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Subchapter 4. Construction Safety Orders
Article 14. Construction Hoists

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§1604.25. Hoisting and Counterweight Ropes, and Rope Connections.

(a) Suspension Means.

Hoist cars shall be suspended by steel wire ropes attached to the car frame or passing around sheaves attached to the car frame specified in Section 1604.16.

Exception: Exceptions are hoists with rack and pinion machines.

(1) Only steel wire ropes having the commercial classification "elevator wire rope," or specifications recommended by wire rope manufacturers for hoist use, shall be used for the suspension of hoist cars or for the suspension of counterweights.

(b) Wire Rope Data.

(1) Wire Rope Data on Crosshead Data Plate.

The crosshead data plate required by Section 1604.21(b) shall bear the following wire rope data:

(A) The number of ropes.

(B) The diameter, in inches.

(C) The manufacturer's rated breaking strength per rope, in pounds.

(2) Wire Rope Data on Rope Data Tag.

A metal data tag shall be securely attached to one of the wire rope fastenings. This data tag shall bear the following wire rope data:

(A) The diameter, in inches.

(B) The manufacturer's rated breaking strength.

(C) The grade of material used.

(D) The month and year the ropes were installed.

(E) Whether rope is non-preformed or preformed.

(F) Construction classification.

(G) Name of person or firm that installed ropes.

(H) Name of manufacturer of the rope.

A new tag shall be installed at each rope renewal. The material and marking of the rope data tag shall conform to the requirements of Section 1604.21(d), except that the height of the letters and figures shall be not less than 1/16-inch.

(3) Wire Rope Data Log.

A log shall be kept by the employer at the work site office which will indicate the following:

(A) The day, month, and year the ropes were installed, and whether they were new or used when installed.

(B) The day, month, and year the ropes were refastened to permit increase in the height of the hoist.

(C) The name of the person or firm who performed the functions described in 1604.25(b)(3)(A) and (B).

(c) Factor of Safety.

The factors of safety of the suspension wire ropes shall be not less than shown in Table 5. Figure 5 gives the minimum factors of safety for intermediate rope speeds. The factor of safety shall be based on the actual rope speed corresponding to the rated speed of the car. The factor of safety shall be calculated by the following formula:


                     S x N
               f = --------
                       W				   

where

S = Manufacturer's rated breaking strength of one rope.

N = Number of runs of rope under load (see Note).

W = Maximum static load imposed on all car ropes, with the car and its rated load at any position in the hoistway.

NOTE: In the case of multiple roping, the number of runs of rope (N) under the load will be: twice the number of ropes used, for 2:1 roping; three times the number of ropes used, for 3:1 roping, etc.


                       Table 5  
   Minimum Factors of Safety for Suspension Wire Ropes 

  Rope Speed                              Minimum Factor
 (feet per minute)                            of Safety  
       50....................................... 7.60 
       75....................................... 7.75 
       100...................................... 7.95 
       125...................................... 8.10 
       150...................................... 8.25 
       175...................................... 8.40 
       200...................................... 8.60 
       225...................................... 8.75 
       250...................................... 8.90 
       300...................................... 9.20 
       350...................................... 9.50 
       400...................................... 9.75 
       450..................................... 10.00 
       500..................................... 10.25 
       550..................................... 10.45 
       600..................................... 10.70 
	   

(d) Minimum Number and Diameter of Ropes.

The minimum number of hoisting ropes used shall be three for traction hoists and two for drum type hoists.

Where a car counterweight is used, the number of counterweight ropes used shall be not less than two.

The term "diameter," where used in Section 1604.25, shall refer to the nominal diameter as given by the rope manufacturer.

The minimum diameter of hoisting and counterweight ropes shall be 1/2-inch.

(e) Rope Equalizers.

Suspension rope equalizers may be used.

(f) Securing Ropes to Winding Drums.

Car suspension ropes of winding-drum machines shall have the ends of the rope secured to the drum or drum flange by means of clamps or tapered sockets or by other means approved by the enforcing authorities.

(g) Spare Rope Turns on Winding Drums.

Wire suspension ropes of drum type machines shall have not less than three wraps of the rope on the drum when the car is resting on the fully compressed buffers.

(h) Splicing Rope.

Suspension wire ropes shall not be lengthened or repaired by splicing.

(i) Rope Fastenings.

(1) Type of Rope Fastening.

Hoisting and counterweight wire ropes shall be attached to cars and counterweights by means of zinc-coated or galvanized drop forged fist grips or equal and wire rope thimbles, or by approved special fastening devices. When fist grips are used, the minimum number, spacing, and tightening torque shall be in accordance with the instructions of the grip manufacturer. Grips shall be periodically checked and retightened to the recommended torque.

When extra wire rope is carried on top of the frame of the hoisting platform, a drum and clamp tie down or equivalent type anchor device, which will not damage or deform the wire rope, shall be used.

(2) Babbitted Rope Sockets.

Babbitted rope sockets shall be prohibited except on permanent passenger or freight elevators which are temporarily being used as construction personnel hoists.

Figure 5 - Factors of Safety of Suspension
Wire Ropes of Personnel Hoists

(j) Rope Inspection.

(1) A representative of the user of the personnel hoist shall be appointed, and this representative shall keep written records of the rope condition on file at the work site.

(2) Inspection periods shall be established for each hoist installation, with the frequency of inspection determined by the type of installation and operating conditions. Inspection shall be made at least once each 30 days.

(3) If ropes are dirty or over-lubricated, a proper inspection may not be possible unless the dirt or excess lubricant is removed.

(4) Examination of traction machine ropes and counterweight ropes of drum type hoists should preferably start with the car located at the top of the hoistway and should be made from the top of the car, with the ropes examined on the counterweight side.

(5) The hoist ropes of overhead drum type machines must be examined from the overhead machinery space.

(6) Where a traction or drum machine is located below, the portions of the ropes leading from the driving machine drum or sheave and from the counterweight to the overhead sheaves can be examined from the top of the car as it descends, except for a small portion which must be examined from the pit.

(7) The rope should be marked with chalk to indicate location of unexamined sections which must be inspected from other locations such as the pit or overhead machinery space.

(8) Sheaves, guards, guides, drums, flanges, and other surfaces contacted by wire rope during operation should be examined at the time of inspection. Any condition harmful to the rope shall be corrected.

(k) Rope Replacement.

If one wire rope of a set requires replacement, the entire set of ropes shall be replaced. Wire rope shall be removed or replaced immediately if it has one or more of the following defects:

(1) Severe corrosion. (Any development of slight corrosion should be noted and watched closely.)

(2) One or more valley breaks. (A valley break is a wire break occurring in the valley between two adjacent strands.)

(3) Six randomly distributed broken wires in one rope lay or three broken wires in one strand in one rope lay. (A rope lay is the length along the rope in which one strand makes a complete revolution around the rope.)

(4) Development of broken wires in the vicinity of attachments. If this condition is localized in an operating rope and the section in question can be eliminated by making a new attachment, this may be done rather than replacing the entire rope.

(5) Abrasion, scrubbing, flattening, or peening causing loss of more than one-third of the original diameter of the outside wires.

(6) Severe kinking, crushing, birdcaging, or other damage resulting in distortion of the rope structure.

(7) Evidence of any heat damage resulting from a torch or any caused by contact with electrical wires.

(8) Reduction from nominal diameter of more than 3/64-inch for diameters up to and including 3/4-inch, 1/16-inch for diameters 7/8 to 1 1/8 inches, and 3/32-inch for diameters 1 1/4 to 1 1/2 inches. Marked reduction in diameter indicates deterioration of the core.

Governor ropes shall be replaced on the same basis as hoisting ropes. (These ropes are lightly loaded and may show little or no wear. Inspectors should check for fatigued wires in strand valleys by bending over a small radius.)

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