform” are used in these subsections, substitute them with “boatswains chair.”

(B) The employee shall be hoisted in a slow, controlled descent and ascent.

(C) The employee shall use personal fall protection equipment, including a full body harness, independently attached to the lower load block or overhaul ball.

(D) The fall protection equipment shall meet the applicable requirements in Article 24 of these Orders.

(E) The boatswain's chair itself (excluding the personal fall arrest system anchorages), shall be capable of supporting, without failure, its own weight and at least five times the maximum intended load.

(F) No more than one person shall be hoisted at a time.

(q) [Reserved.]

(r) Hoisting personnel for marine transfer. When hoisting employees solely for transfer to or from a marine worksite, the following requirements shall be met:

(1) The employee shall be in either a personnel platform or a marine-hoisted personnel transfer device.

(2) If using a personnel platform, subsections (a) through (n) of this section apply.

(3) If using a marine-hoisted personnel transfer device:

(A) The following subsections of this section apply: (a), (c)(2), (d)(1), (d)(3), (d)(4), (e)(1) through (5), (e)(12), (f)(1), (g), (h), (j), (k)(1), (k)(8), (k)(9), (k)(10)(B), (k)(11)(A), (k)(12), (m), and (n). Where the terms “personnel platform” or “platform” are used in these subsections, substitute them with “marine-hoisted personnel transfer device.”

(B) The transfer device shall be used only for transferring workers.

(C) The number of workers occupying the transfer device shall not exceed the maximum number it was designed to hold.

(D) Each employee shall wear a U.S. Coast Guard personal flotation device approved for industrial use.

(s) Hoisting personnel for storage-tank (steel or concrete), shaft and chimney operations. When hoisting an employee in storage tank (steel or concrete), shaft and chimney operations, the following requirements shall be met:

(1) The employee shall be in a personnel platform except when the employer can demonstrate that use of a personnel platform is infeasible; in such a case, a boatswain's chair shall be used.

(2) If using a personnel platform, subsections (a) through (n) of this section apply.

(3) If using a boatswain's chair:

(A) The following subsections of this section apply: (a), (c), (d)(1), (d)(3), (d)(4), (e)(1), (e)(2), (e)(3), (f)(1), (f)(2)(A), (f)(3)(A), (g), (h), (k)(1), (k)(6), (k)(8), (k)(9), (k)(11)(A), (m), (n). Where the terms “personnel platform” or “platform” are used in these subsections, substitute them with “boatswains chair.”

(B) The employee shall be hoisted in a slow, controlled descent and ascent.

(C) The employee shall use personal fall protection equipment, including a full body harness, attached independent of the crane/derrick. When there is no adequate structure for attachment of personal fall arrest equipment as required in Article 24, the attachment shall be to the lower load block or overhaul ball.

(D) The fall protection equipment shall meet the applicable requirements in Articles 16 and 24 of these Orders.

(E) The boatswain's chair itself (excluding the personal fall arrest system anchorages), shall be capable of supporting, without failure, its own weight and at least five times the maximum intended load.

(F) No more than one person shall be hoisted at a time.

Note: Authority cited: Section 142.3, Labor Code. Reference: Section 142.3, Labor Code.

HISTORY

1. New section filed 7-7-2011; operative 7-7-2011. Exempt from OAL review pursuant to Labor Code section 142.3(a)(3) (Register 2011, No. 27).


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