| Return to index
(a) Passenger and Freight Enclosures, General. All elevator cars shall be permanently enclosed on all sides and the top, except that portion which is used as an entrance or entrances.
1. Existing freight elevators which shall comply with Section 3034(c).
2. Emergency exit panels.
(1) The enclosure shall be securely fastened to the car platform and so supported that it cannot loosen or become displaced in ordinary service or on application of the car safety or on buffer engagement.
(2) The enclosure walls shall be of such strength and be so designed and supported that when subjected to a pressure of 75 pounds applied horizontally at any point on the walls of the enclosure, the deflection will not reduce the running clearance below the allowed minimum.
(3) No elevator car shall have more than one compartment. Two compartments in the same horizontal plane will be permitted, provided that access to the landings can be had through only one of them.
EXCEPTIONS: Passenger elevators or freight elevators may have two compartments, one of which is located immediately above the other provided the compartmented elevator conforms to the following requirements:
1. The elevator shall be used exclusively for passengers or exclusively for freight at any one time.
2. Each compartment shall conform to the requirements of this Section except that a trap door in the floor of the upper compartment shall provide access to the top emergency exit for the lower compartment.
3. Where either or both compartments are intended for passenger service, the minimum rated load for each compartment shall conform to the requirements of Section 3037(a).
Where one compartment is intended for freight use, its minimum rated load shall conform to the requirements of Section 3037(a) or shall be based on the freight loads to be handled, if greater than the minimum rated load required by Section 3037(a).
Where both compartments are used exclusively for freight, the minimum rated load of each compartment shall conform to the requirements of Section 3037(a).
The rated load of the elevator shall be the sum of the rated loads of the individual compartments.
4. An emergency stop switch conforming to the requirements of Section 3040(b)(5) shall be provided in each compartment and these emergency stop switches shall be so connected that the car cannot run unless both are in the run position.
5. All hoistway doors shall be closed and locked and the car doors for each compartment closed before the car can be operated.
(4) An emergency exit with a cover shall be provided in the top of all new elevators except observation-type elevators and in the top of all passenger elevator cars installed since June 5, 1947. On elevators installed after April 16, 1970, the emergency exit shall conform to the following:
(A) The exit opening shall have an area of not less than 400 square inches, and shall measure not less than 16 inches on any one side.
(B) The exit shall be so located as to provide a clear passage of not less than 400 square inches unobstructed by fixed elevator equipment, including lighting equipment located in or on top of the car.
(C) The exit cover shall open outward and shall be hinged or otherwise attached to the car top and so arranged that the cover can be opened from the top of the car and from inside the car by means of a spring return 5 pin or disc tumbler lock that allows the exit to be opened from the car with a key and from the top of the car without a key.
The key shall be accessible to authorized personnel and no other key to the building shall unlock the emergency exit lock, except where access switches are furnished, the key used to operate the access switch may also unlock the car top emergency door lock.
1. Exit covers arranged to be opened from the top of the car only on elevators not equipped with emergency operation described in Section 3041(d)(6).
2. The exit cover of a lower deck of a multideck elevator shall be openable from either compartment.
(D) Car top emergency exits shall be prohibited on observation type elevators. Where access to the car top is required for re-roping or other maintenance work as may be determined by the Division, access panels in the car top shall be provided secured in place so as to require a tool to remove the panel.
(5) Tops of car enclosures, including exit covers, shall be so designed and installed as to be capable of sustaining a load of 300 pounds on any square area 2 feet on a side and 100 pounds applied at any point. Simultaneous application of these loads is not required.
(6) Equipment or material which is not required for the operation of the elevator or its appliances, except where specifically provided herein, shall not be located above the top of an elevator car.
(7) Glass may be used in elevator cars provided:
(A) Glass, other than safety glass, shall be used only for covers for certificates, lighting fixtures, or other appliances necessary for the operation of the elevator providing no one piece shall exceed 1 square foot in area and the total area, excluding electric lamps, shall not exceed 4 square feet.
EXCEPTION: Existing wire glass or shatterproof glass in car doors.
(B) Safety glass meeting the requirements of ANSI A97.1, except for transparency, may be installed inside the elevator car enclosure, provided the glass is mounted in such a manner that the glass and its mountings will withstand the required elevator tests without becoming dislodged or damaged.
(C) Car enclosures for special elevators may be of glass provided they comply with Section 3034(b)(5).
(8) Apparatus or equipment, other than that used in connection with the operation of the elevator, shall not be installed inside the elevator car.
1. Railroad or conveyor tracks in freight elevator cars.
2. Lighting, heating, ventilating, air conditioning and sound equipment for the car.
(9) Permanent guardrails, either fixed or capable of being raised from a retracted position, shall be provided around all sides of the work area of the car top where a hoistway enclosure is not furnished to provide a safe work area for maintenance work on the car and in the hoistway.
(A) Where guardrails must be raised into position, the top of car operating station shall not be operative unless the guardrails are raised.
(b) Passenger Car Enclosures.
(1) The enclosures for passenger elevators may be of metal, wood, or other substantial material subject to the following:
(A) For new installations, they shall be of solid material from the floor to the car top.
(B) For existing installations, they shall be of solid material to a height of not less than 3 feet above the car floor. Above the solid panel and extending to the top frame of the cab, openwork may be used, provided the design shall be such that the openings will not be more than 1/2 inch square to a height of at least 6 feet from the car floor and the openings above 6 feet shall be not more than 2 inches in width.
(C) The tops of all passenger elevator cars shall be made solid, except those existing tops covered with wire screening having meshes not larger than 1/2 inch in the greatest dimension.
(2) Where car doors are used, means for ventilation shall be provided. Vent openings shall not be located in the portion of the enclosure walls extending from a point 1 foot above the floor to a point 6 feet above the floor. Vent openings less than 1 foot above the floor shall reject a ball 1 inch in diameter. Vent openings above the 6 foot level shall reject a ball 2 inches in diameter.
Vent openings shall reject a ball 3/4 inch in diameter, or shall be protected by substantial baffles, or shall be located above a ceiling, to prevent objects projecting from the car into the hoistway.
Ventilating fans or blowers, if used, shall be securely fastened in place and located above the ceiling or outside the enclosure.
(3) Side emergency exits, to allow passage between elevator platforms, shall be installed in the adjacent enclosures of elevators in adjacent hoistways where there are not intervening hoistway partitions, counterweights, or any fixed obstructions other than separator beams, and where the vertical distance between adjacent landings exceeds 30 feet.
1. Elevators equipped with safety devices that do not require resetting from the car.
2. Where the horizontal distance between elevator car platforms exceeds 2 feet 6 inches, side exit doors are prohibited.
Side emergency exit doors shall:
(A) Be of the hinged type.
(B) Open only into the car.
(C) Extend from the floor or base molding to a clear height of not less than five feet and shall have a width sufficient to provide not less than 14 inches of clear passageway when the door is open.
(D) Be so located as to provide free passageway and so that passage of persons is not obstructed by hoisting or counterweight ropes, car frame members, or by fixed elevator equipment.
(E) Be provided with a lock so arranged that the door may be opened from inside the car only by a specially shaped, removable key, and from outside by a nonremovable handle. Locks shall be so designed that they cannot be opened from the inside by the use of ordinary tools or instruments. There shall be no obstruction on the inside of the enclosure which will prevent opening the door from either side.
(F) Be provided with approved-type electric contacts to prevent operation of the elevator when the door is open and so located as to be inaccessible from the inside of the car.
(G) Be of the same material and construction as required for the enclosure.
Keys for unlocking side emergency exit doors shall be kept on the premises in a location available to qualified persons in case of emergency.
(4) Vision panels are not required, but where used shall:
(A) Have a total area of not more than 144 square inches, and no single glass panel shall have a width exceeding 6 inches.
(B) Be provided with clear wire-glass or laminated safety glass panels.
(C) Be located in the car door or in the front return panel of the car enclosure.
(D) In power-operated car doors, have the inside face of the glass located substantially flush with the inside surface of the door panel.
(5) Passenger elevator car enclosures of glass may be installed in hoistways designed for the purpose of view or aesthetic values. These special car enclosures shall conform to the following as a minimum:
(A) It is recommended that the amount of glass be held to a minimum and that the lower portion of the car enclosure be of metal construction to a height of at least 42 inches above the floor. If solid metal construction is not provided, adequate guardrails will be required on the inside of the car.
(B) Detailed drawings listing materials and fastenings shall be submitted to the division for approval prior to installation and certification that the glass used conforms to Section 3034(b)(5)(D).
(C) The glazing material shall be such that shock from setting the safety or landing the car on the buffer will not dislodge any panel. In the design of the elevator car, provisions shall be made to allow the car-holding safety device to set a maximum 2 inches out of level without causing the cab structure to wrack in any manner.
(D) The glass product-type shall be a laminated glass with a minimum total nominal thickness of .550 or 9/16-inch. The composition will be two lites of minimum 1/4-inch glass with a tolerance of + 1/32-inch. The inner lite may be heat treated or plate glass. The outer lite may be tinted, or reflective, but shall not have a rated strength and impact resistance less than 1/4-inch plate glass. Heat treated glass may be annealed, heat strengthened or fully tempered.
Joining or laminating the two glass lites together shall be an interlayer of polyvinyl butyral not less than .060 inches thick.
The glass product-type shall meet the requirements of ANSI Z97.1-1972 for safety glazing materials and Federal Specification DD-G-00451(b).
(E) Glazing of these glass units shall have the following minimum glazing dimensions in the metal or gasketed frames with pressure stops:
1. Rabbet depth not less than 7/8 inch
2. Clearance at head, sill and jambs 7/16 inch
3. Setting block height 1/4 inch to 5/8 inch
4. Edge clearance not less than 1/8 inch
Glass shall be centered in the sash opening with centering shims (a minimum of three shims per edge). Shims and setting blocks will be 80 to 90 durometer neoprene, permanently attached to the sash rabbet, and functioning as a cushion between the metal and the glass.
The vinyl shall be protected at all edges with a continuous protective covering or tape along all edges. The tape shall be impervious to oil, water, or solvent. Glass should not be exposed to surface temperatures exceeding 130'F for prolonged periods of time.
(F) These are minimum standards for glass and glazing in elevators. For unusual designs or other applications, it is suggested that a responsible professional engineer be consulted. The technical representative of glass suppliers may be consulted regarding size availability and glazing details. Maximum glass area, per lite, shall be reviewed in each application with reference to applicable codes or building authority requirements.
(c) Freight Car Enclosures:
(1) Enclosures shall be of metal without perforations to a height of not less than 6 feet above the platform floor, except for the necessary entrances. Above the 6 foot level, the walls and top of the enclosure shall be metal with or without perforations, except that portion of the enclosure wall in front of and extending 6 inches on each side of the counterweight which shall be without perforations. Perforated portions of enclosures shall reject a ball 1 1/2 inches in diameter.
(2) Existing freight elevator cars shall be enclosed not less than 6 feet high, except for the necessary entrances. The enclosure may be of wood, metal, or other recognized material, solid or openwork, but if openwork is used, the design shall be such as to reject a ball 1/2 inch in diameter, except enclosures installed before June 5, 1947, shall reject a ball 2 inches in diameter.
That portion of the enclosure in front of the counterweight, or in front of any obstruction within 4 inches of the car, shall extend to the car top. Where no car top is provided, the enclosure shall extend to the crosshead height or to a height of 8 feet if the cross head height is less than 8 feet.
This enclosure shall extend 6 inches each side of the a counterweight; and if openwork is used, shall reject a ball 1/2 inch in diameter.
EXCEPTION: Where the enclosure of a power freight elevator is cut away at the front of the car to make the shipper rope accessible, such opening in the enclosure shall be cut to within 30 inches of, and not less than 24 inches from, the car platform and so located as to reduce the hazard to a minimum.
(3) Hinged or removable panels shall not be provided in car tops except for emergency exits.
EXCEPTION: Existing elevators without contacted car doors or gates in hoistways, where the upper terminal landing entrance is protected by a gate 41 inches to 45 inches high, any portion of the car top within 18 inches of the line of the edge of the threshold shall be hinged so that it will fold back if obstructed in its descent.
(d) Car Doors and Gates, General Requirements.
(1) A door or gate shall be provided at each entrance to the car.
1. Elevators installed before June 5, 1947, with no car doors or gates in which the operator is always in control of the car except in the leveling zone. This exception applies only to the entrance nearest the operator on passenger elevators.
2. Automatic operation freight elevators having an entrance over 7 feet wide that were installed before June 5, 1947, and have never had doors or gates on the car.
3. Existing elevators that have been converted from shipper rope operation and which never had car gates. This exception applies to conversion of operation only without addition to the number of stations from which the car can be operated.
(2) Each car door or car gate shall be equipped with an approved-type electric contact, located so that the contact is not readily accessible from inside the car. Car door or gate contacts shall conform to the following:
(A) Operation of the elevator driving machine when the car door or gate is not in the closed position shall be possible only by a car-leveling or truck-zoning device or when a hoistway access switch is operated.
EXCEPTION: The limited movement of elevators equipped with advance start or pulse start feature. See Section 3021(d)(1)(E).
(B) They shall be positively opened by a lever or other device attached to and operated by the door or gate.
(C) They shall be maintained in the open position by the action of gravity or by a restrained compression spring, or by both, or by positive mechanical means.
(3) The closed position for car doors or car gates shall be when the edge of the door or gate is closed within 2 inches of the nearest face of the jamb or sill, or on center-opening doors, when the doors are closed within 2 inches of each other.
EXCEPTION: For elevators which can be started from the car only, and whose car door or gate is provided with a door closer, and whose hoistway doors are provided with door closures and interlocks meeting the requirements of the exception to Section 3021(g), the car door or gate contact may permit starting of the car when the car door or gate is closed to within 4 inches of the nearest face of the jamb; or on center-opening doors when the doors are closed within 4 inches of each other.
(4) The distance from the face of the car door or gate to the face of the hoistway door shall conform to the requirements of Section 3020(b)(14).
(5) Doors and gates and their guides, guide shoes, tracks, and hangers, shall be so designed and installed that when the fully closed door or gate is subjected to a force of 75 pounds, applied on an area of 1 square foot at right angles to and approximately at the center of the door or gate, it will not deflect beyond the line of the car sill. When subjected to a force of 250 pounds similarly applied, doors and vertically sliding gates shall not break nor be permanently deformed and shall not be displaced from their guides or tracks. Where multisection doors or gates are used, each panel shall withstand the forces specified.
(6) Car doors or gates shall be arranged so that when the car is stopped, they may be opened by hand from inside the car. The force required at the edge of horizontally sliding doors to open the door(s) shall not exceed 75 pounds.
1. Power-operated doors of passenger elevators, provided they are arranged to be opened from inside the car in case of power failure.
2. Locked doors or gates provided on existing elevators under Section 3018(e), Exception 4.
(e) Passenger Car Doors and Gates.
(1) There shall be not more than two entrances to the car.
EXCEPTION: Elevators installed before June 5, 1947, with more than two original entrances.
(2) Horizontally sliding doors shall be provided at each car entrance opening of automatic operation elevators and at any car entrance opening remote from the operator of elevators having other types of operation.
1. In existing hoistways, where structural conditions do not permit the installation of doors, collapsible-type car gates may be provided.
2. Vertically-sliding, power-operated gates of the balanced, counterweighted type may be used provided their operation is sequenced with power-operated bi-parting hoistway doors as outlined in Section 3022(c) and the construction of the gate conforms to Sections 3034(f)(3) and 3034(f)(5).
(3) Doors and gates, when in the fully closed position, shall protect the full width and height of the car entrance opening.
EXCEPTION: The height of vertically-sliding, power-operated gates permitted by Section 3034(e)(2).
(4) There shall be no openings in doors, except for vision panels, if used. Door panels shall have a substantially flush surface without recessed or raised moldings and shall be of material conforming to Section 3034(b)(1).
(5) Collapsible-type gates, where allowed, shall conform to the following:
(A) When fully extended (closed position), reject a ball 3 inches in diameter.
EXCEPTION: Gates installed on elevators before June 5, 1947.
(B) Have alternate vertical members act as guides at both top and bottom.
EXCEPTION: Gates installed on elevators before June 5, 1974.
(C) Not be power opened unless arranged in some manner to prevent shear. See Section 3022(a)(1)
(D) Handles for collapsible gates shall be provided with finger guards.
(E) Not be used with power-operated, vertically-sliding hoistway doors.
(F) May be arranged to swing inward when in the fully open (collapsed) position.
(f) Freight Car Doors and Gates.
(1) Doors shall be of the horizontally sliding type or may be of the vertically sliding type if manually operated.
(2) Gates shall be of the horizontally sliding collapsible type or of the vertically sliding type. For elevators designed for either Type B or Type C loading, gates shall be of the vertically sliding type.
(3) Car doors and gates shall conform to the following:
(A) Doors and gates shall protect the full width of the car entrance opening.
(B) Horizontally sliding doors, when fully closed, shall protect the full height of the opening.
(C) Doors shall be of material conforming to Section 3034(c)(1).
(4) Collapsible type gates shall conform to the following:
(A) When fully extended (closed position), reject a ball 4 1/2 inches in diameter up to a height of not less than 6 feet.
(B) Have alternate vertical members act as guides at the bottom and no less than every fourth vertical member act as guides at the top.
(C) Not be power opened unless arranged in some manner to prevent shear. See Section 3022(a)(1).
(D) Be provided with handles with finger guards.
(E) May be arranged to swing inward when in the fully open (collapsed) position.
(5) Vertically sliding doors or gates shall conform to the following:
(A) They shall be of the balanced, counterweighted type or the biparting counterbalanced type.
(B) Weights used to balance doors or gates shall be located outside the car enclosure and shall run in guides or shall be boxed in. Guides shall be of metal, and be so constructed as to contain the weight if the suspension member fails. Suspension members shall have a factor of safety of not less than 5.
(C) Gates shall be constructed of wood or metal and shall be of a design which will reject a ball 2 inches in diameter.
(D) Vertically sliding gates and vertically sliding doors, when fully closed, shall extend from a point not more than 1 inch above the car floor to a point not less than 6 feet above the car floor.
(g) Illumination of Cars.
(1) Cars shall be provided with an electric light or lights. Not less than two lamps shall be provided.
(2) The minimum illumination measured at the landing edge of the car platform when the car and landing doors are open shall be not less than:
(A) For passenger elevators--5 foot-candles.
(B) For freight elevators--2 1/2 foot-candles.
(3) Passenger elevator cars shall be provided with emergency lighting in accordance with Article E700, Part 3, Title 24, CAC, and conforming to the following:
(A) The emergency system shall provide some general illumination for the car. The intensity of illumination 4 feet above the car floor and approximately 1 foot in front of a car station shall be no less than .2 of a foot-candle. Lights shall be automatically turned on in all elevators in service not more than 10 seconds after normal lighting power fails. The emergency power supply system shall be capable of maintaining the above light intensity for a period of not less than 4 hours.
(B) Not less than two lamps of approximately equal wattage shall be provided to obtain the required illumination.
(4) Light control switches are required and shall:
(A) Be located within the elevator enclosure.
(B) Be located in or adjacent to the operating device in the car or in the space above the light diffusing ceiling where such ceilings are provided.
(C) In passenger elevators having automatic operation, be key operated or in a fixture with a locked cover if located below the light diffusing ceiling.
(5) The panels used for light diffusing shall not come in contact with the lamps or lampholders and shall be of a material that will not support combustion in air.
(6) Light bulbs or tubes in passenger elevators shall be installed behind a protecting cover.
EXCEPTION: Light bulbs mounted in a recess approximately the diameter of the bulb and recessed behind the parent surface a distance not less than the diameter of the bulb.
(7) Lamps in freight elevators shall be installed behind a protective guard to prevent breakage.
1. Amendment of subsections (a) and (b) filed 10-25-74; effective thirtieth day thereafter (Register 74, No. 43).
2. Amendment of subsection (a)(4) filed 11-6-74; effective thirtieth day thereafter (Register 74, No. 45).
3. Amendment of subsection (a)(4) filed 9-5-75; effective thirtieth day thereafter (Register 75, No. 36).
4. Amendment of subsections (a)(7)(B), (d)(6) Exception No. 2, (g)(5), (g)(6) and repealer of (d)(1) Exception No. 3 and No. 4 and new Exception No. 3 filed 6-23-77; effective thirtieth day thereafter (Register 77, No. 26).
5. Amendment of subsection (a)(4) which was filed 9-5-75 (Register 75, No. 36), was approved by the Building Standards Commission 3-26-76. History note printed in Register 78, No. 30 for technical reasons.
6. Amendment of subsections (a)(3) and (a)(4) filed 12-4-86; effective thirtieth day thereafter (register 86, No. 49).
7. Editorial corrections (Register 95, No. 26).
Go Back to Article 8 Table of Contents