TITLE 8
CONSTRUCTION SAFETY ORDERS
CHAPTER 4, SUBCHAPTER 4, ARTICLE 4,
SECTIONS 1529, 1531, 1532, 1532.1, AND 1535;
GENERAL INDUSTRY SAFETY ORDERS
CHAPTER 4, SUBCHAPTER 7, ARTICLE 10.1, SECTIONS 3409 AND 3411;
ARTICLE 107, SECTIONS 5144 AND 5147; ARTICLE 109, SECTION 5190; AND
ARTICLE 110, SECTIONS 5200-5202, 5207-5214, 5216-5218, AND 5220;
SHIP BUILDING, SHIP REPAIRING, AND SHIP BREAKING SAFETY ORDERS
CHAPTER 4, SUBCHAPTER 18, ARTICLE 4, SECTION 8358
RESPIRATORY PROTECTION


 

Amend Section 1529, Asbestos to read:

1529. Asbestos.

* * *

 

(h) Respiratory protection.

(1) General. The employer shall provide respirators, and ensure that they are used, where required by this section. Respirators shall be used in the following circumstances: For employees who use respirators required by this section, the employer must provide respirators that comply with the requirements of this subsection. Respirators must be used during:

(A) During all Class I asbestos work jobs.

(B) During all Class II asbestos work where the ACM is not removed in a substantially intact state,

(C) During all Class II and III asbestos work which is not performed using wet methods, provided, however, that respirators need not be worn during except for removal of ACM from sloped roofs when a negative exposure assessment has been made and the ACM is removed in an intact state.

(D) During all Class II and III asbestos jobs where the employer does not produce work for which a "negative exposure assessment" has not been conducted.

(E) During all Class III jobs where asbestos work when TSI or surfacing ACM or PACM is being disturbed.

(F) During all Class IV asbestos work performed within regulated areas where employees performing other work are required to wear use respirators.

(G) During all w Work operations covered by this section where employees are exposed above the TWA or excursion limit.

(H) In e Emergencies.

(2) Respirator program.

(A) The employer must implement a respiratory protection program in accordance with section 5144 (b) through (d) (except (d)(1)(C)), and (f) through (m).

(B) No employee shall be assigned to asbestos work that requires respirator use if, based on their most recent medical examination, the examining physician determines that the employee will be unable to function normally while using a respirator, or that the safety or health of the employee or other employees will be impaired by the employee’s respirator use. Such employees must be assigned to another job or given the opportunity to transfer to a different position that they can perform. If such a transfer position is available, it must be with the same employer, in the same geographic area, and with the same seniority, status, rate of pay, and other job benefits the employee had just prior to such transfer.

(3) Respirator selection.

(A) Where respirators are used, t The employer shall select and provide, at no cost to the employee, the appropriate respirator as specified in Table 1 or in subsection (h)(2)(C) of this section, and shall ensure that the employee uses the respirator provided.

 

TABLE 1

RESPIRATORY PROTECTION FOR ASBESTOS FIBERS

Airborne concentration of asbestos
or conditions of use
Required respirator
Not in excess of 1 f/cc (10 X PEL), or otherwise as required independent of exposure pursuant to (h)(2)(D) of this section. Half-mask air purifying respirator other than a disposable respirator, equipped with high efficiency filters.
Not in excess of 5 f/cc (100 X PEL). Full facepiece air-purifying respirator equipped with high efficiency filters.
Not in excess of 10 f/cc (100 X PEL). Any powered air-purifying respirator equipped with high efficiency filters or any supplied air respirator operated in continuous flow mode.
Not in excess of 100 f/cc (1,000 X PEL). Full facepiece supplied air respirator operated in pressure demand mode.
Greater than 100 f/cc (1,000 X PEL) or unknown concentration. Full facepiece supplied air respirator operated in pressure demand mode, equipped with an auxiliary positive pressure self-contained breating apparatus.

 

 

Note: a. Respirators assigned for high environmental concentrations may be used at lower concentrations, or when required respirator use is independent of concentration.

Note: b. A high efficiency filter means a filter that is at least 99.97 percent efficient against mono-dispersed particles of 0.3 micrometers in diameter or larger.

(B) The employer shall select respirators from among those jointly approved as being acceptable for protection by the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) under the provisions of 30 CFR Part 11.

(C) The employer shall provide a tight fitting powered, air- purifying respirator in lieu of any negative-pressure respirator specified in Table 1 whenever:

1. An employee chooses to use this type of respirator; and

2. This respirator will provide adequate protection to the employee.

(DC) In addition to the above selection criterion, t The employer shall provide a half-mask air purifying respirator, other than a disposable respirator, equipped with high efficiency filters whenever the employee performs the following activities:

1. Class II and III asbestos jobs where the employer does not produce work and a negative exposure assessment has not been conducted by the employer; and

2. Class III jobs where TSI or surfacing ACM or PACM is being disturbed.

(ED) In addition to the selection criteria in paragraphs (h)(2)(A) through (D), t The employer shall provide a tight-fitting powered air purifying respirator equipped with high efficiency filters or a full facepiece supplied air respirator operated in the pressure demand mode equipped with HEPA egress cartridges or an auxiliary positive pressure self contained breathing apparatus for all when the employees within the are in a regulated area where Class I work is being performed for which and the employer has not conducted a negative exposure assessment has not been produced and, the exposure assessment indicates the exposure level will not exceed 1 f/cc as an 8-hour time weighted average. A full facepiece supplied air respirator operated in the pressure demand mode equipped with an auxiliary positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus shall be provided under such conditions, if the exposure levels above 1 f/cc as an 8-hour time weighted average.

(F) The employer shall inform any employee required to wear a respirator under this section that the employee may require the employer to provide a powered air-purifying respirator in lieu of a negative pressure respirator.

(3) Respirator program.

(A) Where respiratory protection is used, the employer shall institute a respirator program in accordance with Section 1531 of these Orders

(B) The employer shall permit each employee who uses a filter respirator to change the filter elements whenever an increase in breathing resistance is detected and shall maintain an adequate supply of filter elements for this purpose.

(C) Employees who wear respirators shall be permitted to leave work areas to wash their faces and respirator facepieces whenever necessary to prevent skin irritation associated with respirator use.

(D) No employee shall be assigned to tasks requiring the use of respirators if, based on his or her most recent examination, an examining physician determines that the employee will be unable to function normally wearing a respirator, or that the safety or health of the employees or of other employees will be impaired by the use of a respirator. Such employee shall be assigned to another job or given the opportunity to transfer to a different position, the duties of which he or she is able to perform with the same employer, in the same geographical area, and with the same seniority, status, and rate of pay and other job benefits he or she had just prior to such transfer, if such a different position is available.

(4) Respirator fit testing.

(A) The employer shall ensure that the respirator issued to the employee exhibits the least possible facepiece leakage and that the respirator is fitted properly.

(B) Employers shall perform either quantitative or qualitative face fit tests at the time of initial fitting and at least every 6 months thereafter for each employee wearing a negative-pressure respirator. The qualitative fit tests may be used only for testing the fit of half-mask respirators where they are permitted to be worn, or of full-facepiece air purifying respirators where they are worn at levels at which half-facepiece air purifying respirators are permitted. Qualitative and quantitative fit tests shall be conducted in accordance with Appendix C of this section. The tests shall be used to select facepieces that provide the required protection as prescribed in Table 1 in subsection (h)(2)(A) of this section.

* * *

 

NOTE: Authority cited: Sections 142.3, 6501.5, 9020, 9021.5, 9021.9, 9030 and 9040, Labor Code. Reference: Sections 142.3, 6501.5, 6501.7, 6501.8, 6501.9, 6502, 9003, 9004(b), 9005, 9006, 9009, 9020, 9021.5, 9021.9, 9030 and 9040, Labor Code; Section 25910, Health and Safety Code; and Sections 7180, 7180.5, 7181, 7182, 7183, 7183.5, 7184, 7185, 7187, 7189, 7189.5 and 7189.7, Business and Professions Code.

* * *

Delete Appendix C to Section 1529 and replace with editorial reference in brackets:

 

 

 

Delete existing section 1531 and replace with note to read:

1531. Respiratory protective equipment.

Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this section are identical to those set forth in section 5144.

Note: Authority cited: Section 142.3, Labor Code. Reference: Section 142.3, Labor Code.

 

 

 

Amend section 1532 to read:

1532. Cadmium.

* * *

(g) Respirator Protection.

(1) General. Where respirators are required by this section, the employer shall provide them at no cost to the employee and shall assure that they are used in compliance with the requirements. Respirators shall be used in the following circumstances: For employees who use respirators required by this section, the employer must provide respirators that comply with the requirements of this subsection. Respirators must be used during:

(A) Where exposure levels exceed the PEL, during the time p Periods necessary to install or implement feasible engineering and work practice controls when employee exposures exceed the PEL;

(B) In those m Maintenance and repair activities and during those brief or intermittent operations where exposures exceed the PEL and engineering and work practice controls are not feasible, or are not required;

(C) In Work operations in the regulated areas, as prescribed specified in subsection (e);

(D) Where Work operations for which the employer has implemented all feasible engineering and work practice controls and such controls are not sufficient to reduce exposures to or below the PEL;

(E) In e Emergencies;

(F) Wherever Work operations for which an employee who is exposed to cadmium at or above the action level requests a respirator; and

(G) Wherever an employee is exposed to cadmium above the PEL and Work operations for which engineering controls are not required under subsection (f)(1)(B) to reduce employee exposures that exceed the PEL.

(2) Respirator program.

(A) The employer must implement a respiratory protection program in accordance with section 5144 (b) through (d) (except (d)(1)(C)), and (f) through (m).

(B) If an employee exhibits breathing difficulty during fit testing or respirator use, the employer must provide the employee with a medical examination in accordance with subsection (l)(6)(B) to determine if the employee can use a respirator while performing the required duties.

(C) No employee must use a respirator when, based on their most recent medical examination, the examining physician determines that the employee will be unable to function normally while using a respirator. If the physician determines the employee must be limited in, or removed from, their current job because of the employee’s inability to use a respirator, the job limitation or removal must be conducted in accordance with subsections (l)(11) and (12).

(3) Respirator Selection.

(A) Where respirators are required under this section, the employer shall select and provide the appropriate respirator as specified in Table 1. The employer shall select respirators from among those jointly approved as acceptable protection against cadmium dust, fume, and mist by the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) and by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) under the provisions of 30 CFR Part 11. The employer must select the appropriate respirator from Table 1 of this section.

Table 1.

RESPIRATORY PROTECTION FOR CADMIUM

Airborne Concentration or
Condition of Usea
Required Respirator Type b
10 X or less A half mask, air-purifying respirator equipped with a HEPA c filter d
25 X or less A powered air-purifying respirator ("PAPR") with a loose-fitting hood or helmet equipped with a HEPA filter, or a supplied-air respirator with a loose-fitting hood or helmet facepiece operated in the continuous flow mode
50 X or less A full facepiece air-purifying respirator equipped with a HEPA filter, or a powered air-purifying respirator with a tight-fitting half mask equipped with a HEPA filter, or a supplied air respirator with a tight-fitting half mask operated in the continuous flow mode
250 X or less A powered air-purifying respirator with a tight-fitting full facepiece equipped with a HEPA filter, or supplied-air respirator with a tight-fitting full facepiece operated in the continuous flow mode
1000 X or less A supplied-air respirator with half mask or full facepiece operated in the pressure demand or other positive pressure mode
> 1000 X or unknown A self-contained breathing apparatus with a full facepiece operated in the pressure demand or other positive pressure mode, or a supplied-air respirator with a full facepiece operated in the pressure demand or other positive pressure mode and equipped with an auxiliary escape type self-contained breathing apparatus operated in the pressure demand mode
Fire fighting A self-contained breathing apparatus with full facepiece operated in the pressure demand or other positive pressure mode

 

a Concentrations expressed as multiple of the PEL.

b Respirators assigned for higher environmental concentrations may be used at lower exposure levels. Quantitative fit testing is required for all tight-fitting air purifying respirators where airborne concentration of cadmium exceeds 10 times the TWA PEL (10 x 5 g/m3= 50 g/m3). A full facepiece respirator is required when eye irritation is experienced.

 

c HEPA means High Efficiency Particulate Air

 

d Fit testing, qualitative or quantitative, is required.

Source: Respiratory Decision Logic, NIOSH, 1987.

(B) The employer shall provide a powered, air-purifying respirator (PAPR) in lieu of a negative pressure respirator wherever:

1. An employee entitled to a respirator chooses to use this type of respirator; and

2. This respirator will provide adequate protection to the employee.

(3) Respirator Program.

(A) Where respiratory protection is required, the employer shall institute a respirator protection program in accordance with section 1531.

(B) The employer shall permit each employee who is required to use an air purifying respirator to leave the regulated area to change the filter elements or replace the respirator whenever an increase in breathing resistance is detected and shall maintain an adequate supply of filter elements for this purpose.

(C) The employer shall also permit each employee who is required to wear a respirator to leave the regulated area to wash his or her face and the respirator facepiece whenever necessary to prevent skin irritation associated with respirator use.

(D) If an employee exhibits difficulty in breathing while wearing a respirator during a fit test or during use, the employer shall make available to the employee a medical examination in accordance with subsection (l)(6)(B) to determine if the employee can wear a respirator while performing the required duties.

(E) No employee shall be assigned a task requiring the use of a respirator if, based upon his or her most recent examination, an examining physician determines that the employee will be unable to continue to function normally while wearing a respirator. If the physician determines the employee must be limited in, or removed from his or her current job because of the employee's inability to wear a respirator, the limitation or removal shall be in accordance with subsections (l)(11) and (12).

(4) Respirator Fit Testing.

(A) The employer shall assure that the respirator issued to the employee is fitted properly and exhibits the least possible facepiece leakage.

(B) For each employee wearing a tight-fitting, air purifying respirator (either negative or positive pressure) who is exposed to airborne concentrations of cadmium that do not exceed 10 times the PEL (10 x 5 g/m3 = 50 g/m3), the employer shall perform either quantitative or qualitative fit testing at the time of initial fitting and at least annually thereafter. If quantitative fit testing is used for a negative pressure respirator, a fit factor that is at least 10 times the protection factor for that class of respirators (Table 1) shall be achieved at testing.

(C) For each employee wearing a tight-fitting air purifying respirator (either negative or positive pressure) who is exposed to airborne concentrations of cadmium that exceed 10 times the PEL (10 x 5 g/m3 = 50 g/m3), the employer shall perform quantitative fit testing at the time of initial fitting and at least annually thereafter. For negative-pressure respirators, a fit factor that is at least ten times the protection factor for that class of respirators (Table 1) shall be achieved during quantitative fit testing.

(D) For each employee wearing a tight-fitting, supplied-air respirator or self-contained breathing apparatus, the employer shall perform quantitative fit testing at the time of initial fitting and at least annually thereafter. This shall be accomplished by fit testing an air purifying respirator of identical type facepiece, make, model, and size as the supplied air respirator or self-contained breathing apparatus that is equipped with HEPA filters and tested as a surrogate (substitute) in the negative pressure mode. A fit factor that is at least 10 times the protection factor for that class of respirators (Table 1) shall be achieved during quantitative fit testing. A supplied- air respirator or self-contained breathing apparatus with the same type facepiece, make, model, and size as the air purifying respirator with which the employee passed the quantitative fit test may then be used by that employee up to the protection factor listed in Table 1 for that class of respirators.

(E) Fit testing shall be conducted in accordance with Appendix C.

* * *

 

Appendix C

Qualitative and Quantitative

Fit Testing Procedures

 

Refer to section 5207, Appendix C. [See Section 5144, Appendix A]

* * *

 

Note: Authority cited: Sections 142.3, 9020, 9030 and 9040, Labor Code. Reference: Sections 142.3, 9004(d), 9009, 9020, 9030, 9031 and 9040, Labor Code.

 

Amend section 1532.1 to read:

1532.1. Lead

* * *

(f) Respiratory protection.

(1) General. Where the use of respirators is required under this section the employer shall provide, at no cost to the employee, and assure the use of respirators which comply with the requirements of this subsection. Respirators shall be used in the following circumstances: For employees who use respirators required by this section, the employer must provide respirators that comply with the requirements of this subsection. Respirators must be used during:

(A) Whenever Periods when an employee's exposure to lead exceeds the PEL;

(B) In work situations in Work operations for which engineering controls and work practices are not sufficient to reduce exposures to or below the PEL;

(C) Whenever Periods when an employee requests a respirator; and

(D) An Periods when respirators are required to provide interim protection for employees performing tasks as while they perform the operations specified in subsection (d)(2).

(2) Respirator program.

(A) The employer must implement a respiratory protection program in accordance with section 5144 (b) through (d) (except (d)(1)(C)), and (f) through (m).

(B) If an employee exhibits breathing difficulty during fit testing or respirator use, the employer must provide the employee with a medical examination in accordance with subsection (j)(3)(A)2. to determine if the employee can use a respirator while performing the required duties.

(3) Respirator selection.

(A) Where respirators are used under this section t The employer shall select the appropriate respirator or combination of respirators from Table I below.

(B) The employer shall provide a powered, air-purifying respirator in lieu of the respirator specified in Table I whenever:

1. An employee chooses to use this type of respirator; and

2. This respirator will provide adequate protection to the employee.

 

Table I — Respiratory Protection for Lead Aerosols

Airborne concentration of lead
or condition of use
Required respirator 1
Not in excess of 500 g/m3. *1/2 mask air purifying respirator with high efficiency filters. 2,3 *1/2 mask supplied air respirator operated in demand (negative pressure) mode.
Not in excess of 1,250 g/m3 *Loose fitting hood or helmet powered air purifying respirator with high efficiency filters. Hood or helmet supplied air respirator operated in a continuous- flow mode -- e.g., type CE abrasive blasting respirator operated in a continuous-flow mode.
Not in excess of 2,500 g/m3. *Full facepiece air purifying respirator with high efficiency filters. 3 *Tight fitting powered air purifying respirator with high efficiency filters. 3 *Full facepiece supplied air respirator operated in demand mode *1/2 mask or full facepiece supplied air respirator operated in a continuous-flow mode *Full facepiece self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) operated in demand mode.
Not in excess of 50,000 g/m3. *1/2 mask supplied air respirator operated in pressure demand or other positive-pressure mode.
Not in excess of 100,000 g/m3. *Full facepiece supplied air respirator operated in pressure demand or other positive-pressure mode -- e.g., type CE abrasive blasting respirators operated in a positive-pressure mode.
Greater than 100,000 g/m3, unknown concentration, or fire fighting. *Full facepiece SCBA operated in pressure demand or other positive- pressure mode.

 

 

 

1 Respirators specified for higher concentrations can be used at lower concentrations of lead.

 

2 Full facepiece is required if the lead aerosols cause eye or skin irritation at the use concentrations.

 

3 A high efficiency particulate filter (HEPA) means a filter that is 99.97 percent efficient against particles of 0.3 micron size or larger.

(C) The employer shall select respirators from among those approved for protection against lead dust, fume, and mist by the Mine Safety and Health Administration and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) under the provisions of 30 CFR part 11

(3) Respirator usage.

(A) The employer shall assure that the respirator issued to the employee exhibits minimum facepiece leakage and that the respirator is fitted properly.

(B) Employers shall perform either quantitative or qualitative face fit tests at the time of initial fitting and at least every six months thereafter for each employee wearing negative pressure respirators. The qualitative fit tests may be used only for testing the fit of half-mask respirators where they are permitted to be worn, and shall be conducted in accordance with appendix D of this section. The tests shall be used to select facepieces that provide the required protection as prescribed in Table I.

(C) If an employee exhibits difficulty in breathing during the fitting test or during use, the employer shall make available to the employee an examination in accordance with subsection (j)(3)(A)2. to determine whether the employee can wear a respirator while performing the required duty.

(4) Respirator program.

(A) The employer shall institute a respiratory protection program in accordance with section 1531(b), (d), (e) and (f).

(B) The employer shall permit each employee who uses a filter respirator to change the filter elements whenever an increase in breathing resistance is detected and shall maintain an adequate supply of filter elements for this purpose.

(C) Employees who wear respirators shall be permitted to leave work areas to wash their face and respirator facepiece whenever necessary to prevent skin irritation associated with respirator use.

* * *

Appendix B to 1532.1 – Employee Standard Summary

* * *

IV. Respiratory Protection - Subsection (f)

Your employer is required to provide and assure your use of respirators when your exposure to lead is not controlled below the PEL by other means. The employer must pay the cost of the respirator. Whenever you request one, your employer is also required to provide you a respirator even if your air exposure level is not above the PEL. You might desire a respirator when, for example, you have received medical advice that your lead absorption should be decreased. Or, you may intend to have children in the near future, and want to reduce the level of lead in your body to minimize adverse reproductive effects. While respirators are the least satisfactory means of controlling your exposure, they are capable of providing significant protection if properly chosen, fitted, worn, cleaned, maintained, and replaced when they stop providing adequate protection.

Your employer is required to select respirators from the types listed in Table I of the Respiratory Protection section of the standard (section 1532.1(f)). Any respirator chosen must be approved by the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) or the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) under the provisions of 42 CFR part 84. This respirator selection table will enable your employer to choose a type of respirator which will give you a proper amount of protection based on your airborne lead exposure. Your employer may select a type of respirator that provides greater protection than that required by the standard; that is, one recommended for a higher concentration of lead than is present in your workplace. For example, a powered air purifying respirator (PAPR) is much more protective than a typical negative pressure respirator, and may also be more comfortable to wear. A PAPR has a filter, cartridge or canister to clean the air, and a power source which continuously blows filtered air into your breathing zone. Your employer might make a PAPR available to you to ease the burden of having to wear a respirator for long periods of time. The standard provides that you can obtain a PAPR upon request.

Your employer must also start a Respiratory Protection Program. This program must include written procedures for the proper selection, use, cleaning, storage, and maintenance of respirators. Your employer must assure that your respirator facepiece fits properly. Proper fit of a respirator facepiece is critical. Obtaining a proper fit on each employee may require your employer to make available two or three different mask types. In order to assure that your respirator fits properly and that facepiece leakage is minimized, your employer must give you either a qualitative fit test or a quantitative fit test (if you use a negative pressure respirator) in accordance with Appendix D as specified in Appendix A of the Respiratory Protection standard located at section 5144. Any respirator which has a filter, cartridge or canister which cleans the work room air before you breathe it and which requires the force of your inhalation to draw air through the filtering element is a negative pressure respirator. A positive pressure respirator supplies air to you directly. A quantitative fit test uses a sophisticated machine to measure the amount, if any, of test material that leaks into the facepiece of your respirator.

You must also receive from your employer proper training in the use of respirators. Your employer is required to teach you how to wear a respirator, to know why it is needed, and to understand its limitations.

Your employer must test the effectiveness of your negative pressure respirator initially and at least every six months thereafter with a "qualitative fit test." In this test, the fit of the facepiece is checked by seeing if you can smell a substance placed outside the respirator. If you can, there is appreciable leakage where the facepiece meets your face.

The standard provides that if your respirator uses filter elements, you must be given an opportunity to change the filter elements whenever an increase in breathing resistance is detected. You also must be permitted to periodically leave your work area to wash your face and respirator facepiece whenever necessary to prevent skin irritation. If you ever have difficulty in breathing during a fit test or while using a respirator, your employer must make a medical examination available to you to determine whether you can safely wear a respirator. The result of this examination may be to give you a positive pressure respirator (which reduces breathing resistance) or to provide alternative means of protection.

* * *

 

 

Delete Appendix D to Section 1532.1 and replace with editorial reference in brackets:

 

 

1535. Methylenedianiline.

* * *

(i) Respiratory protection.

(1) General. The employer shall provide respirators, and ensure that they are used, where required by this section. Respirators shall be used in the following circumstances. For employees who use respirators required by this section, the employer must provide respirators that comply with the requirements of this subsection. Respirators must be used during:

(A) During the time p Period necessary to install or implement feasible engineering and work practice controls;

(B) In w Work operations such as maintenance and repair activities and spray application processes for which engineering and work practice controls are not feasible;

(C) In work situations where Work operations for which feasible engineering and work practice controls are not yet sufficient to reduce exposure to or below the PELs; and

(D) In e Emergencies.

(2) Respirator program. The employer must implement a respiratory protection program in accordance with section 5144 (b) through (d) (except (d)(1)(C)), and (f) through (m).

(3) Respirator selection.

(A) Where respirators are required or allowed under this section, the employer shall select and provide, at no cost to the employee, the appropriate respirator as specified in Table 1, and shall assure that the employee uses the respirator provided. The employer must select the appropriate respirator from Table 1 of this section.

(B) The employer shall select respirators from among those jointly approved by the Mine Safety and Health Administration and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health under the provisions of 30 CFR Part II.

(C) Any employee who cannot wear a negative pressure respirator shall be given the option of wearing a positive pressure respirator or any supplied-air respirator operated in the continuous flow or pressure demand mode.

(3) Respirator program. The employer shall institute a respiratory protection program in accordance with section 1531(b), (d), (e), and (f).

(4) Respirator use.

(A) Where air-purifying respirators (cartridge or canister) are used, the employer shall replace the air purifying element as needed to maintain the effectiveness of the respirator. The employer shall ensure that each cartridge is dated at the beginning of use.

(B) Employees who wear respirators shall be allowed to leave the regulated area to readjust the facepiece or to wash their faces and to wipe clean the facepieces on their respirators in order to minimize potential skin irritation associated with respirator use.

TABLE 1. - Respiratory Protection for MDA

Airborne Concentration of MDA or Condition of Use Respirator Type
a. Less than or equal to 10 x PEL (1) Half-Mask Respirator with HEPA1 Cartridge.2
b. Less than or equal to 50 x PEL (1) Full facepiece respirator with HEPA1 Cartridge or
Canister. 2
c. Less than or equal to 1000 x PEL (1) Full facepiece powered air-purifying respirator with HEPA1 cartridges.2
d. Greater than 1000 x PEL or unknown concentration (1) Self-contained breathing apparatus with full facepiece in positive pressure mode.

(2) Full facepiece positive pressure demand supplied-air respirator with auxiliary self-contained air supply.

e. Escape (1) Any full facepiece air-purifying respirator with HEPA1 cartridges.2 (2) Any positive pressure or continuous flow self-contained breathing apparatus with full facepiece or hood.
f. Firefighting (1) Full facepiece self-contained breathing apparatus in positive pressure mode.

 

NOTE: Respirators assigned for higher environmental concentrations may be used at lower concentrations.

 

1 High Efficiency Particulate Air filter (HEPA) means a filter that is at least 99.97 percent efficient against mono-dispersed particles of 0.3 micrometers or larger.

 

2 Combination HEPA/Organic Vapor Cartridges shall be used whenever MDA in liquid form or a process requiring heat is used.

(5) Respirator fit testing.

(A) The employer shall perform and record the results of either quantitative or qualitative fit tests at the time of initial fitting and at least annually thereafter for each employee wearing a negative pressure respirator. The test shall be used to select a respirator facepiece which provides the required protection as prescribed in Table 1.

(B) The employer shall follow the test protocols outlined in Appendix E of this standard for whichever type of fit testing the employer chooses.

* * *

Appendix E to Section 1535 – Qualitative and Quantitative Fit Testing Procedures

Refer to section 5200, Appendix E. [See Section 5144, Appendix A]

Note: Authority cited: Sections 142.3, 9020, 9030 and 9040, Labor Code. Reference: Sections 142.3, 9004(d), 9009, 9020, 9030, 9031 and 9040, Labor Code.

 

 

Amend Section 3409, Respiratory Protection to read:

3409. Respiratory Protection.

(a) Approved Equipment.

(1) Approvals. Fire fighters exposed to harmful exposure in the course of their assigned activities shall be provided with, and shall use respiratory protective devices that are approved and certified in accordance with Section 5144, and the U. S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare publication (NIOSH) 76-145, and 1977 Supplement, Publication No. 77-195, "Certified Equipment," which includes 30 CFR, Chapter 1, Part 11 methods and requirements specified by the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) under 42 CFR part 84.

(2) Permissible Devices.

(A) Respiratory protective devices provided for and used by fire fighters in structural fire fighting activity shall be limited to those types classified as self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA), and combination breathing apparatus of the supplied-air positive-pressure type.

(B) Closed-circuit self-contained breathing apparatus shall not be used by fire fighters except where it has been demonstrated that long duration breathing apparatus is necessary. If such breathing devices are used, quantitative fit tests providing a minimum protection factor of 5,000 shall be performed on each individual using the long duration breathing apparatus. The quantitative fit test procedures shall be available for inspection by the Division.

(b) General Requirements.

(1) Written Standard Procedures. The employer shall develop and implement comprehensive written standard operating procedures for the use, care, maintenance, and training relating to respiratory protective equipment in accordance with Section 5144 and ANSI Z88.2 (1980), "Practices for Respiratory Protection," and ANSI Z88.5 (1981), "Practices for Respiratory Protection for the Fire Service."

The operating procedures required by this subsection are exempt from the prohibition of the use of contact lenses specified in ANSI Z88.2(1980) and ANSI Z88.5(1981).

(2) When emergency conditions require the urgent multi-person use of the same facepiece, requirements of Section 5144(d) pertaining to cleaning and sanitation of the facepiece shall not apply.

(3) Operating Service Time. Respiratory protective devices provided for use by fire fighters shall have a rated service time of at least 30 minutes in accordance with the methods and requirements specified by NIOSH 42 CFR part 84.

EXCEPTION: Respiratory protective devices of less than 30 minutes rated service time shall only be used for escape, rescue and observation.

* * *

NOTE: Authority cited: Section 142.3, Labor Code. Reference: Section 142.3, Labor Code.

 

Amend Section 3411, Private Fire Brigades to read:

3411. Private Fire Brigades.

* * *

(e) Respiratory Protection Devices. The employer shall provide at no cost to the employee and assure that respiratory protective devices worn by fire brigade members meet the requirements contained in Section 5144 and the requirements contained in this Article, and are certified under 30 CFR Part 11 42 CFR part 84.

NOTE: Authority cited: Section 142.3, Labor Code. Reference: Section 142.3, Labor Code.

 

 

Amend Section 5144, Respiratory Protection to read:

 

5144. Respiratory Protective Equipment Protection.

This section applies to General Industry, Shipyards, Marine Terminals, Longshoring, and Construction.

(a) Permissible practice.

(1) In the control of those occupational diseases caused by breathing air contaminated with harmful dusts, fogs, fumes, mists, gases, smokes, sprays, or vapors, the primary objective shall be to prevent atmospheric contamination. This shall be accomplished as far as feasible by accepted engineering control measures (for example, enclosure or confinement of the operation, general and local ventilation, and substitution of less toxic materials). When effective engineering controls are not feasible, or while they are being instituted, appropriate respirators shall be used pursuant to this section.

(2) Respirators shall be provided by the employer when such equipment is necessary to protect the health of the employee. The employer shall provide the respirators which are applicable and suitable for the purpose intended. The employer shall be responsible for the establishment and maintenance of a respiratory protection program which shall include the requirements outlined in subsection (c).

(b) Definitions. The following definitions are important terms used in the respiratory protection standard in this section.

Air-purifying respirator means a respirator with an air-purifying filter, cartridge, or canister that removes specific air contaminants by passing ambient air through the air-purifying element.

Assigned protection factor (APF) [Reserved]

Atmosphere-supplying respirator means a respirator that supplies the respirator user with breathing air from a source independent of the ambient atmosphere, and includes supplied-air respirators (SARs) and self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) units.

Canister or cartridge means a container with a filter, sorbent, or catalyst, or combination of these items, which removes specific contaminants from the air passed through the container.

Demand respirator means an atmosphere-supplying respirator that admits breathing air to the facepiece only when a negative pressure is created inside the facepiece by inhalation.

Emergency situation means any occurrence such as, but not limited to, equipment failure, rupture of containers, or failure of control equipment that may or does result in an uncontrolled significant release of an airborne contaminant.

Employee exposure means exposure to a concentration of an airborne contaminant that would occur if the employee were not using respiratory protection.

End-of-service-life indicator (ESLI) means a system that warns the respirator user of the approach of the end of adequate respiratory protection, for example, that the sorbent is approaching saturation or is no longer effective.

Escape-only respirator means a respirator intended to be used only for emergency exit.

Filter or air purifying element means a component used in respirators to remove solid or liquid aerosols from the inspired air.

Filtering facepiece (dust mask) means a negative pressure particulate respirator with a filter as an integral part of the facepiece or with the entire facepiece composed of the filtering medium.

Fit factor means a quantitative estimate of the fit of a particular respirator to a specific individual, and typically estimates the ratio of the concentration of a substance in ambient air to its concentration inside the respirator when worn.

Fit test means the use of a protocol to qualitatively or quantitatively evaluate the fit of a respirator on an individual. (See also Qualitative fit test QLFT and Quantitative fit test QNFT.)

Helmet means a rigid respiratory inlet covering that also provides head protection against impact and penetration.

High efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter means a filter that is at least 99.97% efficient in removing monodisperse particles of 0.3 micrometers in diameter. The equivalent NIOSH 42 CFR 84 particulate filters are the N100, R100, and P100 filters.

Hood means a respiratory inlet covering that completely covers the head and neck and may also cover portions of the shoulders and torso.

Immediately dangerous to life or health (IDLH) means an atmosphere that poses an immediate threat to life, would cause irreversible adverse health effects, or would impair an individual's ability to escape from a dangerous atmosphere.

Interior structural firefighting means the physical activity of fire suppression, rescue or both, inside of buildings or enclosed structures which are involved in a fire situation beyond the incipient stage. (See Article 10.1)

Loose-fitting facepiece means a respiratory inlet covering that is designed to form a partial seal with the face.

Maximum use concentration (MUC) [Reserved].

Negative pressure respirator (tight fitting) means a respirator in which the air pressure inside the facepiece is negative during inhalation with respect to the ambient air pressure outside the respirator.

Oxygen deficient atmosphere means an atmosphere with an oxygen content below 19.5% by volume.

Physician or other licensed health care professional (PLHCP) means an individual whose legally permitted scope of practice (i.e., license, registration, or certification) allows him or her to independently provide, or be delegated the responsibility to provide, some or all of the health care services required by subsection (e).

Positive pressure respirator means a respirator in which the pressure inside the respiratory inlet covering exceeds the ambient air pressure outside the respirator.

Powered air-purifying respirator (PAPR) means an air-purifying respirator that uses a blower to force the ambient air through air-purifying elements to the inlet covering.

Pressure demand respirator means a positive pressure atmosphere-supplying respirator that admits breathing air to the facepiece when the positive pressure is reduced inside the facepiece by inhalation.

Qualitative fit test (QLFT) means a pass/fail fit test to assess the adequacy of respirator fit that relies on the individual's response to the test agent.

Quantitative fit test (QNFT) means an assessment of the adequacy of respirator fit by numerically measuring the amount of leakage into the respirator.

Respiratory inlet covering means that portion of a respirator that forms the protective barrier between the user's respiratory tract and an air-purifying device or breathing air source, or both. It may be a facepiece, helmet, hood, suit, or a mouthpiece respirator with nose clamp.

Self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) means an atmosphere-supplying respirator for which the breathing air source is designed to be carried by the user.

Service life means the period of time that a respirator, filter or sorbent, or other respiratory equipment provides adequate protection to the wearer.

Supplied-air respirator (SAR) or airline respirator means an atmosphere-supplying respirator for which the source of breathing air is not designed to be carried by the user.

Tight-fitting facepiece means a respiratory inlet covering that forms a complete seal with the face.

User seal check means an action conducted by the respirator user to determine if the respirator is properly seated to the face.

(c) Respiratory protection program. This subsection requires the employer to develop and implement a written respiratory protection program with required worksite-specific procedures and elements for required respirator use. The program must be administered by a suitably trained program administrator. In addition, certain program elements may be required for voluntary use to prevent potential hazards associated with the use of the respirator. The Small Entity Compliance Guide contains criteria for the selection of a program administrator and a sample program that meets the requirements of this subsection. Copies of the Small Entity Compliance Guide will be available from the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's Office of Publications, Room N 3101, 200 Constitution Avenue, NW, Washington, DC, 20210 (202-219-4667).

(1) In any workplace where respirators are necessary to protect the health of the employee or whenever respirators are required by the employer, the employer shall establish and implement a written respiratory protection program with worksite-specific procedures. The program shall be updated as necessary to reflect those changes in workplace conditions that affect respirator use. The employer shall include in the program the following provisions, as applicable:

(A) Procedures for selecting respirators for use in the workplace;

(B) Medical evaluations of employees required to use respirators;

(C) Fit testing procedures for tight-fitting respirators;

(D) Procedures for proper use of respirators in routine and reasonably foreseeable emergency situations;

(E) Procedures and schedules for cleaning, disinfecting, storing, inspecting, repairing, discarding, and otherwise maintaining respirators;

(F) Procedures to ensure adequate air quality, quantity, and flow of breathing air for atmosphere-supplying respirators;

(G) Training of employees in the respiratory hazards to which they are potentially exposed during routine and emergency situations;

(H) Training of employees in the proper use of respirators, including putting on and removing them, any limitations on their use, and their maintenance; and

(I) Procedures for regularly evaluating the effectiveness of the program.

(2) Where respirator use is not required:

(A) An employer may provide respirators at the request of employees or permit employees to use their own respirators, if the employer determines that such respirator use will not in itself create a hazard. If the employer determines that any voluntary respirator use is permissible, the employer shall provide the respirator users with the information contained in Appendix D to this section ("Information for Employees Using Respirators When Not Required Under the Standard"); and

(B) In addition, the employer must establish and implement those elements of a written respiratory protection program necessary to ensure that any employee using a respirator voluntarily is medically able to use that respirator, and that the respirator is cleaned, stored, and maintained so that its use does not present a health hazard to the user. Exception: Employers are not required to include in a written respiratory protection program those employees whose only use of respirators involves the voluntary use of filtering facepieces (dust masks).

(3) The employer shall designate a program administrator who is qualified by appropriate training or experience that is commensurate with the complexity of the program to administer or oversee the respiratory protection program and conduct the required evaluations of program effectiveness.

(4) The employer shall provide respirators, training, and medical evaluations at no cost to the employee.

(d) Selection of respirators. This subsection requires the employer to evaluate respiratory hazard(s) in the workplace, identify relevant workplace and user factors, and base respirator selection on these factors. The subsection also specifies appropriately protective respirators for use in IDLH atmospheres, and limits the selection and use of air-purifying respirators.

(1) General requirements.

(A) The employer shall select and provide an appropriate respirator based on the respiratory hazard(s) to which the worker is exposed and workplace and user factors that affect respirator performance and reliability.

(B) The employer shall select a NIOSH-certified respirator. The respirator shall be used in compliance with the conditions of its certification.

(C) The employer shall identify and evaluate the respiratory hazard(s) in the workplace; this evaluation shall include a reasonable estimate of employee exposures to respiratory hazard(s) and an identification of the contaminant's chemical state and physical form. Where the employer cannot identify or reasonably estimate the employee exposure, the employer shall consider the atmosphere to be IDLH.

(D) The employer shall select respirators from a sufficient number of respirator models and sizes so that the respirator is acceptable to, and correctly fits, the user.

(2) Respirators for IDLH atmospheres.

(A) The employer shall provide the following respirators for employee use in IDLH atmospheres:

1. A full facepiece pressure demand SCBA certified by NIOSH for a minimum service life of thirty minutes, or

2. A combination full facepiece pressure demand supplied-air respirator (SAR) with auxiliary self-contained air supply.

(B) Respirators provided only for escape from IDLH atmospheres shall be NIOSH-certified for escape from the atmosphere in which they will be used.

(C) All oxygen-deficient atmospheres shall be considered IDLH.

Exception: If the employer demonstrates that, under all foreseeable conditions, the oxygen concentration can be maintained within the ranges specified in Table II (i.e., for the altitudes set out in the table), then any atmosphere-supplying respirator may be used.

(3) Respirators for atmospheres that are not IDLH.

(A) The employer shall provide a respirator that is adequate to protect the health of the employee and ensure compliance with all other OSHA statutory and regulatory requirements, under routine and reasonably foreseeable emergency situations.

1. Assigned Protection Factors (APFs) [Reserved]

2. Maximum Use Concentration (MUC) [Reserved]

(B) The respirator selected shall be appropriate for the chemical state and physical form of the contaminant.

(C) For protection against gases and vapors, the employer shall provide:

1. An atmosphere-supplying respirator, or

2. An air-purifying respirator, provided that:

a. The respirator is equipped with an end-of-service-life indicator (ESLI) certified by NIOSH for the contaminant; or

b. If there is no ESLI appropriate for conditions in the employer's workplace, the employer implements a change schedule for canisters and cartridges that is based on objective information or data that will ensure that canisters and cartridges are changed before the end of their service life. The employer shall describe in the respirator program the information and data relied upon and the basis for the canister and cartridge change schedule and the basis for reliance on the data.

(D) For protection against particulates, the employer shall provide:

1. An atmosphere-supplying respirator; or

2. An air-purifying respirator equipped with a filter certified by NIOSH under 30 CFR part 11 as a high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter, or an air-purifying respirator equipped with a filter certified for particulates by NIOSH under 42 CFR part 84; or

3. For contaminants consisting primarily of particles with mass median aerodynamic diameters (MMAD) of at least 2 micrometers, an air-purifying respirator equipped with any filter certified for particulates by NIOSH.

Table I.--Assigned Protection Factors [Reserved]

Table II

Altitude (ft.) Oxygen deficient Atmospheres
(% 02) for which the employer may rely on atmosphere-supplying respirators
Less than 3,001 16.0-19.5
3,001-4,000 16.4-19.5
4,001-5,000 17.1-19.5
5,001-6,000 17.8-19.5
6,001-7,000 18.5-19.5
7,001-8,0001 19.3-19.5.

1 Above 8,000 feet the exception does not apply. Oxygen-enriched breathing air must be supplied above 14,000 feet.

(e) Medical evaluation. Using a respirator may place a physiological burden on employees that varies with the type of respirator worn, the job and workplace conditions in which the respirator is used, and the medical status of the employee. Accordingly, this subsection specifies the minimum requirements for medical evaluation that employers must implement to determine the employee's ability to use a respirator.

(1) General. The employer shall provide a medical evaluation to determine the employee's ability to use a respirator, before the employee is fit tested or required to use the respirator in the workplace. The employer may discontinue an employee's medical evaluations when the employee is no longer required to use a respirator.

(2) Medical evaluation procedures.

(A) The employer shall identify a physician or other licensed health care professional (PLHCP) to perform medical evaluations using a medical questionnaire or an initial medical examination that obtains the same information as the medical questionnaire.

(B) The medical evaluation shall obtain the information requested by the questionnaire in Sections 1 and 2, Part A of Appendix C.

(3) Follow-up medical examination.

(A) The employer shall ensure that a follow-up medical examination is provided for an employee who gives a positive response to any question among questions 1 through 8 in Section 2, Part A of Appendix C or whose initial medical examination demonstrates the need for a follow-up medical examination.

(B) The follow-up medical examination shall include any medical tests, consultations, or diagnostic procedures that the PLHCP deems necessary to make a final determination.

(4) Administration of the medical questionnaire and examinations.

(A) The medical questionnaire and examinations shall be administered confidentially during the employee's normal working hours or at a time and place convenient to the employee. The medical questionnaire shall be administered in a manner that ensures that the employee understands its content.

(B) The employer shall provide the employee with an opportunity to discuss the questionnaire and examination results with the PLHCP.

(5) Supplemental information for the PLHCP.

(A) The following information must be provided to the PLHCP before the PLHCP makes a recommendation concerning an employee's ability to use a respirator:

1. The type and weight of the respirator to be used by the employee;

2. The duration and frequency of respirator use (including use for rescue and escape);

3. The expected physical work effort;

4. Additional protective clothing and equipment to be worn; and

5. Temperature and humidity extremes that may be encountered.

(B) Any supplemental information provided previously to the PLHCP regarding an employee need not be provided for a subsequent medical evaluation if the information and the PLHCP remain the same.

(C) The employer shall provide the PLHCP with a copy of the written respiratory protection program and a copy of this section.

Note to Subsection (e)(5)(C): When the employer replaces a PLHCP, the employer must ensure that the new PLHCP obtains this information, either by providing the documents directly to the PLHCP or having the documents transferred from the former PLHCP to the new PLHCP. However, OSHA does not expect employers to have employees medically reevaluated solely because a new PLHCP has been selected.

(6) Medical determination. In determining the employee's ability to use a respirator, the employer shall:

(A) Obtain a written recommendation regarding the employee's ability to use the respirator from the PLHCP. The recommendation shall provide only the following information:

1. Any limitations on respirator use related to the medical condition of the employee, or relating to the workplace conditions in which the respirator will be used, including whether or not the employee is medically able to use the respirator;

2. The need, if any, for follow-up medical evaluations; and

3. A statement that the PLHCP has provided the employee with a copy of the PLHCP's written recommendation.

(B) If the respirator is a negative pressure respirator and the PLHCP finds a medical condition that may place the employee's health at increased risk if the respirator is used, the employer shall provide a PAPR if the PLHCP's medical evaluation finds that the employee can use such a respirator; if a subsequent medical evaluation finds that the employee is medically able to use a negative pressure respirator, then the employer is no longer required to provide a PAPR.

(7) Additional medical evaluations. At a minimum, the employer shall provide additional medical evaluations that comply with the requirements of this section if:

(A) An employee reports medical signs or symptoms that are related to ability to use a respirator;

(B) A PLHCP, supervisor, or the respirator program administrator informs the employer that an employee needs to be reevaluated;

(C) Information from the respiratory protection program, including observations made during fit testing and program evaluation, indicates a need for employee reevaluation; or

(D) A change occurs in workplace conditions (e.g., physical work effort, protective clothing, temperature) that may result in a substantial increase in the physiological burden placed on an employee.

(f) Fit testing. This subsection requires that, before an employee may be required to use any respirator with a negative or positive pressure tight-fitting facepiece, the employee must be fit tested with the same make, model, style, and size of respirator that will be used. This subsection specifies the kinds of fit tests allowed, the procedures for conducting them, and how the results of the fit tests must be used.

(1) The employer shall ensure that employees using a tight-fitting facepiece respirator pass an appropriate qualitative fit test (QLFT) or quantitative fit test (QNFT) as stated in this subsection.

(2) The employer shall ensure that an employee using a tight-fitting facepiece respirator is fit tested prior to initial use of the respirator, whenever a different respirator facepiece (size, style, model or make) is used, and at least annually thereafter.

(3) The employer shall conduct an additional fit test whenever the employee reports, or the employer, PLHCP, supervisor, or program administrator makes visual observations of, changes in the employee's physical condition that could affect respirator fit. Such conditions include, but are not limited to, facial scarring, dental changes, cosmetic surgery, or an obvious change in body weight.

(4) If after passing a QLFT or QNFT, the employee subsequently notifies the employer, program administrator, supervisor, or PLHCP that the fit of the respirator is unacceptable, the employee shall be given a reasonable opportunity to select a different respirator facepiece and to be retested.

(5) The fit test shall be administered using an OSHA-accepted QLFT or QNFT protocol. The OSHA-accepted QLFT and QNFT protocols and procedures are contained in Appendix A.

(6) QLFT may only be used to fit test negative pressure air-purifying respirators that must achieve a fit factor of 100 or less.

(7) If the fit factor, as determined through an OSHA-accepted QNFT protocol, is equal to or greater than 100 for tight-fitting half facepieces, or equal to or greater than 500 for tight-fitting full facepieces, the QNFT has been passed with that respirator.

(8) Fit testing of tight-fitting atmosphere-supplying respirators and tight-fitting powered air-purifying respirators shall be accomplished by performing quantitative or qualitative fit testing in the negative pressure mode, regardless of the mode of operation (negative or positive pressure) that is used for respiratory protection.

(A) Qualitative fit testing of these respirators shall be accomplished by temporarily converting the respirator user's actual facepiece into a negative pressure respirator with appropriate filters, or by using an identical negative pressure air-purifying respirator facepiece with the same sealing surfaces as a surrogate for the atmosphere-supplying or powered air-purifying respirator facepiece.

(B) Quantitative fit testing of these respirators shall be accomplished by modifying the facepiece to allow sampling inside the facepiece in the breathing zone of the user, midway between the nose and mouth. This requirement shall be accomplished by installing a permanent sampling probe onto a surrogate facepiece, or by using a sampling adapter designed to temporarily provide a means of sampling air from inside the facepiece.

(C) Any modifications to the respirator facepiece for fit testing shall be completely removed, and the facepiece restored to NIOSH-approved configuration, before that facepiece can be used in the workplace.

(g) Use of respirators. This subsection requires employers to establish and implement procedures for the proper use of respirators. These requirements include prohibiting conditions that may result in facepiece seal leakage, preventing employees from removing respirators in hazardous environments, taking actions to ensure continued effective respirator operation throughout the work shift, and establishing procedures for the use of respirators in IDLH atmospheres or in interior structural firefighting situations.

(1) Facepiece seal protection.

(A) The employer shall not permit respirators with tight-fitting facepieces to be worn by employees who have:

1. Facial hair that comes between the sealing surface of the facepiece and the face or that interferes with valve function; or

2. Any condition that interferes with the face-to-facepiece seal or valve function.

(B) If an employee wears corrective glasses or goggles or other personal protective equipment, the employer shall ensure that such equipment is worn in a manner that does not interfere with the seal of the facepiece to the face of the user.

(C) For all tight-fitting respirators, the employer shall ensure that employees perform a user seal check each time they put on the respirator using the procedures in Appendix B-1 or procedures recommended by the respirator manufacturer that the employer demonstrates are as effective as those in Appendix B-1.

(2) Continuing respirator effectiveness.

(A) Appropriate surveillance shall be maintained of work area conditions and degree of employee exposure or stress. When there is a change in work area conditions or degree of employee exposure or stress that may affect respirator effectiveness, the employer shall reevaluate the continued effectiveness of the respirator.

(B) The employer shall ensure that employees leave the respirator use area:

1. To wash their faces and respirator facepieces as necessary to prevent eye or skin irritation associated with respirator use; or

2. If they detect vapor or gas breakthrough, changes in breathing resistance, or leakage of the facepiece; or

3. To replace the respirator or the filter, cartridge, or canister elements.

(C) If the employee detects vapor or gas breakthrough, changes in breathing resistance, or leakage of the facepiece, the employer must replace or repair the respirator before allowing the employee to return to the work area.

(3) Procedures for IDLH atmospheres. For all IDLH atmospheres, the employer shall ensure that:

(A) One employee or, when needed, more than one employee is located outside the IDLH atmosphere;

(B) Visual, voice, or signal line communication is maintained between the employee(s) in the IDLH atmosphere and the employee(s) located outside the IDLH atmosphere;

(C) The employee(s) located outside the IDLH atmosphere are trained and equipped to provide effective emergency rescue;

(D) The employer or designee is notified before the employee(s) located outside the IDLH atmosphere enter the IDLH atmosphere to provide emergency rescue;

(E) The employer or designee authorized to do so by the employer, once notified, provides necessary assistance appropriate to the situation;

(F) Employee(s) located outside the IDLH atmospheres are equipped with:

1. Pressure demand or other positive pressure SCBAs, or a pressure demand or other positive pressure supplied-air respirator with auxiliary SCBA; and either

2. Appropriate retrieval equipment for removing the employee(s) who enter(s) these hazardous atmospheres where retrieval equipment would contribute to the rescue of the employee(s) and would not increase the overall risk resulting from entry; or

3. Equivalent means for rescue where retrieval equipment is not required under subsection (g)(3)(F)2.

(4) Procedures for interior structural firefighting. In addition to the requirements set forth under subsection (g)(3), in interior structural fires, the employer shall ensure that:

(A) At least two employees enter the IDLH atmosphere and remain in visual or voice contact with one another at all times;

(B) At least two employees are located outside the IDLH atmosphere; and

(C) All employees engaged in interior structural firefighting use SCBAs.

Note 1 to subsection (g): One of the two individuals located outside the IDLH atmosphere may be assigned to an additional role, such as incident commander in charge of the emergency or safety officer, so long as this individual is able to perform assistance or rescue activities without jeopardizing the safety or health of any firefighter working at the incident.

Note 2 to subsection (g): Nothing in this section is meant to preclude firefighters from performing emergency rescue activities before an entire team has assembled.

(h) Maintenance and care of respirators. This subsection requires the employer to provide for the cleaning and disinfecting, storage, inspection, and repair of respirators used by employees.

(1) Cleaning and disinfecting. The employer shall provide each respirator user with a respirator that is clean, sanitary, and in good working order. The employer shall ensure that respirators are cleaned and disinfected using the procedures in Appendix B-2, or procedures recommended by the respirator manufacturer, provided that such procedures are of equivalent effectiveness. The respirators shall be cleaned and disinfected at the following intervals:

(A) Respirators issued for the exclusive use of an employee shall be cleaned and disinfected as often as necessary to be maintained in a sanitary condition;

(B) Respirators issued to more than one employee shall be cleaned and disinfected before being worn by different individuals;

(C) Respirators maintained for emergency use shall be cleaned and disinfected after each use; and

(D) Respirators used in fit testing and training shall be cleaned and disinfected after each use.

(2) Storage. The employer shall ensure that respirators are stored as follows:

(A) All respirators shall be stored to protect them from damage, contamination, dust, sunlight, extreme temperatures, excessive moisture, and damaging chemicals, and they shall be packed or stored to prevent deformation of the facepiece and exhalation valve.

(B) In addition to the requirements of subsection (h)(2)(A), emergency respirators shall be:

1. Kept accessible to the work area;

2. Stored in compartments or in covers that are clearly marked as containing emergency respirators; and

3. Stored in accordance with any applicable manufacturer instructions.

(3) Inspection.

(A) The employer shall ensure that respirators are inspected as follows:

1. All respirators used in routine situations shall be inspected before each use and during cleaning;

2. All respirators maintained for use in emergency situations shall be inspected at least monthly and in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations, and shall be checked for proper function before and after each use; and

3. Emergency escape-only respirators shall be inspected before being carried into the workplace for use.

(B) The employer shall ensure that respirator inspections include the following:

1. A check of respirator function, tightness of connections, and the condition of the various parts including, but not limited to, the facepiece, head straps, valves, connecting tube, and cartridges, canisters or filters; and

2. A check of elastomeric parts for pliability and signs of deterioration.

(C) In addition to the requirements of subsections (h)(3)(A) and (B), self-contained breathing apparatus shall be inspected monthly. Air and oxygen cylinders shall be maintained in a fully charged state and shall be recharged when the pressure falls to 90% of the manufacturer's recommended pressure level. The employer shall determine that the regulator and warning devices function properly.

(D) For respirators maintained for emergency use, the employer shall:

1. Certify the respirator by documenting the date the inspection was performed, the name (or signature) of the person who made the inspection, the findings, required remedial action, and a serial number or other means of identifying the inspected respirator; and

2. Provide this information on a tag or label that is attached to the storage compartment for the respirator, is kept with the respirator, or is included in inspection reports stored as paper or electronic files. This information shall be maintained until replaced following a subsequent certification.

(4) Repairs. The employer shall ensure that respirators that fail an inspection or are otherwise found to be defective are removed from service, and are discarded or repaired or adjusted in accordance with the following procedures:

(A) Repairs or adjustments to respirators are to be made only by persons appropriately trained to perform such operations and shall use only the respirator manufacturer's NIOSH-approved parts designed for the respirator;

(B) Repairs shall be made according to the manufacturer's recommendations and specifications for the type and extent of repairs to be performed; and

(C) Reducing and admission valves, regulators, and alarms shall be adjusted or repaired only by the manufacturer or a technician trained by the manufacturer.

(i) Breathing air quality and use. This subsection requires the employer to provide employees using atmosphere-supplying respirators (supplied-air and SCBA) with breathing gases of high purity.

(1) The employer shall ensure that compressed air, compressed oxygen, liquid air, and liquid oxygen used for respiration accords with the following specifications:

(A) Compressed and liquid oxygen shall meet the United States Pharmacopoeia requirements for medical or breathing oxygen; and

(B) Compressed breathing air shall meet at least the requirements for Type 1-Grade D breathing air described in ANSI/Compressed Gas Association Commodity Specification for Air, G-7.1-1989, to include:

1. Oxygen content (v/v) of 19.5-23.5%;

2. Hydrocarbon (condensed) content of 5 milligrams per cubic meter of air or less;

3. Carbon monoxide (CO) content of 10 ppm or less;

4. Carbon dioxide content of 1,000 ppm or less; and

5. Lack of noticeable odor.

(2) The employer shall ensure that compressed oxygen is not used in atmosphere-supplying respirators that have previously used compressed air.

(3) The employer shall ensure that oxygen concentrations greater than 23.5% are used only in equipment designed for oxygen service or distribution.

(4) The employer shall ensure that cylinders used to supply breathing air to respirators meet the following requirements:

(A) Cylinders are tested and maintained as prescribed in the Shipping Container Specification Regulations of the Department of Transportation (49 CFR part 173 and part 178);

(B) Cylinders of purchased breathing air have a certificate of analysis from the supplier that the breathing air meets the requirements for Type 1--Grade D breathing air; and

(C) The moisture content in the cylinder does not exceed a dew point of -50 deg.F (-45.6 deg.C) at 1 atmosphere pressure.

(5) The employer shall ensure that compressors used to supply breathing air to respirators are constructed and situated so as to:

(A) Prevent entry of contaminated air into the air-supply system;

(B) Minimize moisture content so that the dew point at 1 atmosphere pressure is 10 degrees F (-5.56 deg.C) below the ambient temperature;

(C) Have suitable in-line air-purifying sorbent beds and filters to further ensure breathing air quality. Sorbent beds and filters shall be maintained and replaced or refurbished periodically following the manufacturer's instructions.

(D) Have a tag containing the most recent change date and the signature of the person authorized by the employer to perform the change. The tag shall be maintained at the compressor.

(6) For compressors that are not oil-lubricated, the employer shall ensure that carbon monoxide levels in the breathing air do not exceed 10 ppm.

(7) For oil-lubricated compressors, the employer shall use a high-temperature or carbon monoxide alarm, or both, to monitor carbon monoxide levels. If only high-temperature alarms are used, the air supply shall be monitored at intervals sufficient to prevent carbon monoxide in the breathing air from exceeding 10 ppm.

(8) The employer shall ensure that breathing air couplings are incompatible with outlets for nonrespirable worksite air or other gas systems. No asphyxiating substance shall be introduced into breathing air lines.

(9) The employer shall use breathing gas containers marked in accordance with the NIOSH respirator certification standard, 42 CFR part 84.

(j) Identification of filters, cartridges, and canisters. The employer shall ensure that all filters, cartridges and canisters used in the workplace are labeled and color coded with the NIOSH approval label and that the label is not removed and remains legible.

(k) Training and information. This subsection requires the employer to provide effective training to employees who are required to use respirators. The training must be comprehensive, understandable, and recur annually, and more often if necessary. This subsection also requires the employer to provide the basic information on respirators in Appendix D to employees who wear respirators when not required by this section or by the employer to do so.

(1) The employer shall ensure that each employee can demonstrate knowledge of at least the following:

(A) Why the respirator is necessary and how improper fit, usage, or maintenance can compromise the protective effect of the respirator;

(B) What the limitations and capabilities of the respirator are;

(C) How to use the respirator effectively in emergency situations, including situations in which the respirator malfunctions;

(D) How to inspect, put on and remove, use, and check the seals of the respirator;

(E) What the procedures are for maintenance and storage of the respirator;

(F) How to recognize medical signs and symptoms that may limit or prevent the effective use of respirators; and

(G) The general requirements of this section.

(2) The training shall be conducted in a manner that is understandable to the employee.

(3) The employer shall provide the training prior to requiring the employee to use a respirator in the workplace.

(4) An employer who is able to demonstrate that a new employee has received training within the last 12 months that addresses the elements specified in subsection (k)(1)(A) through (G) is not required to repeat such training provided that, as required by subsection (k)(1), the employee can demonstrate knowledge of those element(s). Previous training not repeated initially by the employer must be provided no later than 12 months from the date of the previous training.

(5) Retraining shall be administered annually, and when the following situations occur:

(A) Changes in the workplace or the type of respirator render previous training obsolete;

(B) Inadequacies in the employee's knowledge or use of the respirator indicate that the employee has not retained the requisite understanding or skill; or

(C) Any other situation arises in which retraining appears necessary to ensure safe respirator use.

(6) The basic advisory information on respirators, as presented in Appendix D, shall be provided by the employer in any written or oral format, to employees who wear respirators when such use is not required by this section or by the employer.

(l) Program evaluation. This section requires the employer to conduct evaluations of the workplace to ensure that the written respiratory protection program is being properly implemented, and to consult employees to ensure that they are using the respirators properly.

(1) The employer shall conduct evaluations of the workplace as necessary to ensure that the provisions of the current written program are being effectively implemented and that it continues to be effective.

(2) The employer shall regularly consult employees required to use respirators to assess the employees' views on program effectiveness and to identify any problems. Any problems that are identified during this assessment shall be corrected. Factors to be assessed include, but are not limited to:

(A) Respirator fit (including the ability to use the respirator without interfering with effective workplace performance);

(B) Appropriate respirator selection for the hazards to which the employee is exposed;

(C) Proper respirator use under the workplace conditions the employee encounters; and

(D) Proper respirator maintenance.

(m) Recordkeeping. This section requires the employer to establish and retain written information regarding medical evaluations, fit testing, and the respirator program. This information will facilitate employee involvement in the respirator program, assist the employer in auditing the adequacy of the program, and provide a record for compliance determinations by OSHA.

(1) Medical evaluation. Records of medical evaluations required by this section must be retained and made available in accordance with section 3204.

(2) Fit testing.

(A) The employer shall establish a record of the qualitative and quantitative fit tests administered to an employee including:

1. The name or identification of the employee tested;

2. Type of fit test performed;

3. Specific make, model, style, and size of respirator tested;

4. Date of test; and

5. The pass/fail results for QLFTs or the fit factor and strip chart recording or other recording of the test results for QNFTs.

(B) Fit test records shall be retained for respirator users until the next fit test is administered.

(3) A written copy of the current respirator program shall be retained by the employer.

(4) Written materials required to be retained under this subsection shall be made available upon request to affected employees and to the Chief or designee for examination and copying.

(n) Dates.

(1) Effective date. This section is effective 90 days from filing. The obligations imposed by this section commence on the effective date unless otherwise noted in this subsection. Compliance with obligations that do not commence on the effective date shall occur no later than the applicable start-up date.

(2) Compliance dates. All obligations of this section commence on the effective date except as follows:

(A) The determination that respirator use is required (subsection (a)) shall be completed no later than 150 days from the effective date.

(B) Compliance with provisions of this section for all other provisions shall be completed no later than 180 days from the effective date.

(3) Existing Respiratory Protection Programs. If, in the 12 month period preceding the effective date, the employer has conducted annual respirator training, fit testing, respirator program evaluation, or medical evaluations, the employer may use the results of those activities to comply with the corresponding provisions of this section, providing that these activities were conducted in a manner that meets the requirements of this section.

(o) Appendices.

(1) Compliance with Appendix A, Appendix B-1, Appendix B-2, and Appendix C is mandatory.

(2) Appendix D is non-mandatory and is not intended to create any additional obligations not otherwise imposed or to detract from any existing obligations.

Appendix A to Section 5144: Fit Testing Procedures (Mandatory)

Part I. OSHA-Accepted Fit Test Protocols

A. Fit Testing Procedures--General Requirements. The employer shall conduct fit testing using the following procedures. The requirements in this appendix apply to all OSHA-accepted fit test methods, both QLFT and QNFT.

1. The test subject shall be allowed to pick the most acceptable respirator from a sufficient number of respirator models and sizes so that the respirator is acceptable to, and correctly fits, the user.

2. Prior to the selection process, the test subject shall be shown how to put on a respirator, how it should be positioned on the face, how to set strap tension and how to determine an acceptable fit. A mirror shall be available to assist the subject in evaluating the fit and positioning of the respirator. This instruction may not constitute the subject's formal training on respirator use, because it is only a review.

3. The test subject shall be informed that he/she is being asked to select the respirator that provides the most acceptable fit. Each respirator represents a different size and shape, and if fitted and used properly, will provide adequate protection.

4. The test subject shall be instructed to hold each chosen facepiece up to the face and eliminate those that obviously do not give an acceptable fit.

5. The more acceptable facepieces are noted in case the one selected proves unacceptable; the most comfortable mask is donned and worn at least five minutes to assess comfort. Assistance in assessing comfort can be given by discussing the points in the following item A.6. If the test subject is not familiar with using a particular respirator, the test subject shall be directed to don the mask several times and to adjust the straps each time to become adept at setting proper tension on the straps.

6. Assessment of comfort shall include a review of the following points with the test subject and allowing the test subject adequate time to determine the comfort of the respirator:

(a) Position of the mask on the nose

(b) Room for eye protection

(c) Room to talk

(d) Position of mask on face and cheeks

7. The following criteria shall be used to help determine the adequacy of the respirator fit:

(a) Chin properly placed;

(b) Adequate strap tension, not overly tightened;

(c) Fit across nose bridge;

(d) Respirator of proper size to span distance from nose to chin;

(e) Tendency of respirator to slip;

(f) Self-observation in mirror to evaluate fit and respirator position.

8. The test subject shall conduct a user seal check, either the negative and positive pressure seal checks described in Appendix B-1 or those recommended by the respirator manufacturer which provide equivalent protection to the procedures in Appendix B-1. Before conducting the negative and positive pressure checks, the subject shall be told to seat the mask on the face by moving the head from side-to-side and up and down slowly while taking in a few slow deep breaths. Another facepiece shall be selected and retested if the test subject fails the user seal check tests.

9. The test shall not be conducted if there is any hair growth between the skin and the facepiece sealing surface, such as stubble beard growth, beard, mustache or sideburns which cross the respirator sealing surface. Any type of apparel which interferes with a satisfactory fit shall be altered or removed.

10. If a test subject exhibits difficulty in breathing during the tests, she or he shall be referred to a physician or other licensed health care professional, as appropriate, to determine whether the test subject can wear a respirator while performing her or his duties.

11. If the employee finds the fit of the respirator unacceptable, the test subject shall be given the opportunity to select a different respirator and to be retested.

12. Exercise regimen. Prior to the commencement of the fit test, the test subject shall be given a description of the fit test and the test subject's responsibilities during the test procedure. The description of the process shall include a description of the test exercises that the subject will be performing. The respirator to be tested shall be worn for at least 5 minutes before the start of the fit test.

13. The fit test shall be performed while the test subject is wearing any applicable safety equipment that may be worn during actual respirator use which could interfere with respirator fit.

14. Test Exercises.

(a) The following test exercises are to be performed for all fit testing methods prescribed in this appendix, except for the CNP method. A separate fit testing exercise regimen is contained in the CNP protocol. The test subject shall perform exercises, in the test environment, in the following manner:

(1) Normal breathing. In a normal standing position, without talking, the subject shall breathe normally.

(2) Deep breathing. In a normal standing position, the subject shall breathe slowly and deeply, taking caution so as not to hyperventilate.

(3) Turning head side to side. Standing in place, the subject shall slowly turn his/her head from side to side between the extreme positions on each side. The head shall be held at each extreme momentarily so the subject can inhale at each side.

(4) Moving head up and down. Standing in place, the subject shall slowly move his/her head up and down. The subject shall be instructed to inhale in the up position (i.e., when looking toward the ceiling).

(5) Talking. The subject shall talk out loud slowly and loud enough so as to be heard clearly by the test conductor. The subject can read from a prepared text such as the Rainbow Passage, count backward from 100, or recite a memorized poem or song.

Rainbow Passage

When the sunlight strikes raindrops in the air, they act like a prism and form a rainbow. The rainbow is a division of white light into many beautiful colors. These take the shape of a long round arch, with its path high above, and its two ends apparently beyond the horizon. There is, according to legend, a boiling pot of gold at one end. People look, but no one ever finds it. When a man looks for something beyond reach, his friends say he is looking for the pot of gold at the end of the rainbow.

(6) Grimace. The test subject shall grimace by smiling or frowning. (This applies only to QNFT testing; it is not performed for QLFT)

(7) Bending over. The test subject shall bend at the waist as if he/she were to touch his/her toes. Jogging in place shall be substituted for this exercise in those test environments such as shroud type QNFT or QLFT units that do not permit bending over at the waist.

(8) Normal breathing. Same as exercise (1).

(b) Each test exercise shall be performed for one minute except for the grimace exercise which shall be performed for 15 seconds. The test subject shall be questioned by the test conductor regarding the comfort of the respirator upon completion of the protocol. If it has become unacceptable, another model of respirator shall be tried. The respirator shall not be adjusted once the fit test exercises begin. Any adjustment voids the test, and the fit test must be repeated.

B. Qualitative Fit Test (QLFT) Protocols

1. General

(a) The employer shall ensure that persons administering QLFT are able to prepare test solutions, calibrate equipment and perform tests properly, recognize invalid tests, and ensure that test equipment is in proper working order.

(b) The employer shall ensure that QLFT equipment is kept clean and well maintained so as to operate within the parameters for which it was designed.

2. Isoamyl Acetate Protocol

Note: This protocol is not appropriate to use for the fit testing of particulate respirators. If used to fit test particulate respirators, the respirator must be equipped with an organic vapor filter.

(a) Odor Threshold Screening. Odor threshold screening, performed without wearing a respirator, is intended to determine if the individual tested can detect the odor of isoamyl acetate at low levels.

(1) Three 1 liter glass jars with metal lids are required.

(2) Odor-free water (e.g., distilled or spring water) at approximately 25 deg. C (77 deg. F) shall be used for the solutions.

(3) The isoamyl acetate (IAA) (also known at isopentyl acetate) stock solution is prepared by adding 1 ml of pure IAA to 800 ml of odor-free water in a 1 liter jar, closing the lid and shaking for 30 seconds. A new solution shall be prepared at least weekly.

(4) The screening test shall be conducted in a room separate from the room used for actual fit testing. The two rooms shall be well-ventilated to prevent the odor of IAA from becoming evident in the general room air where testing takes place.

(5) The odor test solution is prepared in a second jar by placing 0.4 ml of the stock solution into 500 ml of odor-free water using a clean dropper or pipette. The solution shall be shaken for 30 seconds and allowed to stand for two to three minutes so that the IAA concentration above the liquid may reach equilibrium. This solution shall be used for only one day.

(6) A test blank shall be prepared in a third jar by adding 500 cc of odor-free water.

(7) The odor test and test blank jar lids shall be labeled (e.g., 1 and 2) for jar identification. Labels shall be placed on the lids so that they can be peeled off periodically and switched to maintain the integrity of the test.

(8) The following instruction shall be typed on a card and placed on the table in front of the two test jars (i.e., 1 and 2): "The purpose of this test is to determine if you can smell banana oil at a low concentration. The two bottles in front of you contain water. One of these bottles also contains a small amount of banana oil. Be sure the covers are on tight, then shake each bottle for two seconds. Unscrew the lid of each bottle, one at a time, and sniff at the mouth of the bottle. Indicate to the test conductor which bottle contains banana oil."

(9) The mixtures used in the IAA odor detection test shall be prepared in an area separate from where the test is performed, in order to prevent olfactory fatigue in the subject.

(10) If the test subject is unable to correctly identify the jar containing the odor test solution, the IAA qualitative fit test shall not be performed.

(11) If the test subject correctly identifies the jar containing the odor test solution, the test subject may proceed to respirator selection and fit testing.

(b) Isoamyl Acetate Fit Test

(1) The fit test chamber shall be a clear 55-gallon drum liner suspended inverted over a 2-foot diameter frame so that the top of the chamber is about 6 inches above the test subject's head. If no drum liner is available, a similar chamber shall be constructed using plastic sheeting. The inside top center of the chamber shall have a small hook attached.

(2) Each respirator used for the fitting and fit testing shall be equipped with organic vapor cartridges or offer protection against organic vapors.

(3) After selecting, donning, and properly adjusting a respirator, the test subject shall wear it to the fit testing room. This room shall be separate from the room used for odor threshold screening and respirator selection, and shall be well-ventilated, as by an exhaust fan or lab hood, to prevent general room contamination.

(4) A copy of the test exercises and any prepared text from which the subject is to read shall be taped to the inside of the test chamber.

(5) Upon entering the test chamber, the test subject shall be given a 6-inch by 5-inch piece of paper towel, or other porous, absorbent, single-ply material, folded in half and wetted with 0.75 ml of pure IAA. The test subject shall hang the wet towel on the hook at the top of the chamber. An IAA test swab or ampule may be substituted for the IAA wetted paper towel provided it has been demonstrated that the alternative IAA source will generate an IAA test atmosphere with a concentration equivalent to that generated by the paper towel method.

(6) Allow two minutes for the IAA test concentration to stabilize before starting the fit test exercises. This would be an appropriate time to talk with the test subject; to explain the fit test, the importance of his/her cooperation, and the purpose for the test exercises; or to demonstrate some of the exercises.

(7) If at any time during the test, the subject detects the banana-like odor of IAA, the test is failed. The subject shall quickly exit from the test chamber and leave the test area to avoid olfactory fatigue.

(8) If the test is failed, the subject shall return to the selection room and remove the respirator. The test subject shall repeat the odor sensitivity test, select and put on another respirator, return to the test area and again begin the fit test procedure described in (b) (1) through (7) above. The process continues until a respirator that fits well has been found. Should the odor sensitivity test be failed, the subject shall wait at least 5 minutes before retesting. Odor sensitivity will usually have returned by this time.

(9) If the subject passes the test, the efficiency of the test procedure shall be demonstrated by having the subject break the respirator face seal and take a breath before exiting the chamber.

(10) When the test subject leaves the chamber, the subject shall remove the saturated towel and return it to the person conducting the test, so that there is no significant IAA concentration buildup in the chamber during subsequent tests. The used towels shall be kept in a self-sealing plastic bag to keep the test area from being contaminated.

3. Saccharin Solution Aerosol Protocol. The entire screening and testing procedure shall be explained to the test subject prior to the conduct of the screening test.

(a) Taste threshold screening. The saccharin taste threshold screening, performed without wearing a respirator, is intended to determine whether the individual being tested can detect the taste of saccharin.

(1) During threshold screening as well as during fit testing, subjects shall wear an enclosure about the head and shoulders that is approximately 12 inches in diameter by 14 inches tall with at least the front portion clear and that allows free movements of the head when a respirator is worn. An enclosure substantially similar to the 3M hood assembly, parts # FT 14 and # FT 15 combined, is adequate.

(2) The test enclosure shall have a 3/4-inch (1.9 cm) hole in front of the test subject's nose and mouth area to accommodate the nebulizer nozzle.

(3) The test subject shall don the test enclosure. Throughout the threshold screening test, the test subject shall breathe through his/her slightly open mouth with tongue extended. The subject is instructed to report when he/she detects a sweet taste.

(4) Using a DeVilbiss Model 40 Inhalation Medication Nebulizer or equivalent, the test conductor shall spray the threshold check solution into the enclosure. The nozzle is directed away from the nose and mouth of the person. This nebulizer shall be clearly marked to distinguish it from the fit test solution nebulizer.

(5) The threshold check solution is prepared by dissolving 0.83 gram of sodium saccharin USP in 100 ml of warm water. It can be prepared by putting 1 ml of the fit test solution (see (b)(5) below) in 100 ml of distilled water.

(6) To produce the aerosol, the nebulizer bulb is firmly squeezed so that it collapses completely, then released and allowed to fully expand.

(7) Ten squeezes are repeated rapidly and then the test subject is asked whether the saccharin can be tasted. If the test subject reports tasting the sweet taste during the ten squeezes, the screening test is completed. The taste threshold is noted as ten regardless of the number of squeezes actually completed.

(8) If the first response is negative, ten more squeezes are repeated rapidly and the test subject is again asked whether the saccharin is tasted. If the test subject reports tasting the sweet taste during the second ten squeezes, the screening test is completed. The taste threshold is noted as twenty regardless of the number of squeezes actually completed.

(9) If the second response is negative, ten more squeezes are repeated rapidly and the test subject is again asked whether the saccharin is tasted. If the test subject reports tasting the sweet taste during the third set of ten squeezes, the screening test is completed. The taste threshold is noted as thirty regardless of the number of squeezes actually completed.

(10) The test conductor will take note of the number of squeezes required to solicit a taste response.

(11) If the saccharin is not tasted after 30 squeezes (step 10), the test subject is unable to taste saccharin and may not perform the saccharin fit test.

Note to subsection 3. (a): If the test subject eats or drinks something sweet before the screening test, he/she may be unable to taste the weak saccharin solution.

(12) If a taste response is elicited, the test subject shall be asked to take note of the taste for reference in the fit test.

(13) Correct use of the nebulizer means that approximately 1 ml of liquid is used at a time in the nebulizer body.

(14) The nebulizer shall be thoroughly rinsed in water, shaken dry, and refilled at least each morning and afternoon or at least every four hours.

(b) Saccharin solution aerosol fit test procedure.

(1) The test subject may not eat, drink (except plain water), smoke, or chew gum for 15 minutes before the test.

(2) The fit test uses the same enclosure described in 3. (a) above.

(3) The test subject shall don the enclosure while wearing the respirator selected in section I. A. of this appendix. The respirator shall be properly adjusted and equipped with a particulate filter(s).

(4) A second DeVilbiss Model 40 Inhalation Medication Nebulizer or equivalent is used to spray the fit test solution into the enclosure. This nebulizer shall be clearly marked to distinguish it from the screening test solution nebulizer.

(5) The fit test solution is prepared by adding 83 grams of sodium saccharin to 100 ml of warm water.

(6) As before, the test subject shall breathe through the slightly open mouth with tongue extended, and report if he/she tastes the sweet taste of saccharin.

(7) The nebulizer is inserted into the hole in the front of the enclosure and an initial concentration of saccharin fit test solution is sprayed into the enclosure using the same number of squeezes (either 10, 20 or 30 squeezes) based on the number of squeezes required to elicit a taste response as noted during the screening test. A minimum of 10 squeezes is required.

(8) After generating the aerosol, the test subject shall be instructed to perform the exercises in section I. A. 14. of this appendix.

(9) Every 30 seconds the aerosol concentration shall be replenished using one half the original number of squeezes used initially (e.g., 5, 10 or 15).

(10) The test subject shall indicate to the test conductor if at any time during the fit test the taste of saccharin is detected. If the test subject does not report tasting the saccharin, the test is passed.

(11) If the taste of saccharin is detected, the fit is deemed unsatisfactory and the test is failed. A different respirator shall be tried and the entire test procedure is repeated (taste threshold screening and fit testing).

(12) Since the nebulizer has a tendency to clog during use, the test operator must make periodic checks of the nebulizer to ensure that it is not clogged. If clogging is found at the end of the test session, the test is invalid.

4. BitrexTM (Denatonium Benzoate) Solution Aerosol Qualitative Fit Test Protocol. The BitrexTM (Denatonium benzoate) solution aerosol QLFT protocol uses the published saccharin test protocol because that protocol is widely accepted. Bitrex is routinely used as a taste aversion agent in household liquids which children should not be drinking and is endorsed by the American Medical Association, the National Safety Council, and the American Association of Poison Control Centers. The entire screening and testing procedure shall be explained to the test subject prior to the conduct of the screening test.

(a) Taste Threshold Screening. The Bitrex taste threshold screening, performed without wearing a respirator, is intended to determine whether the individual being tested can detect the taste of Bitrex.

(1) During threshold screening as well as during fit testing, subjects shall wear an enclosure about the head and shoulders that is approximately 12 inches (30.5 cm) in diameter by 14 inches (35.6 cm) tall. The front portion of the enclosure shall be clear from the respirator and allow free movement of the head when a respirator is worn. An enclosure substantially similar to the 3M hood assembly, parts #14 and #15 combined, is adequate.

(2) The test enclosure shall have a 3/4 inch (1.9 cm) hole in front of the test subject's nose and mouth area to accommodate the nebulizer nozzle.

(3) The test subject shall don the test enclosure. Throughout the threshold screening test, the test subject shall breathe through his or her slightly open mouth with tongue extended. The subject is instructed to report when he/she detects a bitter taste.

(4) Using a DeVilbiss Model 40 Inhalation Medication Nebulizer or equivalent, the test conductor shall spray the Threshold Check Solution into the enclosure. This Nebulizer shall be clearly marked to distinguish it from the fit test solution nebulizer.

(5) The Threshold Check Solution is prepared by adding 13.5 milligrams of Bitrex to 100 ml of 5% salt (NaCl) solution in distilled water.

(6) To produce the aerosol, the nebulizer bulb is firmly squeezed so that the bulb collapses completely, and is then released and allowed to fully expand.

(7) An initial ten squeezes are repeated rapidly and then the test subject is asked whether the Bitrex can be tasted. If the test subject reports tasting the bitter taste during the ten squeezes, the screening test is completed. The taste threshold is noted as ten regardless of the number of squeezes actually completed.

(8) If the first response is negative, ten more squeezes are repeated rapidly and the test subject is again asked whether the Bitrex is tasted. If the test subject reports tasting the bitter taste during the second ten squeezes, the screening test is completed. The taste threshold is noted as twenty regardless of the number of squeezes actually completed.

(9) If the second response is negative, ten more squeezes are repeated rapidly and the test subject is again asked whether the Bitrex is tasted. If the test subject reports tasting the bitter taste during the third set of ten squeezes, the screening test is completed. The taste threshold is noted as thirty regardless of the number of squeezes actually completed.

(10) The test conductor will take note of the number of squeezes required to solicit a taste response.

(11) If the Bitrex is not tasted after 30 squeezes (step 10), the test subject is unable to taste Bitrex and may not perform the Bitrex fit test.

(12) If a taste response is elicited, the test subject shall be asked to take note of the taste for reference in the fit test.

(13) Correct use of the nebulizer means that approximately 1 ml of liquid is used at a time in the nebulizer body.

(14) The nebulizer shall be thoroughly rinsed in water, shaken to dry, and refilled at least each morning and afternoon or at least every four hours.

(b) Bitrex Solution Aerosol Fit Test Procedure.

(1) The test subject may not eat, drink (except plain water), smoke, or chew gum for 15 minutes before the test.

(2) The fit test uses the same enclosure as that described in 4. (a) above.

(3) The test subject shall don the enclosure while wearing the respirator selected according to section I. A. of this appendix. The respirator shall be properly adjusted and equipped with any type particulate filter(s).

(4) A second DeVilbiss Model 40 Inhalation Medication Nebulizer or equivalent is used to spray the fit test solution into the enclosure. This nebulizer shall be clearly marked to distinguish it from the screening test solution nebulizer.

(5) The fit test solution is prepared by adding 337.5 mg of Bitrex to 200 ml of a 5% salt (NaCl) solution in warm water.

(6) As before, the test subject shall breathe through his or her slightly open mouth with tongue extended, and be instructed to report if he/she tastes the bitter taste of Bitrex.

(7) The nebulizer is inserted into the hole in the front of the enclosure and an initial concentration of the fit test solution is sprayed into the enclosure using the same number of squeezes (either 10, 20 or 30 squeezes) based on the number of squeezes required to elicit a taste response as noted during the screening test.

(8) After generating the aerosol, the test subject shall be instructed to perform the exercises in section I. A. 14. of this appendix.

(9) Every 30 seconds the aerosol concentration shall be replenished using one half the number of squeezes used initially (e.g., 5, 10 or 15).

(10) The test subject shall indicate to the test conductor if at any time during the fit test the taste of Bitrex is detected. If the test subject does not report tasting the Bitrex, the test is passed.

(11) If the taste of Bitrex is detected, the fit is deemed unsatisfactory and the test is failed. A different respirator shall be tried and the entire test procedure is repeated (taste threshold screening and fit testing).

5. Irritant Smoke (Stannic Chloride) Protocol. This qualitative fit test uses a person's response to the irritating chemicals released in the "smoke" produced by a stannic chloride ventilation smoke tube to detect leakage into the respirator.

(a) General Requirements and Precautions

(1) The respirator to be tested shall be equipped with high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) or P100 series filter(s).

(2) Only stannic chloride smoke tubes shall be used for this protocol.

(3) No form of test enclosure or hood for the test subject shall be used.

(4) The smoke can be irritating to the eyes, lungs, and nasal passages. The test conductor shall take precautions to minimize the test subject's exposure to irritant smoke. Sensitivity varies, and certain individuals may respond to a greater degree to irritant smoke. Care shall be taken when performing the sensitivity screening checks that determine whether the test subject can detect irritant smoke to use only the minimum amount of smoke necessary to elicit a response from the test subject.

(5) The fit test shall be performed in an area with adequate ventilation to prevent exposure of the person conducting the fit test or the build-up of irritant smoke in the general atmosphere.

(b) Sensitivity Screening Check. The person to be tested must demonstrate his or her ability to detect a weak concentration of the irritant smoke.

(1) The test operator shall break both ends of a ventilation smoke tube containing stannic chloride, and attach one end of the smoke tube to a low flow air pump set to deliver 200 milliliters per minute, or an aspirator squeeze bulb. The test operator shall cover the other end of the smoke tube with a short piece of tubing to prevent potential injury from the jagged end of the smoke tube.

(2) The test operator shall advise the test subject that the smoke can be irritating to the eyes, lungs, and nasal passages and instruct the subject to keep his/her eyes closed while the test is performed.

(3) The test subject shall be allowed to smell a weak concentration of the irritant smoke before the respirator is donned to become familiar with its irritating properties and to determine if he/she can detect the irritating properties of the smoke. The test operator shall carefully direct a small amount of the irritant smoke in the test subject's direction to determine that he/she can detect it.

(c) Irritant Smoke Fit Test Procedure

(1) The person being fit tested shall don the respirator without assistance, and perform the required user seal check(s).

(2) The test subject shall be instructed to keep his/her eyes closed.

(3) The test operator shall direct the stream of irritant smoke from the smoke tube toward the faceseal area of the test subject, using the low flow pump or the squeeze bulb. The test operator shall begin at least 12 inches from the facepiece and move the smoke stream around the whole perimeter of the mask. The operator shall gradually make two more passes around the perimeter of the mask, moving to within six inches of the respirator.

(4) If the person being tested has not had an involuntary response and/or detected the irritant smoke, proceed with the test exercises.

(5) The exercises identified in section I.A. 14. of this appendix shall be performed by the test subject while the respirator seal is being continually challenged by the smoke, directed around the perimeter of the respirator at a distance of six inches.

(6) If the person being fit tested reports detecting the irritant smoke at any time, the test is failed. The person being retested must repeat the entire sensitivity check and fit test procedure.

(7) Each test subject passing the irritant smoke test without evidence of a response (involuntary cough, irritation) shall be given a second sensitivity screening check, with the smoke from the same smoke tube used during the fit test, once the respirator has been removed, to determine whether he/she still reacts to the smoke. Failure to evoke a response shall void the fit test.

(8) If a response is produced during this second sensitivity check, then the fit test is passed.

C. Quantitative Fit Test (QNFT) Protocols. The following quantitative fit testing procedures have been demonstrated to be acceptable: Quantitative fit testing using a non-hazardous test aerosol (such as corn oil, polyethylene glycol 400 [PEG 400], di-2-ethyl hexyl sebacate [DEHS], or sodium chloride) generated in a test chamber, and employing instrumentation to quantify the fit of the respirator; Quantitative fit testing using ambient aerosol as the test agent and appropriate instrumentation (condensation nuclei counter) to quantify the respirator fit; Quantitative fit testing using controlled negative pressure and appropriate instrumentation to measure the volumetric leak rate of a facepiece to quantify the respirator fit.

1. General

(a) The employer shall ensure that persons administering QNFT are able to calibrate equipment and perform tests properly, recognize invalid tests, calculate fit factors properly and ensure that test equipment is in proper working order.

(b) The employer shall ensure that QNFT equipment is kept clean, and is maintained and calibrated according to the manufacturer's instructions so as to operate at the parameters for which it was designed.

2. Generated Aerosol Quantitative Fit Testing Protocol

(a) Apparatus.

(1) Instrumentation. Aerosol generation, dilution, and measurement systems using particulates (corn oil, polyethylene glycol 400 [PEG 400], di-2-ethyl hexyl sebacate [DEHS] or sodium chloride) as test aerosols shall be used for quantitative fit testing.

(2) Test chamber. The test chamber shall be large enough to permit all test subjects to perform freely all required exercises without disturbing the test agent concentration or the measurement apparatus. The test chamber shall be equipped and constructed so that the test agent is effectively isolated from the ambient air, yet uniform in concentration throughout the chamber.

(3) When testing air-purifying respirators, the normal filter or cartridge element shall be replaced with a high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) or P100 series filter supplied by the same manufacturer.

(4) The sampling instrument shall be selected so that a computer record or strip chart record may be made of the test showing the rise and fall of the test agent concentration with each inspiration and expiration at fit factors of at least 2,000. Integrators or computers that integrate the amount of test agent penetration leakage into the respirator for each exercise may be used provided a record of the readings is made.

(5) The combination of substitute air-purifying elements, test agent and test agent concentration shall be such that the test subject is not exposed in excess of an established exposure limit for the test agent at any time during the testing process, based upon the length of the exposure and the exposure limit duration.

(6) The sampling port on the test specimen respirator shall be placed and constructed so that no leakage occurs around the port (e.g., where the respirator is probed), a free air flow is allowed into the sampling line at all times, and there is no interference with the fit or performance of the respirator. The in-mask sampling device (probe) shall be designed and used so that the air sample is drawn from the breathing zone of the test subject, midway between the nose and mouth and with the probe extending into the facepiece cavity at least 1/4 inch.

(7) The test setup shall permit the person administering the test to observe the test subject inside the chamber during the test.

(8) The equipment generating the test atmosphere shall maintain the concentration of test agent constant to within a 10 percent variation for the duration of the test.

(9) The time lag (interval between an event and the recording of the event on the strip chart or computer or integrator) shall be kept to a minimum. There shall be a clear association between the occurrence of an event and its being recorded.

(10) The sampling line tubing for the test chamber atmosphere and for the respirator sampling port shall be of equal diameter and of the same material. The length of the two lines shall be equal.

(11) The exhaust flow from the test chamber shall pass through an appropriate filter (i.e., high efficiency particulate or P100 series filter) before release.

(12) When sodium chloride aerosol is used, the relative humidity inside the test chamber shall not exceed 50 percent.

(13) The limitations of instrument detection shall be taken into account when determining the fit factor.

(14) Test respirators shall be maintained in proper working order and be inspected regularly for deficiencies such as cracks or missing valves and gaskets.

(b) Procedural Requirements.

(1) When performing the initial user seal check using a positive or negative pressure check, the sampling line shall be crimped closed in order to avoid air pressure leakage during either of these pressure checks.

(2) The use of an abbreviated screening QLFT test is optional. Such a test may be utilized in order to quickly identify poor fitting respirators that passed the positive and/or negative pressure test and reduce the amount of QNFT time. The use of the CNC QNFT instrument in the count mode is another optional method to obtain a quick estimate of fit and eliminate poor fitting respirators before going on to perform a full QNFT.

(3) A reasonably stable test agent concentration shall be measured in the test chamber prior to testing. For canopy or shower curtain types of test units, the determination of the test agent's stability may be established after the test subject has entered the test environment.

(4) Immediately after the subject enters the test chamber, the test agent concentration inside the respirator shall be measured to ensure that the peak penetration does not exceed 5 percent for a half mask or 1 percent for a full facepiece respirator.

(5) A stable test agent concentration shall be obtained prior to the actual start of testing.

(6) Respirator restraining straps shall not be over-tightened for testing. The straps shall be adjusted by the wearer without assistance from other persons to give a reasonably comfortable fit typical of normal use. The respirator shall not be adjusted once the fit test exercises begin.

(7) The test shall be terminated whenever any single peak penetration exceeds 5 percent for half masks and 1 percent for full facepiece respirators. The test subject shall be refitted and retested.

(8) Calculation of fit factors.

(i) The fit factor shall be determined for the quantitative fit test by taking the ratio of the average chamber concentration to the concentration measured inside the respirator for each test exercise except the grimace exercise.

(ii) The average test chamber concentration shall be calculated as the arithmetic average of the concentration measured before and after each test (i.e., 7 exercises) or the arithmetic average of the concentration measured before and after each exercise or the true average measured continuously during the respirator sample.

(iii) The concentration of the challenge agent inside the respirator shall be determined by one of the following methods:

(A) Average peak penetration method means the method of determining test agent penetration into the respirator utilizing a strip chart recorder, integrator, or computer. The agent penetration is determined by an average of the peak heights on the graph or by computer integration, for each exercise except the grimace exercise. Integrators or computers that calculate the actual test agent penetration into the respirator for each exercise will also be considered to meet the requirements of the average peak penetration method.

(B) Maximum peak penetration method means the method of determining test agent penetration in the respirator as determined by strip chart recordings of the test. The highest peak penetration for a given exercise is taken to be representative of average penetration into the respirator for that exercise.

(C) Integration by calculation of the area under the individual peak for each exercise except the grimace exercise. This includes computerized integration.

(D) The calculation of the overall fit factor using individual exercise fit factors involves first converting the exercise fit factors to penetration values, determining the average, and then converting that result back to a fit factor. This procedure is described in the following equation:

Overall Fit Factor = Number of exercises

___________________________________________

1/ff1 + 1/ff2 + 1/ff3 + 1/ff4 + 1/ff5 + 1/ff6 + 1/ff7 + 1/ff8

Where ff1, ff2, ff3, etc. are the fit factors for exercises 1, 2, 3, etc.

(9) The test subject shall not be permitted to wear a half mask or quarter facepiece respirator unless a minimum fit factor of 100 is obtained, or a full facepiece respirator unless a minimum fit factor of 500 is obtained.

(10) Filters used for quantitative fit testing shall be replaced whenever increased breathing resistance is encountered, or when the test agent has altered the integrity of the filter media.

3. Ambient aerosol condensation nuclei counter (CNC) quantitative fit testing protocol. The ambient aerosol condensation nuclei counter (CNC) quantitative fit testing (Portacount TM ) protocol quantitatively fit tests respirators with the use of a probe. The probed respirator is only used for quantitative fit tests. A probed respirator has a special sampling device, installed on the respirator, that allows the probe to sample the air from inside the mask. A probed respirator is required for each make, style, model, and size that the employer uses and can be obtained from the respirator manufacturer or distributor. The CNC instrument manufacturer, TSI Inc., also provides probe attachments (TSI sampling adapters) that permit fit testing in an employee's own respirator. A minimum fit factor pass level of at least 100 is necessary for a half-mask respirator and a minimum fit factor pass level of at least 500 is required for a full facepiece negative pressure respirator. The entire screening and testing procedure shall be explained to the test subject prior to the conduct of the screening test.

(a) Portacount Fit Test Requirements.

(1) Check the respirator to make sure the respirator is fitted with a high-efficiency filter and that the sampling probe and line are properly attached to the facepiece.

(2) Instruct the person to be tested to don the respirator for five minutes before the fit test starts. This purges the ambient particles trapped inside the respirator and permits the wearer to make certain the respirator is comfortable. This individual shall already have been trained on how to wear the respirator properly.

(3) Check the following conditions for the adequacy of the respirator fit: Chin properly placed; Adequate strap tension, not overly tightened; Fit across nose bridge; Respirator of proper size to span distance from nose to chin; Tendency of the respirator to slip; Self-observation in a mirror to evaluate fit and respirator position.

(4) Have the person wearing the respirator do a user seal check. If leakage is detected, determine the cause. If leakage is from a poorly fitting facepiece, try another size of the same model respirator, or another model of respirator.

(5) Follow the manufacturer's instructions for operating the Portacount and proceed with the test.

(6) The test subject shall be instructed to perform the exercises in section I. A. 14. of this appendix.

(7) After the test exercises, the test subject shall be questioned by the test conductor regarding the comfort of the respirator upon completion of the protocol. If it has become unacceptable, another model of respirator shall be tried.

(b) Portacount Test Instrument.

(1) The Portacount will automatically stop and calculate the overall fit factor for the entire set of exercises. The overall fit factor is what counts. The Pass or Fail message will indicate whether or not the test was successful. If the test was a Pass, the fit test is over.

(2) Since the pass or fail criterion of the Portacount is user programmable, the test operator shall ensure that the pass or fail criterion meet the requirements for minimum respirator performance in this Appendix.

(3) A record of the test needs to be kept on file, assuming the fit test was successful. The record must contain the test subject's name; overall fit factor; make, model, style, and size of respirator used; and date tested.

4. Controlled negative pressure (CNP) quantitative fit testing protocol. The CNP protocol provides an alternative to aerosol fit test methods. The CNP fit test method technology is based on exhausting air from a temporarily sealed respirator facepiece to generate and then maintain a constant negative pressure inside the facepiece. The rate of air exhaust is controlled so that a constant negative pressure is maintained in the respirator during the fit test. The level of pressure is selected to replicate the mean inspiratory pressure that causes leakage into the respirator under normal use conditions. With pressure held constant, air flow out of the respirator is equal to air flow into the respirator. Therefore, measurement of the exhaust stream that is required to hold the pressure in the temporarily sealed respirator constant yields a direct measure of leakage air flow into the respirator. The CNP fit test method measures leak rates through the facepiece as a method for determining the facepiece fit for negative pressure respirators. The CNP instrument manufacturer Dynatech Nevada also provides attachments (sampling manifolds) that replace the filter cartridges to permit fit testing in an employee's own respirator. To perform the test, the test subject closes his or her mouth and holds his/her breath, after which an air pump removes air from the respirator facepiece at a pre-selected constant pressure. The facepiece fit is expressed as the leak rate through the facepiece, expressed as milliliters per minute. The quality and validity of the CNP fit tests are determined by the degree to which the in-mask pressure tracks the test pressure during the system measurement time of approximately five seconds. Instantaneous feedback in the form of a real-time pressure trace of the in-mask pressure is provided and used to determine test validity and quality. A minimum fit factor pass level of 100 is necessary for a half-mask respirator and a minimum fit factor of at least 500 is required for a full facepiece respirator. The entire screening and testing procedure shall be explained to the test subject prior to the conduct of the screening test.

(a) CNP Fit Test Requirements.

(1) The instrument shall have a non-adjustable test pressure of 15.0 mm water pressure.

(2) The CNP system defaults selected for test pressure shall be set at--1.5 mm of water (-0.58 inches of water) and the modeled inspiratory flow rate shall be 53.8 liters per minute for performing fit tests.

(Note: CNP systems have built-in capability to conduct fit testing that is specific to unique work rate, mask, and gender situations that might apply in a specific workplace. Use of system default values, which were selected to represent respirator wear with medium cartridge resistance at a low-moderate work rate, will allow inter-test comparison of the respirator fit.)

(3) The individual who conducts the CNP fit testing shall be thoroughly trained to perform the test.

(4) The respirator filter or cartridge needs to be replaced with the CNP test manifold. The inhalation valve downstream from the manifold either needs to be temporarily removed or propped open.

(5) The test subject shall be trained to hold his or her breath for at least 20 seconds.

(6) The test subject shall don the test respirator without any assistance from the individual who conducts the CNP fit test.

(7) The QNFT protocol shall be followed according to section I. C. 1. of this appendix with an exception for the CNP test exercises.

(b) CNP Test Exercises.

(1) Normal breathing. In a normal standing position, without talking, the subject shall breathe normally for 1 minute. After the normal breathing exercise, the subject needs to hold head straight ahead and hold his or her breath for 10 seconds during the test measurement.

(2) Deep breathing. In a normal standing position, the subject shall breathe slowly and deeply for 1 minute, being careful not to hyperventilate. After the deep breathing exercise, the subject shall hold his or her head straight ahead and hold his or her breath for 10 seconds during test measurement.

(3) Turning head side to side. Standing in place, the subject shall slowly turn his or her head from side to side between the extreme positions on each side for 1 minute. The head shall be held at each extreme momentarily so the subject can inhale at each side. After the turning head side to side exercise, the subject needs to hold head full left and hold his or her breath for 10 seconds during test measurement. Next, the subject needs to hold head full right and hold his or her breath for 10 seconds during test measurement.

(4) Moving head up and down. Standing in place, the subject shall slowly move his or her head up and down for 1 minute. The subject shall be instructed to inhale in the up position (i.e., when looking toward the ceiling). After the moving head up and down exercise, the subject shall hold his or her head full up and hold his or her breath for 10 seconds during test measurement. Next, the subject shall hold his or her head full down and hold his or her breath for 10 seconds during test measurement.

(5) Talking. The subject shall talk out loud slowly and loud enough so as to be heard clearly by the test conductor. The subject can read from a prepared text such as the Rainbow Passage, count backward from 100, or recite a memorized poem or song for 1 minute. After the talking exercise, the subject shall hold his or her head straight ahead and hold his or her breath for 10 seconds during the test measurement.

(6) Grimace. The test subject shall grimace by smiling or frowning for 15 seconds.

(7) Bending Over. The test subject shall bend at the waist as if he or she were to touch his or her toes for 1 minute. Jogging in place shall be substituted for this exercise in those test environments such as shroud-type QNFT units that prohibit bending at the waist. After the bending over exercise, the subject shall hold his or her head straight ahead and hold his or her breath for 10 seconds during the test measurement.

(8) Normal Breathing. The test subject shall remove and re-don the respirator within a one-minute period. Then, in a normal standing position, without talking, the subject shall breathe normally for 1 minute. After the normal breathing exercise, the subject shall hold his or her head straight ahead and hold his or her breath for 10 seconds during the test measurement. After the test exercises, the test subject shall be questioned by the test conductor regarding the comfort of the respirator upon completion of the protocol. If it has become unacceptable, another model of a respirator shall be tried.

(c) CNP Test Instrument.

(1) The test instrument shall have an effective audio warning device when the test subject fails to hold his or her breath during the test. The test shall be terminated whenever the test subject failed to hold his or her breath. The test subject may be refitted and retested.

(2) A record of the test shall be kept on file, assuming the fit test was successful. The record must contain the test subject's name; overall fit factor; make, model, style and size of respirator used; and date tested.

Part II. New Fit Test Protocols

A. Any person may submit to OSHA an application for approval of a new fit test protocol. If the application meets the following criteria, OSHA will initiate a rulemaking proceeding under section 6(b)(7) of the OSH Act to determine whether to list the new protocol as an approved protocol in this Appendix A.

B. The application must include a detailed description of the proposed new fit test protocol. This application must be supported by either:

1. A test report prepared by an independent government research laboratory (e.g., Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, the National Institute for Standards and Technology) stating that the laboratory has tested the protocol and had found it to be accurate and reliable; or

2. An article that has been published in a peer-reviewed industrial hygiene journal describing the protocol and explaining how test data support the protocol's accuracy and reliability.

C. If OSHA determines that additional information is required before the Agency commences a rulemaking proceeding under this section, OSHA will so notify the applicant and afford the applicant the opportunity to submit the supplemental information. Initiation of a rulemaking proceeding will be deferred until OSHA has received and evaluated the supplemental information.

 

Appendix B-1 to Section 5144: User Seal Check Procedures (Mandatory)

The individual who uses a tight-fitting respirator is to perform a user seal check to ensure that an adequate seal is achieved each time the respirator is put on. Either the positive and negative pressure checks listed in this appendix, or the respirator manufacturer's recommended user seal check method shall be used. User seal checks are not substitutes for qualitative or quantitative fit tests.

I. Facepiece Positive and/or Negative Pressure Checks.

A. Positive pressure check. Close off the exhalation valve and exhale gently into the facepiece. The face fit is considered satisfactory if a slight positive pressure can be built up inside the facepiece without any evidence of outward leakage of air at the seal. For most respirators this method of leak testing requires the wearer to first remove the exhalation valve cover before closing off the exhalation valve and then carefully replacing it after the test.

B. Negative pressure check. Close off the inlet opening of the canister or cartridge(s) by covering with the palm of the hand(s) or by replacing the filter seal(s), inhale gently so that the facepiece collapses slightly, and hold the breath for ten seconds. The design of the inlet opening of some cartridges cannot be effectively covered with the palm of the hand. The test can be performed by covering the inlet opening of the cartridge with a thin latex or nitrile glove. If the facepiece remains in its slightly collapsed condition and no inward leakage of air is detected, the tightness of the respirator is considered satisfactory.

II. Manufacturer's Recommended User Seal Check Procedures. The respirator manufacturer's recommended procedures for performing a user seal check may be used instead of the positive and/or negative pressure check procedures provided that the employer demonstrates that the manufacturer's procedures are equally effective.

Appendix B-2 to Section 5144: Respirator Cleaning Procedures (Mandatory)

These procedures are provided for employer use when cleaning respirators. They are general in nature, and the employer as an alternative may use the cleaning recommendations provided by the manufacturer of the respirators used by their employees, provided such procedures are as effective as those listed here in Appendix B-2. Equivalent effectiveness simply means that the procedures used must accomplish the objectives set forth in Appendix B-2, i.e., must ensure that the respirator is properly cleaned and disinfected in a manner that prevents damage to the respirator and does not cause harm to the user.

I. Procedures for Cleaning Respirators.

A. Remove filters, cartridges, or canisters. Disassemble facepieces by removing speaking diaphragms, demand and pressure-demand valve assemblies, hoses, or any components recommended by the manufacturer. Discard or repair any defective parts.

B. Wash components in warm (43 deg. C [110 deg. F] maximum) water with a mild detergent or with a cleaner recommended by the manufacturer. A stiff bristle (not wire) brush may be used to facilitate the removal of dirt.

C. Rinse components thoroughly in clean, warm (43 deg. C [110 deg. F] maximum), preferably running water. Drain.

D. When the cleaner used does not contain a disinfecting agent, respirator components should be immersed for two minutes in one of the following:

1. Hypochlorite solution (50 ppm of chlorine) made by adding approximately one milliliter of laundry bleach to one liter of water at 43 deg. C (110 deg. F); or,

2. Aqueous solution of iodine (50 ppm iodine) made by adding approximately 0.8 milliliters of tincture of iodine (6-8 grams ammonium and/or potassium iodide/100 cc of 45% alcohol) to one liter of water at 43 deg. C (110 deg. F); or,

3. Other commercially available cleansers of equivalent disinfectant quality when used as directed, if their use is recommended or approved by the respirator manufacturer.

E. Rinse components thoroughly in clean, warm (43 deg. C [110 deg. F] maximum), preferably running water. Drain. The importance of thorough rinsing cannot be overemphasized. Detergents or disinfectants that dry on facepieces may result in dermatitis. In addition, some disinfectants may cause deterioration of rubber or corrosion of metal parts if not completely removed.

F. Components should be hand-dried with a clean lint-free cloth or air-dried.

G. Reassemble facepiece, replacing filters, cartridges, and canisters where necessary.

H. Test the respirator to ensure that all components work properly.

Appendix C to Section 5144: OSHA Respirator Medical Evaluation Questionnaire (Mandatory)

To the employer: Answers to questions in Section 1, and to question 9 in Section 2 of Part A, do not require a medical examination.

To the employee:

Can you read (circle one): Yes/No

Your employer must allow you to answer this questionnaire during normal working hours, or at a time and place that is convenient to you. To maintain your confidentiality, your employer or supervisor must not look at or review your answers, and your employer must tell you how to deliver or send this questionnaire to the health care professional who will review it.

Part A. Section 1. (Mandatory) The following information must be provided by every employee who has been selected to use any type of respirator (please print).

1. Today's date:-------------------------------------------------------

2. Your name:----------------------------------------------------------

3. Your age (to nearest year):-----------------------------------------

4. Sex (circle one): Male/Female

5. Your height: __________ ft. __________ in.

6. Your weight: ____________ lbs.

7. Your job title:-----------------------------------------------------

8. A phone number where you can be reached by the health care professional who reviews this questionnaire (include the Area Code): ____________________

9. The best time to phone you at this number: ________________

10. Has your employer told you how to contact the health care professional who will review this questionnaire (circle one): Yes/No

11. Check the type of respirator you will use (you can check more than one category):

a. ______ N, R, or P disposable respirator (filter-mask, non-cartridge type only).

b. ______ Other type (for example, half- or full-facepiece type, powered-air purifying, supplied-air, self-contained breathing apparatus).

12. Have you worn a respirator (circle one): Yes/No

If "yes," what type(s):------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Part A. Section 2. (Mandatory) Questions 1 through 9 below must be answered by every employee who has been selected to use any type of respirator (please circle "yes" or "no").

1. Do you currently smoke tobacco, or have you smoked tobacco in the last month: Yes/No

2. Have you ever had any of the following conditions?

a. Seizures (fits): Yes/No

b. Diabetes (sugar disease): Yes/No

c. Allergic reactions that interfere with your breathing: Yes/No

d. Claustrophobia (fear of closed-in places): Yes/No

e. Trouble smelling odors: Yes/No

3. Have you ever had any of the following pulmonary or lung problems?

a. Asbestosis: Yes/No

b. Asthma: Yes/No

c. Chronic bronchitis: Yes/No

d. Emphysema: Yes/No

e. Pneumonia: Yes/No

f. Tuberculosis: Yes/No

g. Silicosis: Yes/No

h. Pneumothorax (collapsed lung): Yes/No

i. Lung cancer: Yes/No

j. Broken ribs: Yes/No

k. Any chest injuries or surgeries: Yes/No

l. Any other lung problem that you've been told about: Yes/No

4. Do you currently have any of the following symptoms of pulmonary or lung illness?

a. Shortness of breath: Yes/No

b. Shortness of breath when walking fast on level ground or walking up a slight hill or incline: Yes/No

c. Shortness of breath when walking with other people at an ordinary pace on level ground: Yes/No

d. Have to stop for breath when walking at your own pace on level ground: Yes/No

e. Shortness of breath when washing or dressing yourself: Yes/No

f. Shortness of breath that interferes with your job: Yes/No

g. Coughing that produces phlegm (thick sputum): Yes/No

h. Coughing that wakes you early in the morning: Yes/No

i. Coughing that occurs mostly when you are lying down: Yes/No

j. Coughing up blood in the last month: Yes/No

k. Wheezing: Yes/No

l. Wheezing that interferes with your job: Yes/No

m. Chest pain when you breathe deeply: Yes/No

n. Any other symptoms that you think may be related to lung problems: Yes/No

5. Have you ever had any of the following cardiovascular or heart problems?

a. Heart attack: Yes/No

b. Stroke: Yes/No

c. Angina: Yes/No

d. Heart failure: Yes/No

e. Swelling in your legs or feet (not caused by walking): Yes/No

f. Heart arrhythmia (heart beating irregularly): Yes/No

g. High blood pressure: Yes/No

h. Any other heart problem that you've been told about: Yes/No

6. Have you ever had any of the following cardiovascular or heart symptoms?

a. Frequent pain or tightness in your chest: Yes/No

b. Pain or tightness in your chest during physical activity: Yes/No

c. Pain or tightness in your chest that interferes with your job: Yes/No

d. In the past two years, have you noticed your heart skipping or missing a beat: Yes/No

e. Heartburn or indigestion that is not related to eating: Yes/No

f. Any other symptoms that you think may be related to heart or circulation problems: Yes/No

7. Do you currently take medication for any of the following problems?

a. Breathing or lung problems: Yes/No

b. Heart trouble: Yes/No

c. Blood pressure: Yes/No

d. Seizures (fits): Yes/No

8. If you've used a respirator, have you ever had any of the following problems?

(If you've never used a respirator, check the following space and go to question 9:)

a. Eye irritation: Yes/No

b. Skin allergies or rashes: Yes/No

c. Anxiety: Yes/No

d. General weakness or fatigue: Yes/No

e. Any other problem that interferes with your use of a respirator: Yes/No

9. Would you like to talk to the health care professional who will review this questionnaire about your answers to this questionnaire: Yes/No

Questions 10 to 15 below must be answered by every employee who has been selected to use either a full-facepiece respirator or a self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA). For employees who have been selected to use other types of respirators, answering these questions is voluntary.

10. Have you ever lost vision in either eye (temporarily or permanently): Yes/No

11. Do you currently have any of the following vision problems?

a. Wear contact lenses: Yes/No

b. Wear glasses: Yes/No

c. Color blind: Yes/No

d. Any other eye or vision problem: Yes/No

12. Have you ever had an injury to your ears, including a broken ear drum: Yes/No

13. Do you currently have any of the following hearing problems?

a. Difficulty hearing: Yes/No

b. Wear a hearing aid: Yes/No

c. Any other hearing or ear problem: Yes/No

14. Have you ever had a back injury: Yes/No

15. Do you currently have any of the following musculoskeletal problems?

a. Weakness in any of your arms, hands, legs, or feet: Yes/No

b. Back pain: Yes/No

c. Difficulty fully moving your arms and legs: Yes/No

d. Pain or stiffness when you lean forward or backward at the waist: Yes/No

e. Difficulty fully moving your head up or down: Yes/No

f. Difficulty fully moving your head side to side: Yes/No

g. Difficulty bending at your knees: Yes/No

h. Difficulty squatting to the ground: Yes/No

i. Climbing a flight of stairs or a ladder carrying more than 25 lbs: Yes/No

j. Any other muscle or skeletal problem that interferes with using a respirator: Yes/No

Part B. Any of the following questions, and other questions not listed, may be added to the questionnaire at the discretion of the health care professional who will review the questionnaire.

1. In your present job, are you working at high altitudes (over 5,000 feet) or in a place that has lower than normal amounts of oxygen: Yes/No

If "yes," do you have feelings of dizziness, shortness of breath, pounding in your chest, or other symptoms when you're working under these conditions: Yes/No

2. At work or at home, have you ever been exposed to hazardous solvents, hazardous airborne chemicals (e.g., gases, fumes, or dust), or have you come into skin contact with hazardous chemicals: Yes/No

If "yes," name the chemicals if you know them:---------------------,-----------------------------,------------------------------,-------------------------------------.

3. Have you ever worked with any of the materials, or under any of the conditions, listed below:

a. Asbestos: Yes/No

b. Silica (e.g., in sandblasting): Yes/No

c. Tungsten/cobalt (e.g., grinding or welding this material): Yes/No

d. Beryllium: Yes/No

e. Aluminum: Yes/No

f. Coal (for example, mining): Yes/No

g. Iron: Yes/No

h. Tin: Yes/No

i. Dusty environments: Yes/No

j. Any other hazardous exposures: Yes/No

If "yes," describe these exposures:----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

4. List any second jobs or side businesses you have:-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

5. List your previous occupations:-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

6. List your current and previous hobbies:---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

7. Have you been in the military services? Yes/No

If "yes," were you exposed to biological or chemical agents (either in training or combat): Yes/No

8. Have you ever worked on a HAZMAT team? Yes/No

9. Other than medications for breathing and lung problems, heart trouble, blood pressure, and seizures mentioned earlier in this questionnaire, are you taking any other medications for any reason (including over-the-counter medications): Yes/No

If "yes," name the medications if you know them:-------------------

10. Will you be using any of the following items with your respirator(s)?

a. HEPA Filters: Yes/No

b. Canisters (for example, gas masks): Yes/No

c. Cartridges: Yes/No

11. How often are you expected to use the respirator(s) (circle "yes" or "no" for all answers that apply to you)?:

a. Escape only (no rescue): Yes/No

b. Emergency rescue only: Yes/No

c. Less than 5 hours per week: Yes/No

d. Less than 2 hours per day: Yes/No

e. 2 to 4 hours per day: Yes/No

f. Over 4 hours per day: Yes/No

12. During the period you are using the respirator(s), is your work effort:

a. Light (less than 200 kcal per hour): Yes/No

If "yes," how long does this period last during the average shift:____________hrs.____________mins.

Examples of a light work effort are sitting while writing, typing, drafting, or performing light assembly work; or standing while operating a drill press (1-3 lbs.) or controlling machines.

b. Moderate (200 to 350 kcal per hour): Yes/No

If "yes," how long does this period last during the average shift:____________hrs.____________mins.

Examples of moderate work effort are sitting while nailing or filing; driving a truck or bus in urban traffic; standing while drilling, nailing, performing assembly work, or transferring a moderate load (about 35 lbs.) at trunk level; walking on a level surface about 2 mph or down a 5-degree grade about 3 mph; or pushing a wheelbarrow with a heavy load (about 100 lbs.) on a level surface.

c. Heavy (above 350 kcal per hour): Yes/No

If "yes," how long does this period last during the average shift:____________hrs.____________mins.

Examples of heavy work are lifting a heavy load (about 50 lbs.) from the floor to your waist or shoulder; working on a loading dock; shoveling; standing while bricklaying or chipping castings; walking up an 8-degree grade about 2 mph; climbing stairs with a heavy load (about 50 lbs.).

13. Will you be wearing protective clothing and/or equipment (other than the respirator) when you're using your respirator: Yes/No

If "yes," describe this protective clothing and/or equipment:----------------------------------------------------------------------------

14. Will you be working under hot conditions (temperature exceeding 77 deg. F): Yes/No

15. Will you be working under humid conditions: Yes/No

16. Describe the work you'll be doing while you're using your respirator(s):--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

17. Describe any special or hazardous conditions you might encounter when you're using your respirator(s) (for example, confined spaces, life-threatening gases): --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

18. Provide the following information, if you know it, for each toxic substance that you'll be exposed to when you're using your respirator(s):

Name of the first toxic substance:-----------------------------------

Estimated maximum exposure level per shift:--------------------------

Duration of exposure per shift---------------------------------------

Name of the second toxic substance:----------------------------------

Estimated maximum exposure level per shift:--------------------------

Duration of exposure per shift:--------------------------------------

Name of the third toxic substance:-----------------------------------

Estimated maximum exposure level per shift:--------------------------

Duration of exposure per shift:--------------------------------------

The name of any other toxic substances that you'll be exposed to while using your respirator: ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

19. Describe any special responsibilities you'll have while using your respirator(s) that may affect the safety and well-being of others (for example, rescue, security): ----------------------------------------------------------------------

Appendix D to Section 5144 (Non-Mandatory) Information for Employees Using Respirators When Not Required Under the Standard.

Respirators are an effective method of protection against designated hazards when properly selected and worn. Respirator use is encouraged, even when exposures are below the exposure limit, to provide an additional level of comfort and protection for workers. However, if a respirator is used improperly or not kept clean, the respirator itself can become a hazard to the worker. Sometimes, workers may wear respirators to avoid exposures to hazards, even if the amount of hazardous substance does not exceed the limits set by OSHA standards. If your employer provides respirators for your voluntary use, or if you provide your own respirator, you need to take certain precautions to be sure that the respirator itself does not present a hazard.

You should do the following:

1. Read and heed all instructions provided by the manufacturer on use, maintenance, cleaning and care, and warnings regarding the respirators limitations.

2. Choose respirators certified for use to protect against the contaminant of concern. NIOSH, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, certifies respirators. A label or statement of certification should appear on the respirator or respirator packaging. It will tell you what the respirator is designed for and how much it will protect you.

3. Do not wear your respirator into atmospheres containing contaminants for which your respirator is not designed to protect against. For example, a respirator designed to filter dust particles will not protect you against gases, vapors, or very small solid particles of fumes or smoke.

4. Keep track of your respirator so that you do not mistakenly use someone else's respirator.

Note: Authority cited: Section 142.3, Labor Code. Reference: Section 142.3, Labor Code.

Amend Section 5147 to read:

5147. Isolation of Hazardous Operations Respiratory Protection for M. Tuberculosis.

 

This section applies to respiratory protection against M. tuberculosis and applies in lieu of section 5144.

Amend Section 5190 to read:

5190. Cotton Dust.

* * *

 

(f) Use of Respirators.

(1) General.

(A) Where respiratory protection is required under this section, the employer shall select, provide at no cost to the employee, and assure the use of respiratory protective equipment in accordance the this subsection and Section 5144 For employees who are required to use respirators by this section, the employer must provide respirators that comply with the requirements of this subsection.

(B) Respirators shall be used in the following circumstances during:

1. During the time p Periods necessary to install or implement feasible engineering controls and work practice controls;

2. During m Maintenance and repair activities in which engineering and work practice controls are not feasible;

3. In work situations where Work operations for which feasible engineering and work practice controls are not yet sufficient to reduce exposure to or below the permissible exposure limit;

4. During blow-down or blow off Work operations specified under Section 5190(g)(1); and

5. Whenever Periods for which an employee requests a respirator.

(2) Respirator program.

(A) The employer must implement a respiratory protection program in accordance with section 5144 (b) through (d) (except (d)(1)(C)), and (f) through (m).

(B) Whenever a physician determines that an employee who works in an area in which the cotton dust concentration exceeds the PEL is unable to use a respirator, including a powered air-purifying respirator, the employee must be given the opportunity to transfer to an available position, or to a position that becomes available later, that has a cotton dust concentration at or below the PEL. The employer must ensure that such employees retain their current wage rate or other benefits as a result of the transfer.

(3) Respirator Selection and Use.

(A) Where respirators are required under this section, t The employer shall select the appropriate respirator from the table below and shall assure that the employee uses the respirator provided.

 

Table I

RESPIRATORY PROTECTION--COTTON DUST

Cotton Dust Concentration Required Respirator
Not greater than--
(a) 5 x the applicable permissible
exposure limit (PEL).
1. Any approved dust respirator including single use
A disposable respirator with a particulate filter
.
(b) 10 x the applicable permissible
exposure limit
PEL.
1. Any dust respirator, except single
use; or

2. Any supplied air respirator; or

3. Any self-contained breathing apparatus

A quarter or half-mask respirator, other than a disposable respirator, equipped with particulate filters.

(c) 100x the applicable permissible
exposure limit
PEL.
1. High efficiency particulate filter respirator with a full facepiece; or

2. Any supplied air respirator with a full facepiece, helmet or hood; or

3. Any self-contained breathing ap-paratus with full facepiece

A full facepiece respirator equipped with high-efficiency particulate filters.

Greater than--
(d) 100 x the applicable PEL
permissible exposure limit.
1. A powered air-purifying respirator with high efficiency particulate filter; or

2. A self-contained breathing apparatus with a full face piece operated in pressure demand or other positive pressure mode; or

3. A type "C" supplied air respirator operated in pressure demand or other positive pressure mode; or

4. A combination respirator which includes a type "C" supplied-air respirator with a full facepiece operated in pressure or continuous-flow mode and an auxiliary self-contained breathing apparatus operated in pressure demand or other positive pressure mode

A powered air-purifying respirator equipped with high-efficiency particulate filters.

Notes:

1. A disposable respirator means the filter element is an inseparable part of the respirator.

2. Any respirators permitted at higher environmental concentrations can be used at lower concentrations.

3. Self-contained breathing apparatus are not required respirators but are permitted respirators.

4. Supplied air respirators are not required but are permitted under the following cotton dust concentration conditions:

a. Not greater than 10X the PEL - Any supplied air respirator;

b. Not greater than 100X the PEL - Any supplied air respirator with full facepiece, helmet or hood;

c. Greater than 100X the PEL - A supplied air respirator operated in positive pressure mode.

(B) The employer shall select respirators from those tested and approved for protection against dust in accordance with Section 5144.

(C) Whenever respirators are required by this section for concentrations not greater than 100 times the applicable permissible exposure limit, the employer shall, upon the request of the employee, provide a powered air purifying respirator with a high efficiency particulate filter in lieu of the respirator specified in paragraphs subsections (a),(b), or (c) of the table in Section 5190(f)(2)(A) Table I.

 

(D) Whenever a physician determines that an employee who works in an area in which the dust level exceeds the PEL is unable to wear any form of respirator, including a powered air purifying respirator, the employee shall be given the opportunity to transfer to another position which is available or which later becomes available having a dust level at or below the PEL. The employer shall assure that an employee who is transferred from an area in which the dust level exceeds the PEL due to an inability to wear a respirator suffers no reduction in current wage rate or other benefits as a result of the transfer.

(3) Respirator program. The employer shall institute a respirator program in accordance with Section 5144.

(4) Respirator usage.

(A) The employer shall assure that the respirator used by each employee exhibits minimum facepiece leakage and that the respirator is fitted properly.

(B) The employer shall allow each employee who uses a filter respirator, to change the filter elements whenever an increase in breathing resistance is detected by the employee. The employer shall maintain an adequate supply of filter elements for this purpose.

(C) The employer shall allow employees who wear respirators to wash their faces and respirator face pieces to prevent skin irritation associated with respirator use.

* * *

Note: Authority cited: Section 142.3, Labor Code. Reference: Section 142.3, Labor Code.

Amend Section 5200 to read:

5200. Methylenedianiline.

* * *

(h) Respiratory protection.

(1) General. The employer shall provide respirators, and ensure that thev are used, where required by this section. Respirators shall be used in the following circumstances For employees who are required to use respirators by this section, the employer must provide respirators that comply with the requirements of this subsection. Respirators must be used during:

(A) During the time p Periods necessary to install or implement feasible engineering and work practice controls;

(B) In w Work operations for which the employer establishes that engineering and work practice controls are not feasible;

(C) In work situations where Work operations for which feasible engineering and work practice controls are not yet sufficient to reduce exposure to or below the PEL; and

(D) In e Emergencies.

(2) Respirator program.

(A) The employer must implement a respiratory protection program in accordance with section 5144 (b) through (d) (except (d)(1)(C)), and (f) through (m).

(3) Respirator selection.

(A) Where respirators are required or allowed under this section, t The employer shall select and provide, at no cost to the employee, the appropriate respirator as specified in Table 1, and shall assure that the employee uses the respirator provided.

(B) The employer shall select respirators from among those approved by the Mine Safety and Health Administration and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health under the provisions of 30 CFR Part 11.

(C) Any employee who cannot wear a negative pressure respirator shall be given the option of wearing a positive pressure respirator or any supplied-air respirator operated in the continuous flow or pressure demand mode.

 

 

(3) Respirator program. The employer shall institute a respiratory protection program in accordance with section 5144(b), (d), (e) and (f).

(4) Respirator use.

(A) Where air-purifying respirators (cartridge or canister) are used, the employer shall replace the air purifying element as needed to maintain the effectiveness of the respirator. The employer shall ensure that each cartridge is dated at the beginning of use.

(B) Employees who wear respirators shall be allowed to leave the regulated area to readjust the facepiece or to wash their faces and to wipe clean the facepieces on their respirators in order to minimize potential skin irritation associated with respirator use.

 

 

TABLE 1. Respiratory Protection for MDA

Airborne Concentration of MDA or Condition of Use Respirator Type
a. Less than or equal to 10 x PEL (1) Half-Mask Respirator with HEPA1 Cartridge2
b. Less than or equal to 50 x PEL (1) Full facepiece Respirator with HEPA1 Cartridge or Canister2
c. Less than or equal to 1000 PEL (1) Full facepiece powered air-purifying respirator with HEPA1 cartridges2
d. Greater than 1000 x PEL or unknown concentrations (1)Self-contained breathing apparatus with full facepiece in positive pressure mode.

(2) Full facepiece positive pressure demand supplied-air respirator with auxiliary self-contained air supply.

e. Escape (1)Any full facepiece air purifying respirator with HEPA1 cartridges2

(2) Any positive pressure or continuous flow self-contained breathing apparatus with full facepiece or hood.

f. Firefighting (1) Full face self-contained breathing apparatus in positive pressure demand mode.

 

NOTE: Respirators assigned for higher environmental concentrations may be used at lower concentrations.

 

_____________

1High Efficiency Particulate Air filter (HEPA) means a filter that is at least 99.97 percent efficient against mono-dispersed particles of 0.3 micrometers or larger.

 

2Combination HEPA/Organic Vapor Cartridges shall be used whenever MDA in liquid form or a process requiring heat is used.

 

(5) Respirator fit testing.

(A) The employer shall perform and record the results of either quantitative or qualitative fit tests at the time of initial fitting and at least annually thereafter for each employee wearing a negative pressure respirator. The test shall be used to select a respirator facepiece which provides the required protection as prescribed in Table 1.

(A) The employer shall follow the test protocols outlined in Appendix E of this standard for whichever type of fit testing the employer chooses.

* * *

 

Appendix A to Section 5200 - Substance Data Sheet for 4–4’-Methylenedianiline

* * *

 

III. Protective Clothing and Equipment

A. Respirators. Respirators are required for those operations in which engineering controls or work practice controls are not adequate or feasible to reduce exposure to the permissible limit. If respirators are worn, they must have the joint Mine Safety and Health Administration and a label issued by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) seal of approval under the provisions of 42 CFR part 84 stating that the respirators have been approved for this purpose, and cartridges or canisters must be replaced as necessary to maintain the effectiveness of the respirator in accordance with the requirements of section 5144. If you experience difficulty breathing while wearing a respirator, you may request a positive pressure respirator from your employer. You must be thoroughly trained to use the assigned respirator, and the training will be provided by your employer.

 

* * *

 

Delete Appendix E to Section 5200 and replace with editorial reference in brackets:

 

Amend Section 5201 to read:

5201. 1,3-Butadiene.

* * *

(h) Respiratory protection.—

(1) General. The employer shall provide respirators that comply with the requirements of this subsection, at no cost to each affected employee, and ensure that each affected employee uses such respirator where required by this section. Respirators shall be used in the following circumstances For employees who are required to use respirators by this section, the employer must provide respirators that comply with the requirements of this subsection. Respirators must be used during:

(A) During the time interval Periods necessary to install or implement feasible engineering and work practice controls;

(B) In n Non-routine work operations which are performed infrequently and in which exposures are limited in duration.

(C) In work situations where Work operations for which feasible engineering controls and work practice controls are not yet sufficient to reduce exposures to or below the PELs; or

(D) In e Emergencies.

(2) Respirator selection.

(A) Where respirators are required, the employer shall select and provide the appropriate respirator as specified in Table 1 in subsection (h)(5)(B), and ensure its use.

(B) The employer shall select respirators from among those approved by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) under the provisions of 42 CFR Part 84, "Respiratory Protective Devices." Air purifying respirators shall have filter element(s) approved by NIOSH for organic vapors or BD.

(C) If an employee whose job requires the use of a respirator cannot use a negative pressure respirator, the employee must be provided with a respirator having less breathing resistance, such as a powered air-purifying respirator or supplied air respirator, if the employee is able to use it and if it will provide adequate protection.

 

(3) Respirator program. Where respiratory protection is required, t

 

(A) The employer shall institute a respirator program in accordance with section 5144 (b) through (d) (except (d)(1)(C), (d)(3)(C)2.a., and b.), and (f) through (m).

 

(4) Respirator use.

(A) (B) If Where air-purifying respirators are used, the employer shall replace the air purifying filter element(s) according to the replacement life interval set for the class of respirator listed in Table 1 in subsection (h)(5) and at the beginning of each work shift.

(BC) In lieu of the replacement intervals listed in Table 1, the employer may replace cartridges or canisters at 90% of the expiration of service life, provided the employer:

1. can d Demonstrates that employees will be adequately protected by this procedure.

2. Uses BD breakthrough data relied upon by the employer must for this purpose that have been derived from tests conducted under worst case conditions of humidity, temperature, and air flow rate through the filter element. The employer shall describe the data supporting the cartridge/canister change schedule and the basis for reliance on the data in the employer's respirator program.

(CD) A label shall be attached to the filter element(s) to indicate the date and time it is first installed on the respirator. If an employee detects the odor of BD, the employer shall replace the air-purifying element(s) immediately.

(DE) If a NIOSH-approved end of service life indicator (ESLI) for BD becomes available for an air-purifying filter element, the element may be used until such time as the indicator shows no further useful service life or until replaced at the beginning of the next work shift, whichever comes first.

 

(F) Regardless of the air purifying element used, I if an employee detects the odor of BD, the employer shall replace the air-purifying element(s) immediately.

 

(3) Respirator selection.

(A) The employer must select appropriate respirators from Table I.

 

(E) The employer shall permit employees who wear respirators to leave the regulated area to wash their faces and respirator facepieces as necessary in order to prevent skin irritation associated with respirator use or to change the filter elements of air-purifying respirators whenever they detect a change in breathing resistance or whenever the odor of BD is detected.

(5) Respirator fit testing.

(A) The employer shall perform either qualitative fit testing (QLFT) or quantitative fit testing (QNFT), as required in Appendix E to this section, at the time of initial fitting and at least annually thereafter for employees who wear tight-fitting negative pressure respirators. Fit testing shall be used to select a respirator facepiece which exhibits minimum leakage and provides the required protection as prescribed in Table 1 in subsection (h)(5)(B).

(B) For each employee wearing a tight-fitting full facepiece negative pressure respirator who is exposed to airborne concentrations of BD that exceed 10 times the TWA PEL (10 ppm), the employer shall perform quantitative fit testing as required in Appendix E to this section, at the time of initial fitting and at least annually thereafter.

 

Table 1.—Minimum Requirements for Respiratory Protection for Airborne BD

 

 

Concentration of airborne BD
(ppm) or condition of use
Minimum required respirator

 

 

Less than or equal to 5 ppm
(5 times PEL).
(a) Air-purifying half mask or full facepiece respirator equipped with approved BD or organic vapor cartridges or canisters. Cartridges or canisters shall be replaced every 4 hours.
Less than or equal to 10ppm (10 times PEL). (a) Air-purifying half mask or full facepiece respirator equipped with approved BD or organic vapor cartridges or canisters. Cartridges or canisters shall be replaced every 3 hours.
Less than or equal to 25ppm (25 times PEL). (a) Air-purifying full facepiece respirator equipped with approved BD or organic vapor cartridges or canisters. Cartridges or canisters shall be replaced every 2 hours.
(b) Any powered air-purifying respirator equipped with approved BD or organic vapor cartridges. PAPR cartridges shall be replaced every 2 hours.
(c) Continuous flow supplied air respirator equipped with a hood or helmet.
Less than or equal to 50ppm (50 times PEL). (a) Air-purifying full facepiece respirator equipped with approved BD or organic vapor cartridges or canisters. Cartridges or canisters shall be replaced every (1) hour.
(b) Powered air-purifying respirator equipped with a tight-fitting facepiece and an approved BD or organic vapor cartridges. PAPR cartridges shall be replaced every (1) hour.
Less than or equal to 1,000ppm (1,000 times PEL). (a) Supplied air respirator equipped with a half mask of full facepiece and operated in a pressure demand or other positive pressure mode.
Greater than 1,000 ppm (a) Self-contained breathing unknown concentration, or apparatus equipped with a firefighting full facepiece and operated in a pressure demand or other positive pressure mode.
(b) Any supplied air respirator equipped with a full facepiece and operated in a pressure demand or other positive pressure mode in combination with an auxiliary self-contained breathing apparatus operated in a pressure demand or other positive pressure mode.
Escape from IDLH
conditions.
(a) Any positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus with an appropriate service life.
(b) A air-purifying full facepiece respirator equipped with a front or back mounted BD or organic vapor canister.

 

Notes: Respirators approved for use in higher concentrations are permitted to be used in lower concentrations. Full facepiece is required when eye irritation is anticipated.

 

(C) The employer shall ensure that employees wearing tight fitting respirators perform a facepiece seal fit check to ensure that a proper facepiece seal is obtained prior to entry into a BD atmosphere. The recommended positive or negative pressure fit check procedures listed in Appendix E to this section or the respirator manufacturer's recommended fit check procedure shall be used.

(B) Air purifying respirators must have filter element(s) approved by NIOSH for organic vapors or BD.

(C) When an employee whose job requires the use of a respirator cannot use a negative pressure respirator, the employer must provide the employee with a respirator that has less breathing resistance, such as a powered air-purifying respirator or supplied air respirator, when the employee is able to use it and if it will provide adequate protection.

* * *

 

Delete Appendix E to Section 5201 and replace with editorial reference in brackets:

 

Amend Section 5202 to read:

5202. Methylene Chloride.

* * *

(g) Respiratory protection.
(1) General requirements. The employer shall provide a respirator which complies with the requirement of this subsection, at no cost to each affected employee, and ensure that each affected employee uses such respirator where appropriate. Respirators shall be used in the following circumstances For employees who are required to use respirators by this section, the employer must provide respirators that comply with the requirements of this subsection. Respirators must be used during:

(A) Whenever Periods when an employee's exposure to MC exceeds or can reasonably be expected to exceed the 8-hour TWA PEL or the STEL (such as where an employee is using MC in a regulated area);

(B) During the time interval Periods necessary to install or implement feasible engineering and work practice controls;

(C) In a A few work operations, such as some maintenance operations and repair activities, for which the employer demonstrates that engineering and work practice controls are infeasible;

(D) Where Work operations for which feasible engineering and work practice controls are not sufficient to reduce exposures to or below the PELs; or

(E) In e Emergencies.

(2) Medical Evaluation. Before having any employee use a supplied-air respirator in the negative pressure mode, or a gas mask with organic vapor canister for emergency escape, the employer shall have a physician or other licensed health care professional ascertain each affected employee's ability to use such respiratory protection. The physician or other licensed health care professional shall provide his or her findings to the affected employee and the employer in a written opinion. Respirator program.

(A) The employer must institute a respirator program in accordance with section 5144 (b) through (m) (except (d)(1)(C)).

(B) Employers who provide gas masks with organic vapor canisters for the purpose of emergency escape shall replace those canisters after any emergency use before those gas masks are returned to service.

(3) Respirator selection. The employer must select appropriate atmosphere-supplying respirators, as specified in from Table 2, shall be selected from those approved by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) under the provisions of 42 CFR Part 84, "Respiratory Protective Devices." When employers elect to provide gas masks with organic vapor canisters for use in emergency escape, the organic vapor canisters shall bear the approval of NIOSH.

Table 2. -- Minimum Requirements for Respiratory Protection for Airborne Methylene chloride

 

Methylene chloride airborne concentration(ppm) or condition of use

Minimum respirator required1

Up to 625 ppm (25 X PEL) (1) Continuous flow supplied-air respirator, hood or helmet.
Up to 1250 ppm (50 X 8-TWA PEL) (1) Full facepiece supplied-air respirator operated in negative pressure (demand) mode.

(2) Full facepiece self contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) operated in negative pressure (demand) mode.

Up to 5000 ppm (200 X 8-TWA PEL) (1) Continuous flow supplied-air respirator, full facepiece.
(2) Pressure demand supplied-air respirator, full facepiece.
(3) Positive pressure full facepiece SCBA.
Unknown concentration, or above 5000 ppm (Greater than 200 X 8-TWA PEL) (1) Positive pressure full facepiece SCBA.
(2) Full facepiece pressure demand supplied-air respirator with an auxiliary self-contained air supply.
Fire fighting Positive pressure full facepiece SCBA.
Emergency escape (1) Any continuous flow or pressure demand SCBA.
(2) Gas mask with organic vapor canister.

 

1 Respirators assigned for higher airborne concentrations may be used at lower concentrations.

(4) Respirator program. Where respiratory protection is required by this section, the employer shall institute a respirator program in accordance with 5144.
(5) Permission to leave area. The employer shall permit employees who wear respirators to leave the regulated area to readjust the facepieces to their faces to achieve a proper fit, and to wash their faces and respirator facepieces as necessary in order to prevent skin irritation associated with respirator use.
(6) Filter respirators. Employers who provide gas masks with organic vapor canisters for the purpose of emergency escape shall replace those canisters after any emergency use before those gas masks are returned to service.
(7) Respirator fit testing.
(A) The employer shall ensure that each respirator issued to the employee is properly fitted and exhibits the least possible facepiece leakage from among the facepieces tested.
(B) The employer shall perform qualitative or quantitative fit tests at the time of initial fitting and at least annually thereafter for each employee wearing a negative pressure respirator, including those employees for whom emergency escape respirators are provided.
Note to subsection (g)(7)(B): The only supplied-air respirators to which this provision would apply are SCBA in negative pressure mode and full facepiece supplied-air respirators operated in negative pressure mode. The small business compliance guides will contain examples of protocols for qualitative and quantitative fit testing.

Medical Evaluation. Before having any employee use a supplied-air respirator in the negative-pressure mode, or a gas mask with organic-vapor canister for emergency escape, the employer must:

(A) Have a physician or other licensed health-care professional (PLHCP) evaluate the employee's ability to use such respiratory protection.

(B) Ensure that the PLHCP provides their findings in a written opinion to the affected employee and the employer.

* * *

Note: Authority cited: Sections 142.3, 9020, 9030 and 9040, Labor Code. Reference: Sections 142.3, 9004(d), 9009, 9020, 9031 and 9040, Labor Code.

 

Amend Section 5207 to read:

5207. Cadmium.

* * *

(g) Respirator Protection.

(1) General.

 

Where respirators are required by this section, the employer shall provide them at no cost to the employee and shall assure that they are used in compliance with the requirements of this section. Respirators shall be used in the following circumstances For employees who are required to use respirators by this section, the employer must provide respirators that comply with the requirements of this subsection. Respirators must be used during:

(A) Where exposure levels exceed the PEL, during the time period Periods necessary to install or implement feasible engineering and work practice controls when employee exposure levels exceed the PEL;

(B) In those m Maintenance and repair activities and during those brief or intermittent operations where exposures exceed the PEL and engineering and work practice controls are not feasible or are not required;

(C) In Activities in regulated areas, as prescribed specified in subsection (e);

(D) Where Work operations for which the employer has implemented all feasible engineering and work practice controls and such controls are not sufficient to reduce exposures to or below the PEL;

(E) In e Emergencies;

(F) Wherever Work operations for which an employee who is exposed to cadmium at or above the action level requests a respirator;

(G) Wherever an employee is exposed above the PEL in an industry to which a SECAL is applicable; and

(H) Wherever Work operations for which an employee is exposed to cadmium above the PEL and engineering controls are not required under subsection (f)(1)(CB).

(2) Respirator program.

(A) The employer must implement a respirator program in accordance with section 5144 (b) through (d) (except (d)(1)(C)), and (f) through (m).

(B) No employees must use a respirator if, based upon their most recent examination, the examining physician determines that they will be unable to continue to function normally while using a respirator. If the physician determines the employee must be limited in, or removed from their current job because of their inability to use a respirator, the limitation or removal must be in accordance with subsections (l)(11) and (12).

(C) If an employee exhibits breathing difficulty during a fit test or respirator use, the employer must provide the employee with a medical examination in accordance with subsection (l)(6)(B) to determine if the employee can use a respirator while performing the required duties.

(3) Respirator Selection.

(A) Where respirators are required under this section, t The employer shall select and provide the appropriate respirator as specified in Table 2. The employer shall select respirators from among those jointly approved as acceptable protection against cadmium dust, fume, and mist by the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) and by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) under the provisions of 30 CFR Part 11.

 

Table 2.

RESPIRATORY PROTECTION FOR CADMIUM

Airborne Concentration or Condition of Usea Required Respirator Typeb
10 X or less A half mask, air-purifying respirator equipped with a HEPA c filter d
25 X or less A powered air-purifying respirator ("PAPR") with a loose fitting hood or helmet equipped with a HEPA filter, or a supplied-air respirator with a loose-fitting hood or helmet facepiece operated in the continuous flow mode
50 X or less A full facepiece air-purifying respirator equipped with a HEPA filter, or a powered air-purifying respirator with a tight-fitting half mask equipped with a HEPA filter, or a supplied air respirator with a tight-fitting half mask operated in the continuous flow mode
250 X or less A powered air-purifying respirator with a tight-fitting full facepiece equipped with a HEPA filter, or supplied-air respirator with a tight-fitting full facepiece operated in the continuous flow mode
1000 X or less A supplied-air respirator with half mask or full facepiece operated in the pressure demand or other positive pressure mode
Airborne Concentration of Condition of Use a > 1000 X or unknown concentrations Required Respirator Type b

A self-contained breathing apparatus with a full facepiece operated in the pressure demand or other positive pressure mode, or a supplied-air respirator with a full facepiece operated in the pressure demand or other positive pressure mode and equipped with an auxiliary escape type self contained breathing apparatus operated in the pressure demand mode

Airborne Concentration of Condition of Use a Fire fighting Required Respirator Type b

A self-contained breathing apparatus with full facepiece operated in the pressure demand or other positive pressure mode

 

a Concentrations expressed as multiple of the PEL.

b Respirators assigned for higher environmental concentrations may be used at lower exposure levels. Quantitative fit testing is required for all tight-fitting air purifying respirators where airborne concentration of cadmium exceeds 10 times the TWA PEL (10 x 5 g/m3= 50 g/m3). A full facepiece respirator is required when eye irritation is experienced.

c HEPA means High Efficiency Particulate Air

d Fit testing, qualitative or quantitative, is required.

Source: Respiratory Decision Logic, NIOSH, 1987.

(B) The employer shall provide a powered, air-purifying respirator (PAPR) in lieu of a negative pressure respirator wherever:

1. An employee entitled to a respirator chooses to use this type of respirator; and

2. This respirator will provide adequate protection to the employee.

 

(3) Respirator program.

(A) Where respiratory protection is required, the employer shall institute a respirator protection program in accordance with section 5144.

(B) The employer shall permit each employee who is required to use an air purifying respirator to leave the regulated area to change the filter elements or replace the respirator whenever an increase in breathing resistance is detected and shall maintain an adequate supply of filter elements for this purpose.

(C) The employer shall also permit each employee who is required to wear a respirator to leave the regulated area to wash his or her face and the respirator facepiece whenever necessary to prevent skin irritation associated with respirator use.

(D) If an employee exhibits difficulty in breathing while wearing a respirator during a fit test or during use, the employer shall make available to the employee a medical examination in accordance with subsection (l)(6)(B) to determine if the employee can wear a respirator while performing the required duties.

(E) No employee shall be assigned a task requiring the use of a respirator if, based upon his or her most recent examination, an examining physician determines that the employee will be unable to continue to function normally while wearing a respirator. If the physician determines the employee must be limited in, or removed from his or her current job because of the employee's inability to wear a respirator, the limitation or removal shall be in accordance with subsections (l)(11) and (12).

(4) Respirator Fit Testing.

(A) The employer shall assure that the respirator issued to the employee is fitted properly and exhibits the least possible facepiece leakage.

(B) For each employee wearing a tight-fitting, air purifying respirator (either negative or positive pressure) who is exposed to airborne concentrations of cadmium that do not exceed 10 times the PEL (10 x 5 g/m3 = 50 /m3), the employer shall perform either quantitative or qualitative fit testing at the time of initial fitting and at least annually thereafter. If quantitative fit testing is used for a negative pressure respirator, a fit factor that is at least 10 times the protection factor for that class of respirators (Table 2) shall be achieved at testing.

(C) For each employee wearing a tight-fitting air purifying respirator (either negative or positive pressure) who is exposed to airborne concentrations of cadmium that exceed 10 times the PEL (10 x g/m3 = 50 g/m3), the employer shall perform quantitative fit testing at the time of initial fitting and at least annually thereafter. For negative-pressure respirators, a fit factor that is at least 10 times the protection factor for that class of respirators (Table 2) shall be achieved during quantitative fit testing.

(D) For each employee wearing a tight-fitting, supplied-air respirator or self-contained breathing apparatus, the employer shall perform quantitative fit testing at the time of initial fitting and at least annually thereafter. This shall be accomplished by fit testing an air purifying respirator of identical type facepiece, make, model, and size as the supplied air respirator or self-contained breathing apparatus that is equipped with HEPA filters and tested as a surrogate (substitute) in the negative pressure mode. A fit factor that is at least 10 times the protection factor for that class of respirators (Table 2) shall be achieved during quantitative fit testing. A supplied-air respirator or self-contained breathing apparatus with the same type facepiece, make, model, and size as the air purifying respirator with which the employee passed the quantitative fit test may then be used by that employee up to the protection factor listed in Table 2 for that class of respirators.

(E) Fit testing shall be conducted in accordance with Appendix C.

 

* * *

Delete Appendix C to Section 5207 and replace with editorial reference in brackets. (Refer to Pages 88-92):

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

* * *

Note: Authority cited: Sections 142.3, 9020, 9030, 9040, Labor Code. Reference: Sections 142.3, 9004(d), 9009, 9020, 9030, 9031, and 9040, Labor Code.

 

 

Amend Section 5208 to read:

5208. Asbestos.

* * *

(g) Respiratory protection --

(1) General: The employer shall provide respirators, and ensure that they are used, where required by this section. Respirators shall be used in the following circumstances For employees who are required to use respirators by this section, the employer must provide respirators that comply with the requirements of this subsection. Respirators must be used during:

(A) During the interval Periods necessary to install or implement feasible engineering and work practice controls;

(B) In w Work operations, such as maintenance and repair activities, or other activities for which engineering and work practice controls are not feasible;

(C) In work situations where Work operations for which feasible engineering and work practice controls are not yet sufficient to reduce exposure to or below the TWA and/or excursion limit; and

(D) In e Emergencies.

(2) Respirator program.

(A) The employer must implement a respirator program in accordance with section 5144 (b) through (d) (except (d)(1)(C)), and (f) through (m).

(B) The employer must provide a tight-fitting powered, air-purifying respirator instead of any negative pressure respirator specified in Table 1 when:

1. An employee chooses to use this type of respirator; and

2. This respirator provides adequate protection to the employee.

(C) No employee must be assigned to tasks requiring the use of respirators if, based on their most recent examination, an examining physician determines that the employee will be unable to function normally using a respirator, or that the safety or health of the employee or other employees will be impaired by the use of a respirator. Such employees must be assigned to another job or given the opportunity to transfer to a different position, the duties of which they can perform. If such a transfer position is available, the position must be with the same employer, in the same geographical area, and with the same seniority, status, and rate of pay the employee had just prior to such transfer.

(3) Respirator selection.

(A) Where respirators are required under this section, t The employer shall select and provide, at no cost to the employee, the appropriate respirator as specified in Table 1.

 

(B) The employer shall select respirators from among those jointly approved as being acceptable for protection by the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) and by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) under the provisions of 30 CFR Part 11.

(C) The employer shall provide a tight-fitting powered, air- purifying respirator in lieu of any negative pressure respirator specified in Table 1 whenever:

1. An employee chooses to use this type of respirator; and

2. This respirator will provide adequate protection to the employee.

Table 1. -- Respiratory Protection for Asbestos Fibers

Airborne concentration of asbestos or conditions of use Required respirator
Not in excess of 1 f/cc (10 X PEL), or otherwise as required independent of exposure independent of exposure pursuant to (g)(2)(C). Half-mask air purifying respirator other than a disposable respirator, equipped with high efficiency filters.
Not in excess of 5 f/cc 50 X PEL). Full facepiece air-purifying respirator (equipped with high efficiency filters.
Not in excess of 10 f/cc (100 X PEL). Any powered air-purifying respirator equipped with high efficiency filters or any supplied air respirator operated in continuous flow mode.
Not in excess of 100 f/cc (1,000 X PEL). Full facepiece supplied air respirator operated in pressure demand mode.
Greater than 100 f/cc (1,000 X PEL) or unknown concentration. Full facepiece supplied air respirator operated in pressure demand mode, equipped with an auxiliary positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus.

 

Note: a. Respirators assigned for high environmental concentrations may be used at lower concentrations, or when required respirator use is independent of concentration.

Note: b. A high efficiency filter means a filter that is at least 99.97 percent efficient against mono-dispersed particles of 0.3 micrometers in diameter or larger. (3) Respirator program.

 

(A) Where respiratory protection is required, the employer shall institute a respirator program in accordance with Section 5144.

(B) The employer shall permit each employee who uses a filter respirator to change the filter elements whenever an increase in breathing resistance is detected and shall maintain an adequate supply of filter elements for this purpose.

(C) Employees who wear respirators shall be permitted to leave the regulated area to wash their faces and respirator facepieces whenever necessary to prevent skin irritation associated with respirator use.

(D) No employee shall be assigned to tasks requiring the use of respirators if, based upon his or her most recent examination, an examining physician determines that the employee will be unable to function normally wearing a respirator or that the safety or health of the employee or other employees will be impaired by the use of a respirator. Such employees shall be assigned to another job or given the opportunity to transfer to a different position whose duties he or she is able to perform with the same employers, in the same geographical area and with the same seniority, status, and rate of pay the employees had just prior to such transfer, if such a different position is available.

(4) Respirator fit testing.

(A) The employer shall ensure that the respirator issued to the employee exhibits the least possible facepiece leakage and that the respirator is fitted properly.

(B) For each employee wearing negative pressure respirators, employers shall perform either quantitative or qualitative face fit tests at the time of initial fitting and at least every six months thereafter. The qualitative fit tests may be used only for testing the fit of half-mask respirators where they are permitted to be worn, and shall be conducted in accordance with Appendix C to this section. The tests shall be used to select facepieces that provide the required protection as prescribed in Table 1, in subsection (g)(2)(A) of this section.

 

* * *

 

NOTE: Authority cited: Sections 142.3, 9020, 9021.5, 9030, and 9040, Labor Code. Reference: Section 142.3, 6501.5, 6501.7, 6015.8, 6501.9, 6502, 9003, 9004(b), 9005, 9006, 9009, 9020, 9021.5, 9030, and 9040, Labor Code; and Section 25910, Health and Safety Code.

Delete Appendix C to Section 5208 and replace with editorial reference in brackets:


Amend Section 5209 to read:

5209. Carcinogens.

* * *

(c) Regulated Areas.

* * *

(4) Transfer From a Closed System, Charging or Discharging Point Operations, or Otherwise Opening a Closed System.

* * *

(D) Employees engaged in the handling of carcinogens shall be provided with, and be required to wear and use as minimum protection, a half-face, filter type respirator for dusts, mists and fumes. Those employees engaged in the handling of beta-propiolactone, bis-chloromethyl ether, methyl chloromethyl ether, N-nitrosodimethylamine, or ethyleneimine shall be provided with, and be required to wear, a fullface, supplied air respirator of the continuous flow or pressure-demand type. The use of respiratory protective equipment shall be in accordance with Sections 5144 (b), (c), (d), (e), (f), (h), and (i) A respirator affording higher levels of protection than these respirators may be substituted.

* * *

(d) General Regulated Area Requirements.

* * *

(4) Respirator program. The employer must implement a respiratory protection program in accordance with section 5144 (b) through (d) (except (d)(1)(C) and (E), and (d)(3)), and (e) through (m).

* * *

 

NOTE: Authority cited: Section 142.3, Labor Code. Reference: Section 142.3, Labor Code.

Amend Section 5210 to read:

5210. Vinyl Chloride.

* * *

(g) Respiratory Protection. Where respiratory protection is required under this section:

(1) The employer shall provide a respirator which meets the requirements of this paragraph and shall assure that the employee uses such respirator, except that until April 1, 1976, wearing of respirators shall be at the discretion of each employee for exposures not in excess of 25 ppm, measured over any 15-minute period. Until April 1, 1976, each employee who chooses not to wear an appropriate respirator shall be informed at least quarterly of the hazards of vinyl chloride and the purpose, proper use, and limitations of respiratory devices General. For employees who are required to use respirators by this section, the employer must provide respirators that comply with the requirements of this subsection.

(2) Respirator program. The employer must implement a respiratory protection program in accordance with section 5144 (b) through (d) (except (d)(1)(C), and (d)(3)(C)2.a. and b.), and (f) through (m).

(3) Respirator selection.

(A) Respirators shall be selected and used as required in Section 5144 and as follows from the following table:

Atmospheric Concentration of Vinyl Chloride Required Apparatus
(A) Unknown, or above 3,600 ppm (B) Not over 3,600 ppm Open-circuit, self-contained breathing apparatus, pressure demand type with full facepiece.

1. Combination type C supplied air respirator, pressure demand type, with full or half facepiece and auxiliary self-contained air supply; or

2. Combination type C, supplied air respirator continuous flow type, with full or half facepiece, and auxiliary self-contained air supply.

(C) Not over 1000 ppm (D) Not over 100 ppm 1. Type C, supplied air respirator, continuous flow type, with full or half facepiece helmet or hood.

1. Combination type C supplied air respirator, demand type, with full facepiece and auxiliary self-contained air supply; or

2. Open-circuit self-contained breathing apparatus with full facepiece, in demand mode; or 3. Type C supplied air respirator, demand type, with full facepiece.

(E) Not over 25 ppm 1. A powered air-purifying respirator with hood, helmet, full or half facepiece, and a canister which provides a service life of at least 4 hours for concentrations of vinyl chloride up to 25 ppm, or

2. Gas mask, front- or back-mounted canister which provides a service life of at least 4 hours for concentrations of vinyl chloride up to 24 ppm.

(F) Not over 10 ppm 1. Combination type C supplied-air respirator, demand type, with half facepiece, and auxiliary self-contained air supply; or

2. Type C supplied-air respirator, demand type, with half facepiece; or

3. Any chemical cartridge respirator with an organic vapor cartridge which provides a service life of at least 1 hour for concentrations of vinyl chloride up to 10 ppm.

 

(3) Entry into unknown concentrations or concentrations greater than 36,000 ppm (lower explosive limit) may be made only for purposes of life rescue.

(4) Entry into concentrations of less than 36,000 ppm, but greater than 3,600 ppm may be made only for purposes of life rescue, fire fighting, or securing equipment so as to prevent a greater hazard from release of vinyl chloride.

(5B) Where air-purifying respirators are used:

(A)1. Air-purifying canisters or cartridges shall be replaced prior to the expiration of their service life or the end of the shift in which they are first used, whichever occurs first, and

(B)2. A continuous monitoring and alarm system shall be provided where concentrations of vinyl chloride could reasonably exceed the allowable concentrations for the devices in use. Such system shall be used to alert employees when vinyl chloride concentrations exceed the allowable concentrations for the devices in use.

(C) Respirators specified for higher concentrations may be used for lower concentrations.

* * *

NOTE: Authority cited: Section 142.3, Labor Code. Reference: Section 142.3, Labor Code.

 

Amend Section 5211 to read:

5211. Coke Oven Emissions.

* * *

(p) Respiratory Protection. Where respiratory protection is required under the provisions of this section, the employer shall provide and assure employee use of respirators which comply with the requirements of this subsection.

(1) General. For employees who use respirators required by this section, the employer must provide respirators that comply with the requirements of this subsection. Compliance with the permissible exposure limit may not be achieved by the use of respirators except as specified by this paragraph. during:

(A) During the time p Periods necessary to install or implement feasible engineering and work practice controls.

(B) In w Work operations such as maintenance and repair activity in which engineering and work practice controls are technologically not feasible.

(C) In work situations where Work operations for which feasible engineering and work practice controls are not yet sufficient to reduce exposure to, or below, the permissible exposure limit.

(D) In e Emergencies.

(E) Notwithstanding any other requirement of this section, until January 20, 1978, the wearing of respirators shall be at the discretion of each employee unless the employee is in the vicinity of visible emissions.

(2) Respirator program. The employer must implement a respiratory protection program in accordance with section 5144 (b) through (d) (except (d)(1)(C)), and (f) through (m).

(3) Respirator Selection.

(A) Where respirators are required under this section, t The employer shall select, provide and assure the use of the appropriate respirator or combination of respirators from the following table:

RESPIRATORY PROTECTION FOR COKE OVEN EMISSIONS

Airborne Concentration of Coke Oven Emission Required Respirator
1. Concentrations not greater than 1.5 milligrams per cubic meter 1. Any particulate filter respirator for dust and mist, except single-use respirator, or

2. Any particulate filter respirator or combination chemical cartridge and particulate filter respirator for coke oven emissions.

2. Concentrations greater than 1.5 milligrams per cubic meter (but may be used at any concentration) 1. A Type C supplied air respirator operated in pressure demand or other positive pressure or continuous flow mode, or

2. A powered air-purifying particulate filter respirator for dust or mist, or

3. A powered air-purifying particulate filter respirator or powered combination chemical cartridge and particulate filter respirator for coke oven emissions.

 

(B) Not later than January 20, 1978, whenever respirators are required by this section for concentrations not greater than 1.5 milligrams per cubic meter, the employer shall provide, at the option of each affected employee, either a particulate filter respirator or a powered air-purifying respirator.

(C) The employer shall select respirators from among those approved for protection against dust and mist by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), except that not later than January 20, 1979, the employer shall select respirators from among those approved by NIOSH for protection against coke oven emissions.

(3) Respirator Program. The employer shall institute a respiratory protection program in accordance with Section 5144.

(4) Respirator Usage.

(A) The employer shall assure that the respirator issued to the employee exhibits minimum facepiece leakage and that the respirator is fitted properly in accordance with Section 5144(c).

(B) The employer shall allow each employee who uses a filter respirator to change the filter elements whenever an increase in breathing resistance is detected and shall maintain an adequate supply of filter elements for this purpose.

(C) The employer shall allow employees who wear respirators to wash their face and respirator facepiece to prevent skin irritation associated with respirator use.

* * *

NOTE: Authority cited: Section 142.3, Labor Code. Reference: Section 142.3, Labor Code.

Amend Section 5212 to read:

 

5212. 1,2-Dibromo-3-Chloropropane(DBCP).

* * *

(h) Respirators.

(1) General. Where respiratory protection is required under this section, the employer shall select, provide and assure the proper use of respirators in accordance with this subsection and Section 5144. Respirators shall be used in the following circumstances For employees who are required to use respirators by this section, the employer must provide respirators that comply with the requirements of this subsection. Respirators must be used during:

(A) During the p Periods necessary to install or implement feasible engineering and work practice controls; or

(B) During m Maintenance and repair activities in which engineering and work practice controls are not feasible; or

(C) In work situations where Work operations for which feasible engineering and work practice controls are not yet sufficient to reduce exposure to or below the permissible exposure limit; or

(D) In e Emergencies.

(2) Respirator program. The employer must implement a respiratory protection program in accordance with section 5144 (b) through (d) (except (d)(1)(C)), and (f) through (m).

(3)Respirator Selection. Where respirators are required under this section, t The employer shall select and provide, at no cost to the employee, the appropriate respirator from the following table and shall assure that the employee uses the respirator provided.

RESPIRATORY PROTECTION FOR DBCP

Concentration of Airborne DBCP or Condition of Use Respirator Type
(A) Not greater than 10 ppb. 1. Any supplied-air respirator or

2. any self-contained breathing apparatus.

(B) Not greater than 50 ppb. 1. Any supplied-air respirator with full facepiece, helmet, or hood; or

2. any self-contained breathing apparatus with full facepiece.

(C) Not greater than 1,000 ppb. A Type C supplied-air respirator operated in pressure-demand or other positive pressure or continuous flow mode.
(D) Not greater than 2,000 ppb. A Type C supplied-air respirator with full facepiece operated in pressure-demand or other positive pressure mode, or with full facepiece, helmet, or hood operated in continuous flow mode.
(E) Greater than 2,000 ppb or entry and escape from unknown concentrations. 1. A combination respirator which includes a Type C supplied-air respirator with full facepiece operated in pressure-demand or other positive pressure or continuous flow mode and an auxiliary self-contained breathing apparatus operated in pressure-demand or positive pressure mode; or

2. a self-contained breathing apparatus with full facepiece operated in pressure-demand or other positive pressure mode.

(F) Firefighting A self-contained breathing apparatus with full facepiece operated in pressure-demand or other positive pressure mode.

 

(3) Respirator Program.

(A) The employer shall institute a respiratory protection program in accordance with this subsection and Section 5144.

(B) Employees who wear respirators shall be allowed to wash their faces and respirator facepieces as needed to prevent potential skin irritation associated with respirator use.

* * *

NOTE: Authority cited: Section 142.3, Labor Code. Reference: Section 142.3, Labor Code.

Amend Section 5213 to read:

5213. Acrylonitrile.

* * *

(h) Respiratory Protection.

(1) General. For employees who are required to use respirators by this section, the employer must provide respirators that comply with the requirements of this subsection. Respirators must be used during:

(A) The employer shall assure that respirators are used where required by this section to reduce employee exposure to within the permissible exposure limits. Respirators shall be used in the following circumstances:

1. During the time p Periods necessary to install or implement feasible engineering and work practice controls;

2. In w (B) Work operations, such as maintenance and repair activities or reactor cleaning, in which the employer establishes that engineering and work practice controls are not feasible;

3. In work situations where (C) Work operations for which feasible engineering and work practice controls are not yet sufficient to reduce exposure to or below the permissible exposure limits; and

4. In e (D) Emergencies.

 

(B) The provision, use, and maintenance of respiratory protective equipment and the training of employees in the use of such equipment shall conform with the requirements of this subsection and Section 5144.

(2) Respirator program.

(A) The employer must implement a respiratory protection program in accordance with section 5144 (b) through (d) (except (d)(1)(C), and (d)(3)(C)2.a. and b.), and (f) through (m).

(B) If air-purifying respirators (chemical-cartridge or chemical canister type) are used:

1. The air-purifying canister or cartridge must be replaced prior to the expiration of their service life or at the completion of each shift, whichever occurs first.

2. A label must be attached to the cartridge or canister to indicate the date and time at which it is first installed on the respirator.

(3) Equipment Selection and Use.

(A) Appropriate selection, provision (at no cost to the employee), and use of respiratory protective equipment shall be based on Respirator selection. The employer must select the appropriate respirator from the following table:

RESPIRATORY PROTECTION FOR AIRBORNE ACRYLONITRILE

Concentration of Acrylonitrile or Condition of Use Respirator Type
1. Any concentration not greater than 20 ppm. a. Any chemical cartridge respirator with organic vapor cartridge and half-mask; or

b. Any supplied-air respirator with half-mask.

2. Any concentration not greater than 100 ppm or the maximum use concentration (MUC) of cartridges or canisters, whichever is lower. a. Full facepiece respirator with organic vapor cartridge, organic vapor gas mask(chin style), or organic vapor gas mask canister (front- or back-mounted);

b. Any supplied-air respirator with full facepiece; or

c. Any self-contained breathing apparatus with full facepiece.

3. Any concentration not greater 3. Any concentration not greater than 4,000 ppm. a. Supplied-air respirator in positive-pressure mode with full facepiece, helmet, hood, or suit.
4. Greater than 4,000 ppm or unknown concentration. a. Supplied-air respirator and auxiliary self-contained breathing apparatus with full facepiece in positive-pressure mode; or

b. Self-contained breathing apparatus with full facepiece in positive-pressure mode.

5. Firefighting. a. Self-contained breathing apparatus with full facepiece in positive-pressure mode.
6. Escape. a. Any organic vapor respirator; or

b. Any self-contained breathing apparatus.

 

(B) Where air-purifying respirators (chemical cartridge- or canister-type) are used, the air-purifying canister or cartridge(s) shall be replaced prior to the expiration of their service life or at the completion of each shift, whichever occurs first. A label shall be attached to the cartridge or canister to indicate the date and time at which it is first installed on the respirator.

(C) Employees who wear respirators shall be allowed to wash their faces and to wipe clean the face-to-facepiece seals on their respirators to minimize potential skin irritation associated with respirator use.

(3) Respirator Fit Testing. Fit testing of respirators shall be performed to assure that the respirator selected in accordance with Section 5213(h)(2)(A) provides the necessary protection.

(A) The employer shall perform qualitative fit tests in accordance with Section 5144(c) at the time of initial fitting and at least semiannually thereafter for each employee wearing respirators, where quantitative fit tests are not required.

(B) Each employer with more than 10 employees wearing negative pressure respirators shall perform quantitative fit testing at the time of initial fitting and at least semiannually thereafter for each such employee.

* * *

Appendix A.

Substance Safety Sheet for Acrylonitrile

* * *

IV. Respirators and Protective Clothing

A. Respirators: You may be required to wear a respirator for non-routine activities, in emergencies, and while your employer is in the process of reducing acrylonitrile exposures through engineering controls. If respirators are worn, they must have a Mining Enforcement and Safety Administration (MESA) or have a label issued by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) approval label. (Older respirators may have a Bureau of Mines approval label.) under the provisions of 42 CFR part 84 stating that the respirators have been approved for use with organic vapors. For effective protection, respirators must fit your face and head snugly. Respirators should not be loosened or removed in work situations where their use is required.

* * *

NOTE: Authority cited: Section 142.3, Labor Code. Reference: Section 142.3, Labor Code.

Amend Section 5214 to read:

5214. Inorganic Arsenic.

* * *

(h) Respiratory Protection.

(1) General.

(A) The employer shall ensure that respirators are used where required under this section to reduce employee exposures to or below the permissible exposure limit and in emergencies. Respirators shall be used in the following circumstances For employees who are required to use respirators by this section, the employer must provide respirators that comply with the requirements of this subsection. Respirators must be used during:

1. (A)During the time p Periods necessary to install or implement feasible engineering or work practice controls;

2. In w (B) Work operations in which the employer establishes that engineering and work practice controls are not feasible;

3. In work situations in (C) Work operations for which engineering controls and supplemental work practice controls are not yet sufficient to reduce exposures to or below the permissible exposure limit; or

4. In e (D) Emergencies.

(B) The provision and use of respiratory protective equipment shall conform with the requirements of this subsection and Section 5144.

(2) Respirator program.

(A) The employer must implement a respiratory protection program in accordance with section 5144 (b) through (d) (except (d)(1)(C)), and (f) through (m).

(B) If an employee exhibits breathing difficulty during fit testing or respirator use, they must be examined by a physician trained in pulmonary medicine to determine whether they can use a respirator while performing the required duty.

(3) Respirator Equipment Selection and Use.

(A) Where respirators are required under this section t The employer shall select, provide at no cost to the employee and ensure the use of the appropriate respirator or combination of respirators from the following table.

 

 

RESPIRATORY PROTECTION FOR INORGANIC ARSENIC

CONCENTRATION OF AIRBORNE INORGANIC ARSENIC RESPIRATOR TYPE
1. Not greater than 0.1 milligram of compounds with no significant (vapor pressure) per cubic meter Air-purifying, with high efficiency parti--culate filter* and half-mask;

Any supplied air respirator with half-mask.

2. Not greater than 0.1 milligrams of arsenic trichloride (and all com pounds with significant vapor pressure) per cubic meter See respirator type required under 5.
3. Not greater than 0.25 milli grams (of compounds with no significant vapor pressure)per cubic meter Powered air-purifying, with high efficiency particulate filter* and hood or helmet.
4. Not greater than 0.5 milligrams (of compounds with no significant vapor pressure) per cubic meter Air-purifying, with high efficiency particulate filter * and half mask;

Any supplied air respirator with full facepiece;

Any self-contained breathing apparatus with full facepiece.

5. Not greater than 0.5 milligrams of arsenic triochloride ( and com pounds with significant vapor pressure) per cubic meter Gas mask, front or back mounted, equipped with high efficiency filter*, acid gas canister, and full facepiece;

Any supplied air respirator with full facepiece

Any self-contained breathing apparatus with full facepiece.

Powered air-purifying, with high efficiency particulate filter* and full facepiece.

6. Not greater than 1 milligram (of compounds with no significant vapor pressure) per cubic meter Supplied air, operated in positive pressure mode, with half mask.

See respirator type required under 9.

7. Not greater than 10 milligrams (of compounds with no significant vapor pressure) per cubic meter Supplied-air, operated in positive pressure mode, with full facepiece, hood, helmet, or suit.
8. Not greater than 10 milligrams of arsenic trichloride (and all com pounds with significant vapor pressure) per cubic meter Self--contained breathing apparatus with full facepiece operated in pressure-demand mode;
9. Not greater than 20 milligrams per cubic meter Combination breathing apparatus: supplied-air, positive pressure full facepiece respirator with auxiliary self-contained compressed air supply.
10. Firefighting and/or any unknown,or known concentration

 

 

* High efficiency filter--99.97 percent efficiency against 0.3 micrometer monodisperse di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DOP) particles.

NOTE: Any respirator approved for use at a particular concentration may be used at any lower concentration.

(B) Where employee exposures exceed the permissible exposure limit for inorganic arsenic and also exceed the relevant limit for particular gases, such as sulfur dioxide, any air purifying respirator supplied to the employee as permitted by this standard must have a combination high efficiency filter with an appropriate gas sorbent.

(C) Where air purifying gas and vapor cartridge(s) or canisters are used, the cartridge(s) or canisters shall be replaced prior to the expiration of their service life, or at the completion of each shift, whichever occurs first. A label shall be attached to the cartridge or canister to indicate the date and time at which it is first installed on the respirator.

(D) The employer shall perform quantitative fit tests at the time of initial fitting and at least semi-annually thereafter for each employee wearing negative pressure respirators.

EXCEPTION: Qualitative fit tests conducted in accordance with Appendix D of Section 5216, Lead, may be used instead of quantitative fit tests if there are 20 or fewer employees wearing negative pressure respirators.

(E) The test shall be used to select facepieces that provide the required protection as prescribed by Section 5214(h)(2)(A).

EXCEPTION: Qualitative fit tests conducted in accordance with appendix D of Section 5216, Lead, may be used instead of quantitative fit tests if there are 20 or fewer employees wearing negative pressure respirators.

(F) If an employee has demonstrated difficulty in breathing during the fitting test or during use, he or she shall be examined by a licensed physician to determine whether the employee can wear a respirator while performing the required duty.

(3) Employee Options.

(A) Employees who wear respirators shall be allowed to leave work areas to wash the face and respirator facepiece as needed to prevent potential skin irritation associated with respirator use.

(B) Where air-purifying respirators are required for protection against inorganic arsenic particulate, the employee shall be permitted to change filter elements whenever an increase in breathing resistance is detected, and the employer shall maintain an adequate supply of filter elements for this purpose.

(C) The employer shall provide a powered, air purifying respirator in lieu of the respirator specified in Section 5214(h)(23)(A) whenever:

1. An employee chooses to use this type of respirator; and

2. This respirator will provide adequate protection to the employee.

* * *

NOTE: Authority cited: Section 142.3, Labor Code. Reference: Section 142.3, Labor Code.

Amend Section 5216 to read:

5216. Lead.

* * *

(f) Respiratory Protection.

(1) General. Where the use of respirators is required under this section, the employer shall provide, at no cost to the employee, and assure the use of respirators which comply with the requirements of this section and Section 5144. Respirators shall be used in the following circumstances For employees who are required to use respirators by this section, the employer must provide respirators that comply with the requirements of this subsection. Respirators must be used during:

(A) In work situations in Work operations for which engineering, administrative, and work practice controls are not sufficient to reduce exposures to or below the permissible exposure limit;

(B) During the time p Periods necessary to implement engineering, administrative, and or work practice controls, except that after the dates for compliance with the interim level of 100 g/M3 prescribed by Section 5216(e), no employer shall require an employee to wear a negative pressure respirator for more than 4.4 hours per day.

(C) Whenever Periods when an employee requests a respirator.

(2) Respirator program.

(A) The employer must implement a respiratory protection program in accordance with section 5144 (b) through (d) (except (d)(1)(C)), and (f) through (m).

(B) If an employee exhibits breathing difficulty during fit testing or respirator use, the employer must provide the employee with a medical examination in accordance with subsection (j)(3)(A)3. to determine whether or not the employee can use a respirator while performing the required duty.

(3) Respirator Selection.

(A) Where respirators are required under this section t The employer shall select the appropriate respirator or combination of respirators from the following table:

 

RESPIRATORY PROTECTION FOR LEAD AEROSOLS

Airborne Concentration of Lead or Condition of Use REQUIRED RESPIRATOR1
Not in excess of 0.5 mg/M3 (10 x PEL) Half-mask, air-purifying respirator equipped with high efficiency filter. 2,3
Not in excess of 2.5 mg/M3 (50 x PEL) Full facepiece, air-purifying respirator with high efficiency filter.3
Not in excess of 50 mg/M3 (1000 x PEL) Any powered, air-purifying respirator with high efficiency filter3; or

Half-mask supplied-air respirator operated in positive-pressure mode.2

Not in excess of 100 mg/M3 (2000 x PEL) Supplied-air respirators with full facepiece, hood, helmet, or suit, operated in positive-pressure mode.
Greater than 100 mg/M3, unknown concentration or fire fighting. Full facepiece, self-contained breathing apparatus operated in positive-pressure mode; or

Combination breathing apparatus: supplied-air, positive pressure full facepiece respirator with auxiliary self-contained compressed air supply.

 

1 Respirators specified for high concentrations can be used at lower concentrations of lead.

 

2 Full facepiece is required if the lead aerosols cause eye or skin irritation at the use concentrations.

 

3 A high efficiency particulate filter means 99.97 percent efficient against 0.3 micrometer monodisperse di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DOP) particles.

(B) The employer shall provide a powered, air purifying respirator in lieu of the respirator specified in Section 5216(f)(23)(A) whenever:

1. The physical characteristics of the employee are such that the specified respirators are inadequate for the employee's protection;

2. An employee chooses to use this type of respirator; and

32. This respirator will provide adequate protection to the employee.

 

(C) The employer shall select respirators from among those approved for protection against lead dust, fume, or mist as appropriate under the provisions of Section 5144.

(3) Respirator Usage.

(A) The employer shall assure that the respirator issued to the employee exhibits minimum facepiece leakage and that the respirator is fitted properly.

(B) Employers shall perform quantitative face fit tests at the time of initial fitting and at least semi-annually thereafter for each employee wearing negative pressure respirators. The test shall be used to select facepieces that provide the required protection as prescribed in Section 5216(f)(2)(A).

EXCEPTION: Qualitative fit tests conducted in accordance with Appendix D may be used instead of quantitative fit tests for testing the fit of half-mask respirators.

(C) If an employee exhibits difficulty in breathing during the fitting test or during use, the employer shall make available to the employee an examination in accordance with Section 5216(j)(3)(A)3. to determine whether the employee can wear a respirator while performing the required duty.

(4) Respirator Program.

(A) The employer shall institute a respiratory protection program in accordance with Section 5144.

(B) The employer shall permit each employee who uses a filter respirator to change the filter elements whenever an increase in breathing resistance is detected and shall maintain an adequate supply of filter elements for this purpose.

(C) Where employee exposures exceed the permissible limit for lead and also exceed the relevant limit for particular gases or vapors, any air-purifying respirator supplied to the employee must have an appropriate gas absorbing cartridge or canister in addition to the appropriate particulate filter prescribed by the table in Section 5216(f)(2)(A).

(D) Where air-purifying gas and vapor cartridge(s) or canisters are used, the cartridge(s) or canisters shall be replaced prior to the expiration of their service life, or at the completion of each shift, whichever occurs first. A label shall be attached to the cartridge or canister to indicate the date and time at which it is first installed on the respirator.

(E) Employees who wear respirators shall be permitted to leave work areas to wash their face and respirator facepiece whenever necessary to prevent skin irritation associated with respirator use.

* * *

Appendix B.

Section 5216 Summary

* * *

IV. Respiratory Protection

* * *

Your employer is required to select respirators from the types listed in the respiratory protection subsection of the standard. Any respirator chosen must be approved by the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) or the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) under the provisions of 42 CFR part 84. The respirator selection table will enable your employer to choose a type and respirator which will give you proper protection based on your airborne lead exposure. Your employer may select a type of respirator that provides greater protection than that required by the standard; that is, one recommended for a higher concentration of lead than that to which you are exposed.

* * *

Your employer must assure that your respirator facepiece fits properly. Proper fit of a respirator facepiece is critical and no single facepiece fits all facial configurations equally well. Obtaining a proper fit thus may require your employer to make available two or three different mask types in order that facepiece leakage is minimized for each employee. In order to assure that your respirator fits properly and that facepiece leakage is minimized, your employer must give you either a "quantitative or qualitative fit test" on a semiannual basis if you use a negative pressure respirator having any facepiece other than the half-mask type. A quantitative fit test uses a sophisticated machine to measure the amount, if any, of test material that leaks into the facepiece of your respirator as specified in Appendix A of Section 5144, Respiratory Protection.

 

If your 8-hour average level of exposure will permit your use of a half-mask air purifying respirator, then a qualitative fit test method conducted in accordance with Appendix D may be used instead of the quantitative fit test to determine that the facepiece fits properly. In a qualitative test method, the fit of the facepiece is checked by determining whether you can detect the smell or taste of a test substance placed outside the respirator. If you can, there is appreciable leakage where the facepiece meets your face.

* * *

Delete Appendix D to Section 5216 and replace with editorial reference in brackets:

 

 

 

 

 

Amend Section 5217 to read:

5217. Formaldehyde.

* * *

(g) Respiratory protection

(1) General. Where respiratory protection is required, the employer shall provide the respirators at no cost to the employee and shall assure that they are properly used. The respirators shall comply with the requirements of this standard and shall reduce the concentration of formaldehyde inhaled by the employee to at or below both the TWA and the STEL. Respirators shall be used in the following circumstances For employees who are required to use respirators by this section, the employer must provide respirators that comply with the requirements of this subsection. Respirators must be used during:

(A) During the interval Periods necessary to install or implement feasible engineering and work practice controls;

(B) In w Work operations, such as maintenance and repair activities or vessel cleaning, for which the employer establishes that engineering and work practice controls are not feasible;

(C) In work situations where Work operations for which feasible engineering and work practice controls are not yet sufficient to reduce exposure to or below the PELs; and

(D) In e Emergencies.

(2) Respirator program.

(A) The employer must implement a respiratory protection program in accordance with section 5144 (b) through (d) (except (d)(1)(C), (d)(3)(C)2.a. and b.), and (f) through (m).

(B) If air-purifying chemical-cartridge respirators are used, the employer must:

1. Replace the cartridge after three (3) hours of use or at the end of the workshift, whichever occurs first, unless the cartridge contains a NIOSH-approved end-of-life-service life indicator (ELSI) to show when breakthrough occurs.

2. Unless the canister contains a NIOSH-approved ELSI to show when breakthrough occurs, replace canisters used in atmospheres up to 7.5 ppm (10 x PEL) every four (4) hours and industrial sized canisters used in atmospheres up to 75 ppm (100 x PEL) every two (2) hours or at the end of the workshift, whichever occurs first.

(3) Respirator selection.

(A) The employer must select the appropriate respirators as specified in Table 1 shall be selected from those approved by the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) and by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) under the provisions of 30 CFR Part II.

(B) The employer shall make available a powered air purifying respirator, adequate to protect against formaldehyde exposure to any employee who experiences difficulty wearing a negative pressure respirator to reduce exposure to formaldehyde.

TABLE 1. MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS FOR RESPIRATORY PROTECTION AGAINST FORMALDEHYDE

Condition of use or formaldehyde concentration (ppm) Minimum respirator required1
Up to 7.5 ppm (10 x PEL) Full facepiece with cartridges or canisters specifically approved for protection against formaldehyde2
Up to 75 ppm (100 x PEL) Full-face mask with chin style or chest or back mounted type with industrial size canister specifically approved for protection against formaldehyde. Type C supplied air respirator, pressure-demand or continuous flow type, with full facepiece, hood, or helmet.
Above 75 ppm or unknown (emergencies) (100 x PEL) Self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) with positive pressure full facepiece. Combination supplied-air, full facepiece positive pressure respirator with auxiliary self-contained air supply.
Firefighting SCBA with positive pressure in full facepiece.
Escape SCBA in demand or pressure demand mode. Full-face mask, front or back mounted type with industrial size canister specifically approved for protection against formaldehyde.

 

1Respirators specified for use at higher concentrations may be used at lower concentrations.

 

2A half-mask respirator with cartridges specifically approved for protection against formaldehyde can be substituted for the full facepiece respirator providing that effective gas-proof goggles are provided and used in combination with the half-mask respirator.

(3) Respirator usage.

(A) Whenever respirator use is required by this standard, the employer shall institute a respiratory protection program in accordance with section 5144.

(B) The employer shall perform either quantitative or qualitative face fit tests in accordance with the procedures outlined in Appendix E at the time of initial fitting and at least annually thereafter for all employees required by this standard to wear negative pressure respirators.

1. Respirators selected shall be from those exhibiting the best facepiece fit.

2. No respirator shall be chosen that would potentially permit the employee to inhale formaldehyde at concentrations in excess of either the TWA or the STEL.

(C) Where air purifying chemical cartridge respirators are used, the cartridges shall be replaced after three hours of use or at the end of the workshift, whichever is sooner, unless the cartridge contains a NIOSH-approved end-of-service indicator to show when breakthrough occurs.

(D) Unless the canister contains a NIOSH-approved end-of-service-life indicator to show when breakthrough occurs, canisters used in atmospheres up to 7.5 ppm (10 x PEL) shall be replaced every 4 hours and industrial sized canisters used in atmospheres up to 75 ppm (100 x PEL) shall be replaced every two hours or at the end of the workshift, whichever is sooner.

(E) Employers shall permit employees to leave the work area to wash their faces and respirator facepieces as needed to prevent skin irritation from respirator use.

* * *

 

Delete Appendix E to Section 5217 and replace with editorial reference in brackets:

 

 

 

Amend Section 5218 to read:

5218. Benzene.

* * *

(g) Respiratory Protection.

(1) General. The employer shall provide respirators, and assure that they are used, where required by this section. Respirators shall be used in the following circumstances For employees who are required to use respirators by this section, the employer must provide respirators that comply with the requirements of this subsection. Respirators must be used during:

(A) During the time p Periods necessary to install or implement feasible engineering and work practice controls;

(B) In w Work operations for which the employer establishes that compliance with either the PEL or STEL through the use of engineering and work practice controls is not feasible, such as some maintenance and repair activities, vessel cleaning, or other operations where engineering and work practice controls are infeasible because exposures are intermittent in nature and limited in duration;

(C) In work situations where Work operations for which feasible engineering and work practice controls are not yet sufficient or are not required under subsection (f)(1)(C) to reduce exposure to or below the PELs and/or STEL; and

(D) In e Emergencies.

(2) Respirator program.

(A) The employer must implement a respiratory protection program in accordance with section 5144 (b) through (d) (except (d)(1)(C), (d)(3)(C)2.a. and b.), and (f) through (m).

(B) If air purifying respirators, the employer must replace the air purifying element at the expiration of its service life or at the beginning of each shift in which such elements are used, whichever comes first.

(C) If NIOSH approves an air purifying element with an end of service life indicator for benzene, such an element may be used until the indicator shows no further useful life.

(3) Respirator Selection.

(A) Where respirators are required or allowed under this section, t The employer shall select and provide, at no cost to the employee, the appropriate respirator as specified in Table 1, and shall assure that the employee uses the respirator provided.

(B) The employer shall select respirators from among those jointly approved the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) under the provisions of 30 CFR Part 11. Negative pressure respirators shall have filter elements approved by MSHA/NIOSH for organic vapors or benzene.

(C) Any employee who cannot wear a negative pressure respirator shall be given the option of wearing a respirator with less breathing resistance such as a powered air-purifying respirator or supplied air respirator.

 

(3) Respirator Program. The employer shall institute a respiratory protection program in accordance with section 5144, Respiratory Protective Equipment.

(4) Respirator Use.

(A) Where air-purifying respirators are used, the employer shall replace the air purifying element at the expiration of service life or at the beginning of each shift in which they will be used, whichever comes first.

(B) If an air purifying element becomes available with an end of useful life indicator for benzene approved by MSHA/NIOSH, the element may be used until such time as the indicator shows no further useful life.

(C) The employer shall permit employees who wear respirators to leave the regulated area to wash their faces and respirator facepieces as necessary in order to prevent skin irritation associated with respirator use or to change the filter elements of air-purifying respirators whenever they detect a change in breathing resistance or chemical vapor breakthrough.

(5) Respirator Fit Testing.

(A) The employer shall perform, and certify the results of, either quantitative or qualitative fit tests at the time of initial fitting and at least annually thereafter for each employee wearing a negative pressure respirator. The test shall be used to select a respirator facepiece which exhibits minimum leakage and provides the required protection as prescribed in Table 1. The employer shall provide and assure that the employee wears a respirator demonstrated by the fit test to provide the required protection.

(B) The employer shall follow the test protocols outlined in Appendix E of this standard for whichever type of fit testing the employer chooses.

 

TABLE 1. RESPIRATORY PROTECTION FOR BENZENE

Concentration of Airborne Benzene or Condition of Use Respirator Type
(a)Less than or equal to 10X the PEL or STEL (1)Half-mask air- purifying respirator with organic vapor cartridge.
(b)Less than or equal to 50X the PEL or STEL (1)Full facepiece respirator with organic vapor cartridges; or

(2)Full facepiece gas mask with chin style canister.1

(c)Less than or equal to 100X the PEL or STEL (1)Full facepiece powered air- purifying respirator with organic vapor canister.1
(d)Less than or equal to 1,000 ppm. (1)Supplied air respirator with full facepiece in positive-pressure mode.
(e)Greater than 1,000 ppm or unknown concentration. (1)Self-contained breathing apparatus with supplied air respirator with auxiliary self-contained air supply.
(f)Escape (1)Any organic vapor gas mask; or

(2)Any self-contained breathing apparatus with full facepiece.

(g)Firefighting (1)Full facepiece self-contained breathing apparatus in positive-pressure mode.

 

________

 

1 Canisters must have a minimum service life of (4) hours when tested at 150 ppm benzene, at a flow rate of 64 LPM, 25o C, and 85% relative humidity for non-powered air purifying respirators. The flow rate shall be 115 LPM and 170 LPM, respectively, for tight fitting and loose fitting powered air-purifying respirators.

* * *

Delete Appendix E to Section 5218 and replace with editorial reference in brackets:

 

 

Amend Section 5220 to read:

5220. Ethylene Oxide.

* * *

 

(g) Respiratory Protection and Personal Protective Equipment.

(1) General. The employer shall provide respirators and ensure that they are used in the following circumstances For employees who are required to use respirators by this section, the employer must provide respirators that comply with the requirements of this subsection. Respirators must be used during:

(A) During the interval Periods necessary to install or implement feasible engineering and work practice controls;

(B) In w Work operations such as maintenance and repair activities, vessel cleaning, or other activities for which engineering and work practice controls are not feasible;

(C) In work situations where Work operations for which feasible engineering and work practice controls are not yet sufficient to reduce exposure to or below the PEL; and

(D) In e Emergencies.

(2) Respirator program. The employer must implement a respiratory protection program in accordance with section 5144 (b) through (d) (except (d)(1)(C)), and (f) through (m).

(3) Respirator Selection.

(A) Where respirators are required under this section, t The employer shall select and provide, at no cost to the employee, the appropriate respirator as specified in the following table and shall ensure that the employee uses the respirator provided.

 

REQUIREMENTS FOR RESPIRATORY PROTECTION AGAINST AIRBORNE EtO

CONCENTRATION OF EtO OR CONDITION OF RESPIRATOR USE RESPIRATOR TYPE
Equal to or less than 50 ppm Full facepiece respirator with approved EtO canister, front- or back-mounted
Equal to or less than 2,000 ppm Positive-pressure supplied air respirator, equipped with full facepiece, hood, or helmet; or

Continuous-flow supplied air respirator (positive pressure) equipped with hood, helmet or suit.

Concentration above 2,000 ppm or unknown concentration such as in emergencies) Positive-pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA), equipped with full facepiece; or

Positive-pressure full facepiece supplied air respirator equipped with an auxiliary positive-pressure self-contained breathing apparatus

Firefighting Positive-pressure self-contained breathing apparatus equipped with full facepiece.
Escape Any respirator described above.

 

NOTE: Respirators approved for use in higher concentrations are permitted to be used in lower concentrations.

(B) The employer shall select respirators from among those jointly approved as being acceptable for protection against EtO by the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) under the provisions of 30 CFR Part 11.

(3) Respirator Program. Where respiratory protection is required by this section, the employer shall institute a respirator program in accordance with Section 5144(c), (d), (e), and (f).

(4) Protective Clothing and Equipment. Where eye or skin contact with liquid EtO or EtO solutions may occur, the employer shall select and provide, at no cost to the employee, appropriate protective clothing or other equipment in accordance with Sections 3380, 3382, 3383, and 3384 to protect any area of the body that may come in contact with liquid EtO or EtO in solution and shall ensure that the employee wears the protective clothing and equipment provided.

 

* * *

Appendix A -- Substance Safety Data Sheet

for Ethylene Oxide

* * *

 

IV. RESPIRATORS AND PROTECTIVE CLOTHING

(A) Respirators: You may be required to wear a respirator in emergencies, during nonroutine activities, while your employer is installing engineering controls for the reduction of EtO exposures, or when engineering controls are not feasible. As of the effective date of the EtO regulation, only air supplied positive-pressure, full-facepiece respirators are approved for protection against EtO. If air-purifying respirators are worn in the future, they must have a joint Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) and label issued by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) label of approval under the provisions of 42 CFR part 84 stating that the respirators have been approved for use with ethylene oxide. For effective protection, respirators must fit your face and head snugly. Respirators should not be loosened or removed in work situations where their use is required.

* * *

NOTE: Authority cited: Sections 142.3, 9020, 9030 and 9040, Labor Code. Reference: Sections 142.3, 9004(d), 9009, 9020, 9030 and 9040, Labor Code.

 

 

Amend Section 8358 to read:

8358. Asbestos.

* * *

(h) Respiratory protection.

(1) General. The employer shall provide respirators, and ensure that they are used, where required by this section. Respirators shall be used in the following circumstances For employees who use respirators required by this section, the employer must provide respirators that comply with the requirements of this subsection. Respirators must be used during:

(A) During all Class I asbestos jobs work.

(B) During all Class II asbestos work where the ACM is not removed in a substantially intact state.

(C) During all Class II and III asbestos work which is not performed using wet methods, provided, however, that respirators need not be worn during removal of ACM from sloped roofs when a negative exposure assessment has been made and the ACM is removed in an intact state.

(D) During all Class II and III asbestos jobs work for which where the employer does not produce a "negative exposure assessment" has not been conducted.

(E) During all Class III jobs asbestos work where TSI or surfacing ACM or PACM is being disturbed

(F) During all Class IV asbestos work performed within regulated areas where employees performing other work are required to wear respirators.

(G) During all w Work operations covered by this section where employees are exposed above the TWA or excursion limit.

(H) In e Emergencies.

(2) Respirator program.

(A) The employer must implement a respiratory protection program in accordance with section 5144 (b) through (d) (except (d)(1)(C)), and (f) through (m).

(B) No employee shall be assigned to asbestos work that requires respirator use if, based on their most recent medical examination, the examining physician determines that the employee will be unable to function normally while using a respirator, or that the safety or health of the employee or other employees will be impaired by the employee’s respirator use. Such employees must be assigned to another job or given the opportunity to transfer to a different position that they can perform. If such a transfer position is available, it must be with the same employer, in the same geographic area, and with the same seniority, status, rate of pay, and other job benefits the employee had just prior to such transfer.

(3)Respirator selection.

(A) Where respirators are used, t The employer shall select and provide, at no cost to the employee, the appropriate respirator as specified in Table 1 or in subsection (h)(2)(C) of this section, and shall ensure that the employee uses the respirator provided.

(B) The employer shall select respirators from among those jointly approved as being acceptable for protection by the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) under the provisions of 30 CFR Part 11.

(C) The employer shall provide a tight fitting powered, air-purifying respirator in lieu of any negative-pressure respirator specified in Table 1 whenever:

1. An employee chooses to use this type of respirator; and

2. This respirator will provide adequate protection to the employee.

TABLE 1 - RESPIRATORY PROTECTION FOR ASBESTOS FIBERS

Airborne concentration of asbestos

or conditions of use

Required respirator
Not in excess of 1 f/cc (10 X PEL), or otherwise as required independent of exposure pursuant to (h)(2)(D) of this section. Half-mask air purifying respirator other than a disposable respirator, equipped with high efficiency filters.
Not in excess of 5 f/cc (50 X PEL). Full facepiece air-purifying respirator equipped with high efficiency filters.
Not in excess of 10 f/cc (100 X PEL). Any powered air-purifying respirator equipped with high efficiency filters or any supplied air respirator operated in continuous flow mode.
Not in excess of 100 f/cc (1,000 X PEL). Full facepiece supplied air respirator operated in pressure demand mode.
Greater than 100 f/cc (1,000 X PEL) or concentration. Full facepiece supplied air respirator operated in pressure demand mode, equipped with an auxiliary positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus.

 

 

 

NOTE: a. Respirators assigned for high environmental concentrations may be used at lower concentrations, or when required respirator use is independent of concentration.

NOTE: b. A high efficiency filter means a filter that is at least 99.97 percent efficient against mono-dispersed particles of 0.3 micrometers in diameter or larger.

(DC) In addition to the above selection criteria, the employer shall provide a tight-fitting air purifying respirator equipped with high efficiency filters or a full facepiece supplied air respirator operated in the pressure demand mode equipped with HEPA egress cartridges or an auxiliary positive pressure self contained breathing apparatus for all employees within the regulated area where Class I work is being performed for which a negative exposure assessment has not been produced and, the exposure assessment indicates the exposure level will not exceed 1 f/cc, as an 8-hour time weighted average. A full facepiece supplied air respirator operated in the pressure demand mode equipped with an auxiliary positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus shall be provided under such conditions, if the exposure assessment indicates exposure levels above 1 f/cc as an 8-hour time weighted average.

(ED) In addition to the above selection criteria, the employer shall provide a full facepiece supplied air respirator operated in the pressure demand mode equipped with an auxiliary positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus for all employees within the regulated area where Class I work is being performed for which a negative exposure assessment has not been produced.

 

(3) Respirator program.

(A) Where respiratory protection is used, the employer shall institute a respirator program in accordance with Section 5144 of the General Industry Safety Orders.

(B) The employer shall permit each employee who uses a filter respirator to change the filter elements whenever an increase in breathing resistance is detected and shall maintain an adequate supply of filter elements for this purpose.

(C) Employees who wear respirators shall be permitted to leave work areas to wash their faces and respirator facepieces whenever necessary to prevent skin irritation associated with respirator use.

(D) No employee shall be assigned to tasks requiring the use of respirators if, based on his or her most recent examination, an examining physician determines that the employee will be unable to function normally wearing a respirator, or that the safety or health of the employee or of other employees will be impaired by the use of a respirator. Such employees shall be assigned to another lob or given the opportunity to transfer to a different position, the duties of which he or she is able to perform with the same employer, in the same geographical area, and with the same seniority, status, and rate of pay and other job benefits he or she had just prior to such transfer, if such a different position is available.

(4) Respirator fit testing.

(A) The employer shall ensure that the respirator issued to the employee exhibits the least possible facepiece leakage and that the respirator is fitted properly.

(B) Employers shall perform either quantitative or qualitative face fit tests at the time of initial fitting and at least every 6 months thereafter for each employee wearing a negative-pressure respirator. The qualitative fit tests may be used only for testing the fit of half-mask respirators where they are permitted to be worn, or of full-facepiece air purifying respirators where they are worn at levels at which half-facepiece air purifying respirators are permitted. Qualitative and quantitative fit tests shall be conducted in accordance with Appendix C to this section. The tests shall be used to select facepieces that provide the required protection as prescribed in Table 1, in subsection (h)(2)(A) of this section.

Delete Appendix C to Section 8358 and replace with editorial reference in brackets: